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1.
The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science ; 700(1):195-207, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1832872

ABSTRACT

Racial and ethnic minority and lower-income groups are disproportionately affected by environmental hazards and suffer worse health outcomes than other groups in the United States. Relative to whites and higher-income groups, racial-ethnic minority and lower-income Americans also frequently express greater concern about high-profile global environmental threats like climate change, but they are widely misperceived as being less concerned about these issues than white and higher-income Americans. We use new survey research to explore public perceptions of COVID-19—another global threat marked by substantial racial, ethnic, and class disparities—finding a distinct pattern of misperceptions regarding groups’ concerns. We then discuss how these misperceptions represent a unique form of social misinformation that may pose a threat to science and undermine the cooperation and trust needed to address collective problems.

2.
6th IFIP WG 5.15 International Conference on Information Technology in Disaster Risk Reduction, ITDRR 2021 ; 638 IFIP:95-106, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1826254

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic forced many schools to switch to online classes. Although there has been a movement to return to face-to-face classes since then, many schools are still struggling to ensure safety during classes and subsequent examinations in a face-to-face environment. In this study, we attempted to visualize the relationship between class usage and building air conditioning management by installing CO2 sensors at fixed points in classrooms and also applied them to environmental monitoring during examinations to grasp the risks in real time and provide a response. © 2022, IFIP International Federation for Information Processing.

3.
Connectist : Istanbul University Journal of Communication Sciences ; 2021(60):127-155, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1824088

ABSTRACT

This study examines the high-risk group of individuals age 65 and over who most frequently experience the negative consequences of Covid-19. We review their communicative needs and expectations, knowledge and information sources, and risk information and knowledge patterns. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 47 people aged 65 and over residing in Ankara. We evaluated our results in the context of The Social Amplification of Risk Framework, considering the major communication stations disseminating risk information. We found that during the Covid-19 pandemic, individuals aged 65 and over accessed risk information through new media and traditional media, and interpersonal communication, especially with close family and children, served as a primary information source during the pandemic. The trust factor, particularly regarding medical expertise, was an essential criterion in evaluating information. The communicative needs and expectations changed for this high-risk group. The need for improved digital communication capabilities become apparent during the pandemic crisis. Suggestions that consider public perspectives and risk perceptions while incorporating the relationship between risks and communication processes may contribute to structuring impactful risk communication activities.Alternate : Bu çalışmada, Covid-19 pandemisinde hastalığın olumsuz sonuçlarını ağır derecede yaşama ihtimallerinin yüksekliği nedeniyle öncelikli risk gruplarından biri olarak tanımlanan 65 yaş ve üzeri kişilerin iletişimsel ihtiyaçları, beklentileri, bilgi ve enformasyon kaynakları ve risk enformasyonunu ve bilgilerini değerlendirme biçimleri ele alınmaktadır. Çalışma kapsamında Ankara’da ikamet eden 65 yaş ve üzeri toplam 47 kişiyle yarı yapılandırılmış görüşmeler gerçekleştirilmiştir. Elde edilen bulgular, Riskin Sosyal Artırımı Kuramsal Çerçevesi bağlamında, risk enformasyonunun iletimindeki temel iletişim uğrakları dikkate alınarak değerlendirilmiştir. 65 yaş ve üzeri bireylerin Covid-19 pandemisi sürecinde risklere ilişkin enformasyona geleneksel medyanın yanı sıra yeni medya aracılığı ile de ulaştıkları;kişilerarası iletişimin bu süreçte temel bilgi kaynaklarından biri olarak işlev gördüğü;yakın aile ve özellikle çocukların Covid-19 pandemisiyle ilgili bilgilenme süreçlerinde ayrıcalıklı bir yeri olduğunu belirlenmiştir. Enformasyonun değerlendirilmesinde güven unsurunun temel kriter olarak dikkate alındığı ve tıp alanındaki uzmanlıklara daha yüksek güven atfedildiği ortaya konmuştur. Ayrıca iletişimsel ihtiyaçların ve beklentilerin pandemi süreci içerisinde değişime uğradığı anlaşılmıştır. Pandemi döneminde, dijital iletişim yetkinliklerin geliştirilmesi ihtiyacı belirginlik kazanmıştır. Görüşmelerden elde edilen bulgulardan hareketle, kamuların perspektifini ve risk algısını gözeten;risklerin iletişimsel süreçlerle bağlantısını dikkate alan etkili risk iletişimi çalışmalarının yapılandırılabilmesine katkıda bulunabilecek öneriler sunulmuştur.

4.
Vaccines ; 10(4), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822467

ABSTRACT

New vaccines are being developed in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Vaccination provides a crucial preventive approach for managing COVID-19. We investigated adults’ willingness to take COVID-19 vaccines in the Zhejiang province, and their cognitions regarding COVID-19, when the COVID-19 vaccine is authorized under Emergency Use Administration. An online survey was conducted from September to October 2020, which included social-demographic characteristics, risk perception, acceptance and influencing factors in relation to COVID-19 vaccines. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify the influencing factors of vaccination acceptance. Of the participants, 70% intended to be vaccinated when the COVID-19 vaccine was approved under Emergency Use Administration, among 2171 valid questionnaires. Logistic regression revealed that being male, having a high cognitive score regarding COVID-19, the belief that the COVID-19 vaccine is safe and effective, and the belief that one will be infected with SARS-CoV-2 this fall and winter, were associated with a greater probability of accepting vaccination. Respondents with junior college/university education or above were less likely to accept vaccination. Concerns about the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine were the main factors hindering vaccination acceptance. Health education is important for promoting accurate public knowledge regarding COVID-19 vaccination.

5.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(9), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818143

ABSTRACT

Studies provide evidence that distress, (health) anxiety, and depressive symptoms were high during the first weeks of COVID-19 lockdown restrictions, decreasing over time (possibly due to individuals’ protective psychological factors). Relations between different lockdown restrictions, mental health issues, and protective factors need to be explored, since even small lockdown effects might increase the risk of future mental health issues. We merged objective lockdown stringency data with individual data (N = 1001) to examine differences in lockdown effects in strict lockdown (Romania) and mild lockdown (Hungary) conditions between March and May 2020 on stressors and mental health symptoms, taking protective factors into account. The stricter lockdown in Romania revealed higher levels of perceived risk of infection, distress intolerance, and COVID-19 health anxiety. Protective psychological factors were not affected by the lockdown measures. Surpassing psychological flexibility and resilient coping, self-control proved to be the most promising protective factor. It is recommended that future research merge objective data with study data to investigate the effects of different COVID-19 lockdown measures on mental health and protective factors. Policy decisions should consider lockdown-dependent consequences of mental health issues. Intervention programs are suggested to mitigate mental health issues and to strengthen peoples’ protective psychological factors.

6.
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease ; 47, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1815223

ABSTRACT

BackgroundTravellers' perception of their risk for acquiring travel-related conditions is an important contributor to decisions and behaviors during travel. In this study, we aimed to assess the differences between traveller-perceived and expert-assessed risk of travel-related conditions in children and adults travelling internationally and describe factors that influence travellers’ perception of risk.MethodsChildren and adults were recruited at the Hospital for Sick Children's Family Travel Clinic between October 2014 and July 2015. A questionnaire was administered to participants to assess their perceived risk of acquiring 32 travel-related conditions using a 7-point Likert scale. Conditions were categorized as vector-borne diseases, vaccine-preventable diseases, food and water borne diseases, sexually transmitted infections and other conditions. Two certified travel medicine experts reviewed each patient's chart and assigned a risk score based on the same 7-point Likert scale. Traveller and expert risk scores were compared using paired t-tests.ResultsIn total, 207 participants were enrolled to participate in this study, 97 children (self-reported, n = 8;parent-reported, n = 89), and 110 adults. Travel-related risk for adults and parents answering for their children were significantly underestimated when compared to expert-assessed risk for 26 of the 32 assessed conditions. The underestimated conditions were the same for both adults and parents answering for children. Travel-related risk was not over-estimated for any condition.ConclusionsAdults underestimated their children's and their own risk for most travel-related conditions. Strategies to improve the accuracy of risk perception of travel-related conditions by travellers are needed to optimize healthy travel for children and their families.

7.
Sustainability ; 14(8):4608, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1810145

ABSTRACT

As the smallest livelihood unit in rural areas, farmers often face multiple risks. Rational responses to livelihood risks not only prevent households from falling into poverty, but also improve the sustainability of family livelihoods. This is essential to the sustainable development of rural areas. This paper takes the region located in the eastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China as an example, using household survey data to analyze farmers’ livelihood risk coping strategies and their key factors through a binary logistic model. The results show that 92.80% of farmers face the shock of multiple livelihood risks. The main livelihood risks of farmers are family capacity building risk, health risk and social risk. When faced with multiple livelihood risks, farmers have the strongest preference to give priority to health risks, followed by family capacity building risks and social risks. Among them, farmers’ health risk coping preferences are stronger in farming areas than those in purely pastoral and farming-pastoral areas. There are differences in the factors for farmers’ preferences for coping with different livelihood risks. Human capital is a key factor for health risk coping preferences. Human capital and social capital are key factors for social risk coping preferences. Social capital is a key factor for family capacity building risk coping preferences. Finally, this paper puts forward countermeasures and suggestions to provide reference for farmers rationally coping with livelihood risks.

8.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(8):4510, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1809853

ABSTRACT

Although Beijing’s air quality has improved, there is still a long way to go for haze governance. In order to understand haze risk perception and related influencing factors among college students in Beijing, we developed and verified two scales, with college students as the survey object, and analyzed the theoretical framework and realistic level of haze risk perception and influencing factors through empirical research. We showed that the reliability and validity of the two scales are excellent, and they can be used as a powerful tool to measure college students’ perception of haze. The haze risk perception scale (HRPS) is divided into four dimensions. The degrees of perception ranked from high to low are: direct consequences perception, indirect consequences perception, risk responsibility perception and risk source perception. The haze risk perception influencing factor scale (HRPIFS) is divided into three dimensions. The degrees of influence ranked from high to low are: personal emotion, media communication and government policy;the three influencing factors all have a significant positive correlation to overall haze risk perception, but personal emotions and media communication are only significantly related to the three dimensions of direct consequence perception, indirect consequence perception and risk source perception. Government policy is only significantly related to the three dimensions of direct consequence perception, indirect consequence perception and risk liability perception. This paper proves the important role of media in haze risk perception and puts forward some policy suggestions to guide the public to form a rational risk perception. These findings can help improve theoretical and practical research related to haze risk.

9.
Journal of Nursing Management ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1807188

ABSTRACT

Aim To examine the mediating role of work-family conflict and the moderating role of job autonomy on the association between risk perception of COVID-19 and job withdrawal among Chinese nurses during the initial disease outbreak. Background Nurses? job withdrawal can not only reduce the quality and efficiency of care but also give rise to turnover during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, it is essential to clarify how and when the risk perception of COVID-19 influences the job withdrawal behaviours of nurses and to provide guidelines for reducing nurses? job withdrawal. Methods A two-wave study was conducted among 287 Chinese nurses from 11 COVID-19-designated hospitals during the initial outbreak of the disease from March through April 2020. Data on the risk perception of COVID-19, job autonomy, and work-family conflict were collected at time 1, and one month later, job withdrawal data were collected at time 2. Model 4 and Model 14 from SPSS macro PROCESS were used to test the mediating effect of work-family conflict and the moderating effect of job autonomy, respectively. Results Work-family conflict mediated 60.54% of the relationship between risk perception of COVID-19 and job withdrawal. Job autonomy positively moderated the relation between work-family conflict and job withdrawal (? = 0.12, P < 0.01). Conclusion Risk perception of COVID-19 influenced nurses? job withdrawal through work-family conflict. Job autonomy exaggerated the association between work-family conflict and job withdrawal. Implications for Nursing Management Managers should provide more supportive resources to help nurses cope with the risk of COVID-19 to decrease work-family conflict and job withdrawal, and they should strengthen supervision over the work processes of nurses.

10.
SSM - Population Health ; : 101105, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1805211

ABSTRACT

Understanding COVID-19 risk perception may help inform public health messaging aimed at encouraging preventive measures and improving countermeasures against the pandemic. We conducted an online survey of 29,708 Japanese adults in February 2021 and estimated the associations between COVID-19 risk perception and a broad array of individual factors. Two logistic regressions were constructed to estimate factors associated with the risk perception of COVID-19 (defined as responding that one might become infected within the next 6 months), and of severe illness among those who responded that they might become infected (defined as responding that one would become severely ill). After adjusting for covariates, those with a higher perceived risk of the COVID-19 vaccine had higher odds of risk perception for both infection and severe illness. Interestingly, those with higher odds of risk perception of being infected were more likely to report obtaining their information from healthcare workers whereas those with lower odds were more likely to report obtaining their information from the Internet or the government;those with higher odds of risk perception of being severely ill were more likely to report obtaining their information from the Internet. The higher the trust level in the government as a COVID-19 information source, the lower the odds of both risk perception of being infected and becoming severely ill. The higher the trust levels in social networking services as a COVID-19 information source, the higher the odds of risk perception of becoming severely ill. Public health messaging should address the factors identified in our study.

11.
Support Care Cancer ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1802741

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: During the COVID-19 pandemic, childhood cancer survivors (CCS) may have felt more at risk of having severe consequences of COVID-19 and therefore may have been more likely to defer their health care use. We aimed to assess the risk perceptions of CCS related to COVID-19 (perceived infection risk, perceived risk of experiencing a severe illness in the event of infection), and their forgoing of health care during the year 2020. METHODS: In December 2020, we interviewed through an online self-report questionnaire 580 5-year CCS participating in the French Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (FCCSS) cohort. Combining clinical and patient-reported outcomes, we studied predictors of perceived risks related to COVID-19 and forgoing health care. RESULTS: Overall, 60% of respondents stated that COVID-19 could have severe consequences for their health if infected. Survivors with a cardiovascular disease and those who felt more at risk of being infected were more likely to think that COVID-19 could have severe health consequences for them. Moreover, 30% of respondents seeking care declared they had forgone at least one medical appointment in 2020. Forgoing medical appointments was more common among CCS who reported a deterioration in their financial situation in 2020 and those who felt more at risk of being infected. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that a considerable proportion of survivors had forgone medical appointments because of the pandemic;forgoing care was more frequent among the most socioeconomically disadvantaged survivors. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: This study presents data hitherto absent in the literature and suggests the need to develop telehealth to ensure appropriate long-term follow-up of CCS.

12.
Journal of Medical Internet Research Vol 23(8), 2021, ArtID e29268 ; 23(8), 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1801332

ABSTRACT

Background: Corona contact tracing apps are a novel and promising measure to reduce the spread of COVID-19. They can help to balance the need to maintain normal life and economic activities as much as possible while still avoiding exponentially growing case numbers. However, a majority of citizens need to be willing to install such an app for it to be effective. Hence, knowledge about drivers for app uptake is crucial. Objective: This study aimed to add to our understanding of underlying psychological factors motivating app uptake. More specifically, we investigated the role of concern for one's own health and concern to unknowingly infect others. Methods: A two-wave survey with 346 German-speaking participants from Switzerland and Germany was conducted. We measured the uptake of two decentralized contact tracing apps officially launched by governments (Corona-Warn-App, Germany;SwissCovid, Switzerland), as well as concerns regarding COVID-19 and control variables. Results: Controlling for demographic variables and general attitudes toward the government and the pandemic, logistic regression analysis showed a significant effect of self-focused concerns (odds ratio [OR] 1.64, P = .002). Meanwhile, concern of unknowingly infecting others did not contribute significantly to the prediction of app uptake over and above concern for one's own health (OR 1.01, P = .92). Longitudinal analyses replicated this pattern and showed no support for the possibility that app uptake provokes changes in levels of concern. Testing for a curvilinear relationship, there was no evidence that "too much" concern leads to defensive reactions and reduces app uptake. Conclusions: As one of the first studies to assess the installation of already launched corona tracing apps, this study extends our knowledge of the motivational landscape of app uptake. Based on this, practical implications for communication strategies and app design are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

13.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-333401

ABSTRACT

Vaccination mandates have been controversial since long before COVID-19, but the current COVID controversies obscure a more pervasive problem for U.S. public health laws and vaccine-preventable diseases than the intense politicization surrounding the pandemic. Until the late 20th century, for most people the risk of various dread diseases was sufficiently high that they embraced new vaccines. The intentional result of federal and state vaccination policies was that fewer people got these diseases. The perverse result was that perceptions of disease risk shifted, making the vaccines themselves seem like the far riskier option to many people and pressures to eliminate or mitigate vaccination mandates increased. Perhaps most importantly, in the early 21st century, state legislatures increasingly enacted exemptions from school vaccination requirements, setting the stage for measles resurgences in 2015 and 2019. Focusing primarily on measles vaccination, this Article argues that, while not the only factor, a regulatory shifting baseline syndrome fueled the pre-COVID-19 resistance to childhood vaccination. In 1995, Dr. Daniel Pauly described the “shifting baseline syndrome” and its problems for fisheries management. Pauly posited that each generation forgets what the ocean and its fisheries used to be and that this generational amnesia allows successive generations to accept the current impoverished state of marine fisheries as normal. The generational forgetting of prior fisheries, in other words, makes opaque what the goals of fisheries regulation should be, or even could be. This Article brings the shifting baseline concept into public law, identifying for the first time a regulatory shifting baseline syndrome that can undermine the law’s ability to protect society at large. This syndrome arises when a public legal regime, like a school vaccination mandate, so successfully eliminates a societal problem, like dread diseases, that citizens, politicians, and lawmakers forget that the regime is in fact still working to keep that problem at bay. This generational amnesia, in turn, can lead to changes in law and policy allow the prior problem to re-emerge in society, as occurred with measles outbreaks. While COVID-19 vaccination mandates are almost uniquely politicized and too new to reflect and regulatory shifting baseline syndrome, decisions are nevertheless being made in the COVID-19 context that may give the regulatory shifting baseline syndrome more room to operate, potentially threatening public health gains made with respect to a plethora of other vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States.

14.
Translational Issues in Psychological Science ; : No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1795830

ABSTRACT

As the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic continue to impact the globe, it is increasingly urgent to determine to what degree individual differences predict risk perceptions and protective behaviors that can potentially mitigate the spread of the disease. Past research has linked masculine and feminine gender norms with risk perceptions as well as a variety of health behaviors. The current study surveyed U.S. adults (N = 479) about their perceptions of the COVID-19 threat to themselves and other people, mask wearing, and conformity to relevant gender norms. Results indicate that conformity to gender norms shape risk perceptions and mask wearing behavior. Specifically, masculine autonomy norms, risk-taking norms, and antifeminine norms either directly or indirectly predicted less mask wearing, often due to lower perceived threat to self or others. Feminine communal norms predicted greater mask wearing due to increased perceived threat to others. This indicates that conformity to different gender norms may alter risk calculations and that concern about others is at least as important as concern about the self in understanding what motivates people's protective health behaviors. Public health messaging that aligns with communal norms by emphasizing one's ability to protect others or that aligns with masculine norms such as how the behavior will promote their self-reliance may be particularly effective at promoting a range of COVID-19 prevention behaviors that will likely be required for several years. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved) Impact Statement The present study suggests that gender norms shape people's responses to COVID-19, including mask wearing behavior and whether they are primarily concerned about risk to themselves or to other people. Those who value their autonomy are less likely to wear masks, and those who value relationships are more likely to wear masks because they are concerned about others. This shows that how individuals perceive risk is important for developing specific public health messaging that engages different audiences. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

15.
2021 SC Workshops Supplementary, SCWS 2021 ; : 79-86, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1794800

ABSTRACT

Complex flow simulations are conventionally performed on HPC clusters. However, the limited availability of HPC resources and steep learning curve of executing on traditional supercomputer infrastructure has drawn attention towards deploying flow simulation software on the cloud. We showcase how a complex computational framework-that can evaluate COVID-19 transmission risk in various indoor classroom scenarios-can be ed and deployed on cloud services. The availability of such cloud-based personalized planning tools can enable educational institutions, medical institutions, public sector workers (courthouses, police stations, airports, etc.), and other entities to comprehensively evaluate various in-person interaction scenarios for transmission risk. We deploy the simulation framework on the Azure cloud framework, utilizing the Dendro-ktmesh generation tool and PETSc solvers. The cloud ion is provided by RocketML cloud infrastructure. We compare the performance of the cloud machines with state-of-the-art HPC machine TACC Frontera. Our results suggest that cloud-based HPC resources are a viable strategy for a diverse array of end-users to rapidly and efficiently deploy simulation software. © 2021 IEEE.

16.
International Journal of Tourism Policy ; 12(2):160-178, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1793467

ABSTRACT

India is a huge attraction for tourists all over the world visiting different destinations with different motives. The Indian tourism sector was performing incredibly till the recent pandemic changed the overall tourism environment. The motivation for travelling has changed substantially and this change in behaviour and motives calls for insightful research. Hence, the purpose of this study is to explore the travel behaviour and motivation of tourists in post-pandemic situations. Primary data was collected from 345 tourists who had availed of the services of travel agencies pre-COVID or had made an enquiry. The six factors relating to destination choices in the new normal were discovered as health and hygiene, safety and security, accessibility and connectivity, information about destination, travel risk perception, and value for money. The findings will assist various tourism stakeholders in India to develop their policies and attract more domestic and foreign tourists.

17.
Sustainability ; 13(6):3434, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1792490

ABSTRACT

With the reduction in offline fashion stores, retailers are trying to revitalize offline stores by applying smart retail technologies. This study aimed to determine how factors related to the offline–mobile connected smart retailing experience affected satisfaction through perceived quality and perceived risk. An online survey was conducted on female consumers in their 20s and 30s, and 302 questionnaires were distributed. The analysis, which utilized a structural equation model, confirmed that, from among five smart retailing experience-related factors, perceived advantage, perceived enjoyment, and interactivity affected perceived quality and that perceived advantage and interactivity significantly affected perceived risk. However, perceived control and personalization did not affect perceived quality and perceived risk. Furthermore, perceived quality significantly affected overall satisfaction, offline satisfaction, and mobile satisfaction, while perceived risk did not affect mobile satisfaction. This study confirmed that the perceived advantage and interactivity of smart retailing experiences play an important role in enhancing customer satisfaction.

18.
Sustainability ; 13(6):3438, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1792489

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has generated an uncertain and changing context that has greatly affected the development and sustainability of all sports organizations. In this hostile context, adaptation of the business model (BMA) can be a strategic alternative for sports clubs. A change in value proposition, change in target market, and change in value delivery are some of the aspects considered in this study in relation to the social performance variable. It is well-known that sports clubs have a marked social function, therefore analyzing their social cause performance is of great importance in modern society. However, there are still few studies that have analyzed BMA in relation to this type of variable in sports clubs. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to find out what perceptions of the environment can influence the BMA, and to investigate what influence the BMA has on the social performance of this type of entity. To this end, 145 Spanish sports clubs were analyzed during a period of limitations and restrictions arising from COVID-19. The results show that there are differences in BMA according to the perceived impact of the crisis and the perception of risk. In addition, BMA predicts the social performance of sports clubs, and this study provides new information for academics and professionals. Practical implications and management proposals were developed based on the results, and conclusions drawn.

19.
Polish Psychological Bulletin ; 52(3):289-298, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1791414

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to identify significant predictors of psychological distress in the group of young Polish adults during COVID-19 epidemic outbreak. The web-based cross-sectional survey was applied to 975 Polish respondents (755 female, 77.44%) aged 18-35 years. They were divided into two age groups: younger (18-25) and older (25-35). All participants completed: General Functioning Questionnaire (GFQ), COVID-19 Risk Perception Scale (C-RPS), State Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S), and General Sense of Threat to Life Scale (GSTLS). The Polish adults aged 18-25 years manifested significantly higher psychological distress, state anxiety, and a sense of threat to life, but they perceived less risk in COVID-19 epidemic compared to older participants. Risk perception and a sense of threat to life were indirectly related to state anxiety and psychological distress. Significant predictors of psychological distress in the group of young adult Poles during the COVID-19 epidemic are: state anxiety, risk perception, and a sense of threat to life, where risk perception and a sense of threat to life mediate the relation between state anxiety and psychological distress.

20.
Rural Remote Health ; 22(1): 6985, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789840

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Primary health care (PHC), the cornerstone of health systems, has an important role in infectious disease control. The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has put a burden on health systems worldwide and especially on healthcare workers at the first line delivering their services in remote areas of Greece. This study investigates preparedness and awareness level of primary healthcare workers (PHCWs) and their risk perception in managing the pandemic during its initial phase. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in public PHC units in Greece. A web-based 14-item questionnaire, tested in a pilot study, was administered by a pre-existing panel of the Education and Research Network in PHC of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. Associations were assessed between epidemic response awareness, risk perception, participant demographics and work settings. Participants were grouped by profession in first-line physicians (general practitioners, internal medicine specialists, pediatricians), first-line non-physicians (nurses, health visitors, paramedics) and second-line PHCWs (dentists, microbiologists, administrators, midwifes, laboratory technicians, nutritionists and social workers). Univariate logistic regression and multivariable analysis were performed and linear regression was performed to examine the effect of participants' awareness of the preparedness plan to their working area characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 441 PHCWs participated in the survey. Risks were perceived at a lower level by second-line PHCWs than by first-line PHCWs (B=-0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.49- -0.08; p=0.028). Older PHCWs had less concerns than younger PHCWs (B=-0.04, 95%CI -0.08- -0.01; p=0.025) and more experienced participants had more concerns than less experienced (B=0.04, 95%CI 0.00,0.07; p=0.050). PHCWs in rural settings presented with more preparedness awareness, compared to PHCWs in urban areas (B=1.10, 95%CI 0.28,1.92; p=0.008), while PHCWs living with high risk individuals showed less situation awareness (-0.55, 95%CI -0.95-0.16; p=0.006). CONCLUSION: PHCWs in rural areas revealed a relatively high awareness of the response measures and management protocol requirements that were in place, compared to their colleagues in urban areas. As expected, first-line PHCWs directly exposed to emergencies expressed more concerns than second-line PHCWs. Learning from the challenges occurring during the initial phase of the pandemic could help PHC facilities address COVID-19 effectively and PHCWs' sense of security and confidence could be augmented, even when working in remote areas of the country. When planning training, distributing equipment and proposing protocols, the characteristics of the area and the needs of PHCWs, and population should be cautiously considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , General Practitioners , Cross-Sectional Studies , Greece/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
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