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1.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 118:256-263, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1838869

ABSTRACT

Background: We nested a seroprevalence survey within the TREATS (Tuberculosis Reduction through Expanded Antiretroviral Treatment and Screening) project. We aimed to measure the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and investigate associated risk factors in one community (population ~27,000) with high prevalence of TB/HIV in Zambia.

2.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 118:220-223, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1838863

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Post-COVID-19 symptoms experienced by many survivors have a further devastating effect. This study aimed to analyze the risk factors associated with long COVID-19 in a prospective cohort of hospitalized patients including those requiring intensive care unit (ICU) transfer, taking into account objective measures of COVID-19 severity.

3.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 118:197-202, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1838861

ABSTRACT

Objectives: We described the current incidence and risk factors of bacterial co-infection in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Methods: Observational cohort study was performed at the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona (February 2020-February 2021). All patients with COVID-19 who were admitted for > 48 hours with microbiological sam- ple collection and procalcitonin (PCT) determination within the first 48 hours were included. Results: A total of 1125 consecutive adults met inclusion criteria. Co-infections were microbiologically documented in 102 (9.1%) patients. Most frequent microorganisms were Streptococcus pneumoniae (79%), Staphylococcus aureus (6.8%), and Haemophilus influenzae (6.8%). Test positivity was 1% (8/803) for blood cultures, 10.1% (79/780) for pneumococcal urinary antigen test, and 11.4% (15/132) for sputum culture. Patients with PCT higher than 0.2, 0.5, 1, and 2 ng/mL had significantly more co-infections than those with lower levels (p = 0.017, p = 0.031, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, oxygen saturation 94% (OR 2.47, CI 1.57-3.86), ferritin levels < 338 ng/mL (OR 2.63, CI 1.69-4.07), and PCT higher than 0.2 ng/mL (OR 1.74, CI 1.11-2.72) were independent risk factors for co-infection at hospital admission owing to COVID-19. Conclusions: Bacterial co-infection in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 is relatively common. However, clinicians could spare antibiotics in patients with PCT values < 0.2, especially with high ferritin values and oxygen saturation > 94%.

4.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 118:203-210, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1838860

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aims to examine and explain the differences at city level in cumulative COVID-19 cases and time from first to last infection during the first 6 weeks of the epidemic in China.

5.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 118:169-172, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1838852

ABSTRACT

This is the case report of an 84-year-old man affected by COVID-19 between the 2 doses of vaccination, with negative exitus. We analyzed nasopharyngeal samples of viral RNA collected during the disease and nasopharyngeal and lung samples collected postmortem by reverse transcription LAMP (RT-LAMP) PCR and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). NGS results were analyzed with different bioinformatic tools to define virus lineages and the related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Both lung and nasopharyngeal samples tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-LAMP. Through bioinformatic analysis, 2 viral RNAs from the nasal swabs, which belonged to the B.1.1.7 lineage, and 1 viral RNA from the lung sample, which belonged to the B.1.533 lineage, were identified. This genetic observation suggested that SARS-CoV-2 tends to change under selective pressure. The high mutation rate of ORFa1b, containing a replicase gene, was a biological image of a complex viral survival system.

6.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 118:1-9, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1838845

ABSTRACT

Objective: To define the microbiologic characteristics of animal bites in tropical Australia and the appropriateness of current Australian antimicrobial guidelines for their management.

7.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 118:89-94, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1838844

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To describe breakthrough COVID-19 infection in patients who needed hospitalization and the factors associated with poor outcomes.

8.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 118:24-33, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1838843

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections among newborn-mother pairs, neonates with sepsis, and infants with hydrocephalus in Uganda. Design and Methods: Three populations-newborn-mother pairs, neonates with sepsis, and infants (3 months) with nonpostinfectious (NPIH) or postinfectious (PIH) hydrocephalus-were evaluated for CMV infection at 3 medical centers in Uganda. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to characterize the prevalence of CMV.

9.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 118:244-346, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1838842

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To evaluate host factors associated with the risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneu- monia in vaccinated adults. Methods: A cohort study was conducted in Mexico, and data from 1607 adults with confirmed illness, with a positive history of COVID-19 vaccination, were analyzed. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence in- tervals (CI) were computed as a measure of the significance of the associations between putative risk factors and the prevalence of COVID-19 pneumonia in vaccinated subjects. Results: The overall risk of pneumonia was 1.98 per 10 0 0 person-days. In the multiple regression analysis, older subjects, those with a history of smoking (current), obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus were at increased risk of pneumonia. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines may be reduced in a subset of adults who are older aged, smokers, obese, or have type 2 diabetes mellitus.

10.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 118:34-43, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1838841

ABSTRACT

Objectives: We analysed hepatitis A (HepA) notifications and hospitalisations in Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, and Sweden for available periods between 1995 and 2014. We aimed to investigate whether decreasing HepA incidence is associated with increasing age at infection and worsening HepA presentation and to identify groups at risk of severe disease.

11.
Am J Cardiol ; 172:159-161, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1838525

ABSTRACT

[...]we still have some other concerns that were not analyzed in these systematic reviews: the risk difference between BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 and the increased risk of acute myocarditis in the young population, especially after the second dose in male teenagers.1,2 However, several articles regarding this topic have been published since the database search of these systematic reviews. [...]we have increased the number of studies and added a subanalysis of the incidence of acute myocarditis by the types of vaccine administered and in young males who received the second dose of the mRNA vaccine. In this situation, elevated risk of myocarditis after mRNA vaccine should be known to recipients, but it should be also noted that the benefit-risk analysis performed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has shown a positive balance of vaccination for all age groups of both genders. [...]studies that focus on evaluating risk factors and mechanisms of developing acute myocarditis are needed, especially among young male recipients, as mRNA vaccine will become more widely available in young children.Disclosures The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

12.
Aging, Clinical and Experimental Research ; 34(2):465-474, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1838442

ABSTRACT

Aims: In this study, we aimed to reveal mortality rates and factors affecting survival in geriatric patients infected with COVID-19.

13.
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews ; 1(159), 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1838128

ABSTRACT

Background: In response to the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), governments have implemented a variety of measures to control the spread of the virus and the associated disease. Among these, have been measures to control the pandemic in primary and secondary school settings. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of measures implemented in the school setting to safely reopen schools, or keep schools open, or both, during the COVID-19 pandemic, with particular focus on the different types of measures implemented in school settings and the outcomes used to measure their impacts on transmission-related outcomes, healthcare utilisation outcomes, other health outcomes as well as societal, economic, and ecological outcomes. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and the Educational Resources Information Center, as well as COVID-19-specific databases, including the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register and the WHO COVID-19 Global literature on coronavirus disease (indexing preprints) on 9 December 2020. We conducted backward-citation searches with existing reviews. Selection criteria: We considered experimental (i.e. randomised controlled trials;RCTs), quasi-experimental, observational and modelling studies assessing the effects of measures implemented in the school setting to safely reopen schools, or keep schools open, or both, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Outcome categories were (i) transmission-related outcomes (e.g. number or proportion of cases);(ii) healthcare utilisation outcomes (e.g. number or proportion of hospitalisations);(iii) other health outcomes (e.g. physical, social and mental health);and (iv) societal, economic and ecological outcomes (e.g. costs, human resources and education). We considered studies that included any population at risk of becoming infected with SARS-CoV-2 and/or developing COVID-19 disease including students, teachers, other school staff, or members of the wider community. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently screened titles, s and full texts. One review author extracted data and critically appraised each study. One additional review author validated the extracted data. To critically appraise included studies, we used the ROBINS-I tool for quasi-experimental and observational studies, the QUADAS-2 tool for observational screening studies, and a bespoke tool for modelling studies. We synthesised findings narratively. Three review authors made an initial assessment of the certainty of evidence with GRADE, and several review authors discussed and agreed on the ratings. Main results: We included 38 unique studies in the analysis, comprising 33 modelling studies, three observational studies, one quasi-experimental and one experimental study with modelling components. Measures fell into four broad categories: (i) measures reducing the opportunity for contacts;(ii) measures making contacts safer;(iii) surveillance and response measures;and (iv) multicomponent measures. As comparators, we encountered the operation of schools with no measures in place, less intense measures in place, single versus multicomponent measures in place, or closure of schools. Across all intervention categories and all study designs, very low- to low-certainty evidence ratings limit our confidence in the findings. Concerns with the quality of modelling studies related to potentially inappropriate assumptions about the model structure and input parameters, and an inadequate assessment of model uncertainty. Concerns with risk of bias in observational studies related to deviations from intended interventions or missing data. Across all categories, few studies reported on implementation or described how measures were implemented. Where we describe effects as 'positive', the direction of the point estimate of the effect favours the intervention(s);'negative' effects do not favour the intervention. We found 23 modelling studie

14.
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews ; 1(109), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1838127

ABSTRACT

Background: Heated tobacco products (HTPs) are designed to heat tobacco to a high enough temperature to release aerosol, without burning it or producing smoke. They differ from e-cigarettes because they heat tobacco leaf/sheet rather than a liquid. Companies who make HTPs claim they produce fewer harmful chemicals than conventional cigarettes. Some people report stopping smoking cigarettes entirely by switching to using HTPs, so clinicians need to know whether they are effective for this purpose and relatively safe. Also, to regulate HTPs appropriately, policymakers should understand their impact on health and on cigarette smoking prevalence. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of HTPs for smoking cessation and the impact of HTPs on smoking prevalence. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and six other databases for relevant records to January 2021, together with reference-checking and contact with study authors and relevant groups. Selection criteria: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which people who smoked cigarettes were randomised to switch to exclusive HTP use or a control condition. Eligible outcomes were smoking cessation, adverse events, and selected biomarkers. RCTs conducted in clinic or in an ambulatory setting were deemed eligible when assessing safety, including those randomising participants to exclusively use HTPs, smoke cigarettes, or attempt abstinence from all tobacco. Time-series studies were also eligible for inclusion if they examined the population-level impact of heated tobacco on smoking prevalence or cigarette sales as an indirect measure. Data collection and analysis: We followed standard Cochrane methods for screening and data extraction. Our primary outcome measures were abstinence from smoking at the longest follow-up point available, adverse events, serious adverse events, and changes in smoking prevalence or cigarette sales. Other outcomes included biomarkers of harm and exposure to toxicants/carcinogens (e.g. NNAL and carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb)). We used a random-effects Mantel-Haenszel model to calculate risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dichotomous outcomes. For continuous outcomes, we calculated mean differences on the log-transformed scale (LMD) with 95% CIs. We pooled data across studies using meta-analysis where possible. Main results: We included 13 completed studies, of which 11 were RCTs assessing safety (2666 participants) and two were time-series studies. We judged eight RCTs to be at unclear risk of bias and three at high risk. All RCTs were funded by tobacco companies. Median length of follow-up was 13 weeks. No studies reported smoking cessation outcomes. There was insufficient evidence for a difference in risk of adverse events between smokers randomised to switch to heated tobacco or continue smoking cigarettes, limited by imprecision and risk of bias (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.15;I2 = 0%;6 studies, 1713 participants). There was insufficient evidence to determine whether risk of serious adverse events differed between groups due to very serious imprecision and risk of bias (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.33 to 1.94;I2 = 0%;4 studies, 1472 participants). There was moderate-certainty evidence for lower NNAL and COHb at follow-up in heated tobacco than cigarette smoking groups, limited by risk of bias (NNAL: LMD -0.81, 95% CI -1.07 to -0.55;I2 = 92%;10 studies, 1959 participants;COHb: LMD -0.74, 95% CI -0.92 to -0.52;I2 = 96%;9 studies, 1807 participants). Evidence for additional biomarkers of exposure are reported in the main body of the review. There was insufficient evidence for a difference in risk of adverse events in smokers randomised to switch to heated tobacco or attempt abstinence from all tobacco, limited by risk of bias and imprecision (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.46;I2 = 0%;2 studies, 237 participants). Five studies reported that no serious adverse events occurred in either group (53

15.
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews ; 1(351), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1838126

ABSTRACT

Background: Debates on effective and safe diets for managing obesity in adults are ongoing. Low-carbohydrate weight-reducing diets (also known as 'low-carb diets') continue to be widely promoted, marketed and commercialised as being more effective for weight loss, and healthier, than 'balanced'-carbohydrate weight-reducing diets. Objectives: To compare the effects of low-carbohydrate weight-reducing diets to weight-reducing diets with balanced ranges of carbohydrates, in relation to changes in weight and cardiovascular risk, in overweight and obese adults without and with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Search methods: We searched MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase (Ovid), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science Core Collection (Clarivate Analytics), ClinicalTrials.gov and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) up to 25 June 2021, and screened reference lists of included trials and relevant systematic reviews. Language or publication restrictions were not applied. Selection criteria: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in adults (18 years+) who were overweight or living with obesity, without or with T2DM, and without or with cardiovascular conditions or risk factors. Trials had to compare low-carbohydrate weight-reducing diets to balanced-carbohydrate (45% to 65% of total energy (TE)) weight-reducing diets, have a weight-reducing phase of 2 weeks or longer and be explicitly implemented for the primary purpose of reducing weight, with or without advice to restrict energy intake. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently screened titles and s and full-text articles to determine eligibility;and independently extracted data, assessed risk of bias using RoB 2 and assessed the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. We stratified analyses by participants without and with T2DM, and by diets with weight-reducing phases only and those with weight-reducing phases followed by weight-maintenance phases. Primary outcomes were change in body weight (kg) and the number of participants per group with weight loss of at least 5%, assessed at short- (three months to < 12 months) and long-term ( 12 months) follow-up. Main results: We included 61 parallel-arm RCTs that randomised 6925 participants to either low-carbohydrate or balanced-carbohydrate weight-reducing diets. All trials were conducted in high-income countries except for one in China. Most participants (n = 5118 randomised) did not have T2DM. Mean baseline weight across trials was 95 kg (range 66 to 132 kg). Participants with T2DM were older (mean 57 years, range 50 to 65) than those without T2DM (mean 45 years, range 22 to 62). Most trials included men and women (42/61;3/19 men only;16/19 women only), and people without baseline cardiovascular conditions, risk factors or events (36/61). Mean baseline diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol across trials were within normal ranges. The longest weight-reducing phase of diets was two years in participants without and with T2DM. Evidence from studies with weight-reducing phases followed by weight-maintenance phases was limited. Most trials investigated low-carbohydrate diets (> 50 g to 150 g per day or < 45% of TE;n = 42), followed by very low ( 50 g per day or < 10% of TE;n = 14), and then incremental increases from very low to low (n = 5). The most common diets compared were low-carbohydrate, balanced-fat (20 to 35% of TE) and high-protein (> 20% of TE) treatment diets versus control diets balanced for the three macronutrients (24/61). In most trials (45/61) the energy prescription or approach used to restrict energy intake was similar in both groups. We assessed the overall risk of bias of outcomes across trials as predominantly high, mostly from bias due to missing outcome data. Using GRADE, we assessed the certainty of evidence as moderate to very low across outcomes. Participants without and with T2DM lost weight when following weight-reducing phases of both diets at the short (range: 12.2 to 0

16.
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews ; 1(211), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1838125

ABSTRACT

Background: High intake of added sugar have been suggested to impact the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Knowledge on the subject can contribute to preventing CVD. Objectives: To assess the effects of a high versus low-added sugar consumption for primary prevention of CVD in the general population. Search methods: We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S) on 2 July 2021. We also conducted a search of ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) Search Portal for ongoing or unpublished trials. The search was performed together with reference checking, citation searching and contact with study authors to identify additional studies. We imposed no restriction on language of publication or publication status. Selection criteria: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), including cross-over trials, that compared different levels of added sugar intake. Exclusion criteria were: participants aged below 18 years;diabetes mellitus (type 1 and 2);and previous CVD. Primary outcomes were incident cardiovascular events (coronary, carotid, cerebral and peripheral arterial disease) and all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose and adverse events (gastrointestinal symptoms and impaired dental health). Data collection and analysis: We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Main results: We included 21 RCTs (1110 participants completing the interventions) examining the effects of different levels of added sugar intake with a mean duration of 14 weeks. The study participants were generally described as healthy and the mean age ranged from 22 to 57 years. No studies reported on cardiovascular events or all-cause mortality. There was minimal effect of low intake of added sugar on total cholesterol levels (MD 0.11, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.21;I2 = 0%;16 studies;763 participants;low certainty of evidence) and triglycerides (MD 0.10, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.17;I2 = 3%;14 studies;725 participants) but no evidence of effect on LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. There was minimal effect on diastolic blood pressure (MD 1.52, 95% CI 0.67 to 2.37;I2 = 0%;13 studies;873 participants) and on systolic blood pressure (MD 1.44, 95% 0.08 to 2.80;I2 = 27%, 14 studies;873 participants;low certainty of evidence), but no evidence of effect on fasting plasma glucose. Only one study reported on dental health, with no events. No other trials reported adverse events (impaired dental health or gastrointestinal symptoms). All results were judged as low-quality evidence according to GRADE. The risk of bias was generally unclear, five studies were classified at an overall low risk of bias (low risk in at least four domains, not including other bias). Authors' conclusions: No trials investigating the effect of added sugar on cardiovascular events or all-cause mortality were identified in our searches. Evidence is uncertain whether low intake of added sugar has an effect on risk factors for CVD;the effect was small and the clinical relevance is, therefore, uncertain. Practical ways to achieve reductions in dietary added sugar includes following current dietary recommendations. Future trials should have longer follow-up time and report on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in order to clarify the effect of added sugar on these outcomes. Future trials should also aim for more direct interventions and preferably be more independent of industry funding.

17.
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews ; 1(99), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1838124

ABSTRACT

Background: Bronchiectasis is a common but under-diagnosed chronic disorder characterised by permanent dilation of the airways arising from a cycle of recurrent infection and inflammation. Symptoms including chronic, persistent cough and productive phlegm are a significant burden for people with bronchiectasis, and the main aim of treatment is to reduce exacerbation frequency and improve quality of life. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy aims to break this infection cycle and is recommended by clinical guidelines for adults with three or more exacerbations a year, based on limited evidence. It is important to weigh the evidence for bacterial suppression against the prevention of antibiotic resistance and further evidence is required on the safety and efficacy of different regimens of intermittently administered antibiotic treatments for people with bronchiectasis. Objectives: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intermittent prophylactic antibiotics in the treatment of adults and children with bronchiectasis. Search methods: We identified trials from the Cochrane Airways Trials Register, which contains studies identified through multiple electronic searches and handsearches of other sources. We also searched trial registries and reference lists of primary studies. We conducted searches on 6 September 2021, with no restriction on language of publication. Selection criteria: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of at least three months' duration comparing an intermittent regime of prophylactic antibiotics with placebo, usual care or an alternate intermittent regimen. Intermittent prophylactic administration was defined as repeated courses of antibiotics with on-treatment and off-treatment intervals of at least 14 days' duration. We included adults and children with a clinical diagnosis of bronchiectasis confirmed by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), plain film chest radiograph, or bronchography and a documented history of recurrent chest infections. We excluded studies where participants received high dose antibiotics immediately prior to enrolment or those with a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), primary ciliary dyskinesia, hypogammaglobulinaemia, sarcoidosis, or a primary diagnosis of COPD. Our primary outcomes were exacerbation frequency and serious adverse events. We did not exclude studies on the basis of review outcomes. Data collection and analysis: We analysed dichotomous data as odds ratios (ORs) or relative risk (RRs) and continuous data as mean differences (MDs) or standardised mean differences (SMDs). We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We conducted GRADE assessments for the following primary outcomes: exacerbation frequency;serious adverse events and secondary outcomes: antibiotic resistance;hospital admissions;health-related quality of life. Main results: We included eight RCTs, with interventions ranging from 16 to 48 weeks, involving 2180 adults. All evaluated one of three types of antibiotics over two to six cycles of 28 days on/off treatment: aminoglycosides, ss-lactams or fluoroquinolones. Two studies also included 12 cycles of 14 days on/off treatment with fluoroquinolones. Participants had a mean age of 63.6 years, 65% were women and approximately 85% Caucasian. Baseline FEV1 ranged from 55.5% to 62.6% predicted. None of the studies included children. Generally, there was a low risk of bias in the included studies. Antibiotic versus placebo: cycle of 14 days on/off. Ciprofloxacin reduced the frequency of exacerbations compared to placebo (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.93;I2 = 65%;2 studies, 469 participants;moderate-certainty evidence), with eight people (95% CI 6 to 28) needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome. The intervention increased the risk of antibiotic resistance more than twofold (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.36 to 3.35;I2 = 0%;2 studies, 624 participants;high-certainty evidence). Serious adverse events, lung function (FEV1), health-related qual

18.
JAMA Internal Medicine ; 182(2):106-114, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1838104

ABSTRACT

Importance: Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is common and associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Antenatal lifestyle interventions limit GWG;yet benefits of different intervention types and specific maternal and neonatal outcomes are unclear.

19.
JAMA, Journal of the American Medical Association ; 327(4):341-349, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1838085

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Administration of a BNT162b2 booster dose (Pfizer-BioNTech) to fully vaccinated individuals aged 60 years and older was significantly associated with lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe illness. Data are lacking on the effectiveness of booster doses for younger individuals and health care workers. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association of a BNT162b2 booster dose with SARS-CoV-2 infections among health care workers who were previously vaccinated with a 2-dose series of BNT162b2. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Thiswas a prospective cohort study conducted at a tertiary medical center in Tel Aviv, Israel. The study cohort included 1928 immunocompetent health care workers who were previously vaccinated with a 2-dose series of BNT162b2, and had enrolled between August 8 and 19, 2021, with final follow-up reported through September 20, 2021. Screening for SARS-CoV-2 infection was performed every 14 days. Anti-spike protein receptor binding domain IgG titers were determined at baseline and 1 month after enrollment. Cox regression with time-dependent analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios of SARS-CoV-2 infection between booster-immunized status and 2-dose vaccinated (booster-nonimmunized) status. EXPOSURES: Vaccination with a booster dose of BNT162b2 vaccine. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcomewas SARS-CoV-2 infection, as confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Among 1928 participants, the median age was 44 years (IQR, 36-52 years) and 1381 were women (71.6%). Participants completed the 2-dose vaccination series a median of 210 days (IQR, 205-213 days) before study enrollment. A total of 1650 participants (85.6%) received the booster dose. During a median follow-up of 39 days (IQR, 35-41 days), SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred in 44 participants (incidence rate, 60.2 per 100 000 person-days);31 (70.5%) were symptomatic. Five SARS-CoV-2 infections occurred in booster-immunized participants and 39 in booster-nonimmunized participants (incidence rate, 12.8 vs 116 per 100 000 person-days, respectively). In a time-dependent Cox regression analysis, the adjusted hazard ratio of SARS-CoV-2 infection for booster-immunized vs booster-nonimmunized participants was 0.07 (95%CI, 0.02-0.20). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among health care workers at a single center in Israel who were previously vaccinated with a 2-dose series of BNT162b2, administration of a booster dose compared with not receiving one was associated with a significantly lower rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection over a median of 39 days of follow-up. Ongoing surveillance is required to assess durability of the findings.

20.
Oxford textbook of suicidology and suicide prevention , 2nd ed ; : 795-799, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1837926

ABSTRACT

This chapter is introduced to the textbook when the COVID-19 pandemic broke out during the spring of 2020. To include information on how the COVID-19 pandemic impacts risk and protective factors for suicide and evidence-based suicide prevention strategies became imperative. The COVID-19 pandemic is like no other, as many nations all over the world enforced strict lockdown and physical distancing measures to prevent the spread of the virus. As the pandemic will go on until effective vaccines will be in use, it is important to examine the positive and negative effects of pandemics and alert decision-makers as well as clinical and public health staff working in suicide prevention activities. In order to successfully combat the likely increase of suicide after the coronavirus crisis, the implementation of evidence-based strategies must be strengthened. Thus, the aim of this chapter is to inform governments, policymakers, and healthcare providers as well as the public to stimulate translation of these recommendations into actions. It describes the public health and healthcare suicide prevention strategies along with the effects of the pandemic on each strategy and recommended actions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

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