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1.
Infectious disease management in animal shelters ; 2(656), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1918436

ABSTRACT

This second edition contains 24 new and updated chapters on aetiology, epidemiology, prevalence, pathogenesis, clinical signs, treatment, prevention and control of infectious diseases in cats, dogs and exotic small companion mammals in animal shelters. These include an introduction to infectious disease management in animal shelters, wellness, data surveillance, diagnostic testing, necropsy techniques, outbreak management, pharmacology, sanitation, canine and feline vaccinations and immunology, canine infectious respiratory disease, canine distemper virus, canine influenza, feline infectious respiratory disease, canine parvovirus and other canine enteropathogens, feline panleukopenia, feline coronavirus and feline infectious peritonitis, internal parasites, heartworm disease, external parasites, dermatophytoses, zoonoses, rabies, feline leukaemia and feline immunodeficiency viruses and conditions in exotic companion mammals (ferrets, rabbits, guineapigs and rodents). It is intended for shelter veterinarians, managers and workers.

2.
Scientifur ; 45(3/4):75-257, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904314

ABSTRACT

This proceedings contains 43 papers on the behaviour, welfare, breeding, reproduction, feeding and diseases of mink, blue foxes and chinchillas, as well as the impacts of COVID 19 on fur farming.

3.
China Tropical Medicine ; 22(4):293-297, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1903924

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify the T cell epitopes of the COVID-19 vaccine carrying SARS-CoV-2 S, N and M genes in BALB/c mice.

4.
Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases ; 40(1):28-35, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1876155

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect and mechanism of high-dose clodronate liposomes (CL) treatment on the growth of Plasmodium yoelii 17XL (Py17XL) in mice.

5.
Postepy Fitoterapii ; 3:196-207, 2021.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1865716

ABSTRACT

Diosmin is the 7-rutinoside of 3 ', 5,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone (7-O-rutinoside of diosmetin), and hespheridine is the 7-rutinoside of 3', 5,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone (7 -O-rutinoside hesperetin). Diosmin, is a gray-yellow or pale-yellow, hygroscopic powder, whereas hesperidine is in the form of light-yellow spherocrystals. Diosmin was isolated from fruits of the Citrus genus (C. sinensis, C. limonia), now it is obtained semi-synthetically from natural hesperidin. These flavonoids have, among others: antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, analgesic, antioxidant and possibly anti-virus activity, that cause COVID-19. The metabolism of diosmin takes place initially in the small intestine and involves demethoxylation and hydrolysis. In contrast, oxidation and conjugation take place in the liver. There is no presence of diosmin and diosmetin in the urine, which are mainly eliminated in the form of glucuronic acid conjugates. The dominant metabolite detected in urine samples is m-hydroxy-phenylpropionic acid, excreted in conjugated form. Diosmin may reduce the aggregation of Red Blood Cells, and thus it is able to reduce blood viscosity. The LD50 of the mixture of 90% diosmin and 10% hesperidin for rats is over 3 g/kg. The tests did not reveal any mutagenic effects or effects on reproductive functions. It also does not pose a significant threat during breast feeding, as it poorly passes into breast milk.

6.
Acta Microbiologica Sinica ; 2:672-685, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841702

ABSTRACT

[Objective] To explore whether porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) can infect and proliferate in different animal species-derived cell lines. [Methods] The Sichuan isolate CHN-SC2015of PDCoV was inoculated in twelve cell lines derived from hamster,poultry,monkey, human and swine. After at least five blindly passages in each cell line, the virus was identified by RT-PCR,RT-q PCR, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and sequencing. [Results] PDCoV caused distinct cytopathic effect (CPE) in Vero,PAM,PK15,ST, and LLC-PK1 cells at the 1st passage (P1) and proliferated to various degrees in PAM,PK15,ST, and LLC-PK1 cells, while the CPE gradually disappeared during subsequent passages in Vero and PAM cells. Except that in the three susceptible cell lines (PK15,LLC-PK1, and ST), the viral copies of the infected cell lines gradually decreased with the increase in passages, and PDCoV could not be detected at P4 or P5 of DEF,Marc-145,HEK-293,ZYM-SIEC02, and PAM cells. PCR results showed that PDCoV could be detected only in CEF and Vero cells at P5. The IFA results showed that PDCoV could infect other cell lines except BHK-21 and ZYM-SIEC02, and specific immunofluorescence was observed in PK15,LLC-PK1, and ST cells at P1,P3, and P9. Therefore, only three cell lines (PK15,LLC-PK1, and ST) were suitable for serial passage, with the virus titers up to 107.11,107.00, and 107.37 TCID50/mL at P9,respectively. After passage in different cell lines,CHN-SC2015 accumulated 14 nucleotide mutations corresponding to 12 amino acid mutations. [Conclusion] This study indicates that PDCoV can infect a variety of cells in vitro, suggesting that it may have the potential of cross-species transmission.

7.
Sri Lankan Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 12(1), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841545

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Data on PPE use and COVID-19 transmission in a healthcare setting is sparse. Method: This study is a retrospective descriptive study on PPE use and Covid-19 transmission in a hospital. Data collected during routine risk assessment was analyzed using SPSS_26 software.

8.
Veterinar ; 59(1):14-23, 2021.
Article in Croatian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1837993

ABSTRACT

The first cases of human disease from COVID-19 were recorded in December 2019 in China, from where it spread rapidly around the world. COVID-19, the third emerging coronavirus infection in humans, is caused by the new SARS-CoV-2 virus, which can cause a severe acute respiratory syndrome in some infected individuals. Previous research has revealed the possible animal origin of SARS-CoV-2, with bats considered as natural reservoirs and pangolins as intermediate hosts. To better understand COVID-19 and more successfully control the spread, domestic and wild animals have been infected in experimental conditions. On the other hand, in some species, infections have been recorded in field conditions. Natural infections have been reported in dogs, cats, tigers, lions, and minks, who have been in contact with SARS-CoV-2 positive humans. The reverse transmission of the pathogen, from infected animals to humans, has only been recorded on intensive mink farms. To better understand the pathogenesis of this disease's causative agent, drugs and vaccine trials, some experimental infections were performed on animal models, of which ferrets, rhesus macaques, and hamsters proved to be the most suitable. This article aimed to consolidate known data on the potential origin of SARS-CoV-2, its transmission to humans, infections in animals, and their significance in the epidemiology of COVID-19.

9.
Journal of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases ; 10(1):1-9, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1787279

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV- 2) spilled over to humans via wild mammals, entering the host cell using angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as receptor through Spike (S) protein binding. While SARS-CoV-2 became fully adapted to humans and globally spread, some mammal species were infected back. The present study evaluated the potential risk of mammals becoming hosts for SARS-CoV-2 through bioinformatics prediction based on ACE2 receptors.

10.
Non-conventional in English | National Technical Information Service, Grey literature | ID: grc-753657

ABSTRACT

Lassa virus (LASV) is a highly prevalent pathogen in West Africa, including Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea and Nigeria. The virus causes 100,000 to 300,000 infections per year, which lead to approximately 5,000 deaths annually. Lassa fever is currently on the WHO R and D Blueprint list of epidemic threats needing urgent R and D action, and therefore there is an unmet need for an effective LASV vaccine, especially one that prevents Service Members from becoming ill from epidemic disease exposure during operational deployments. The innovative vaccine technology used in this funded project was developed based on mRNA modified by incorporation of pseudouridin, which dramatically minimizes the indiscriminate activation of innate immune sensing and increases translation by an order of magnitude. This revolutionary technology was used by Moderna Therapeutics, the partner in this project, for the development of highly effective vaccines against influenza virus, rabies, HIV, Zika virus and SARS-CoV-2;the influenza and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have been tested recently in clinical trials. Dr. Bukreyev and Moderna have designed and tested two Ebola virus modified mRNA-based vaccines encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles (LNP), which induced neutralizing antibodies in immunized guinea pigs and completely prevented death and disease caused by Ebola virus challenge

11.
Non-conventional in English | National Technical Information Service, Grey literature | ID: grc-753518

ABSTRACT

Exposure to noise can cause damage to structures in the inner ear, often resulting in a loss of hearing. Recent findings in noise-exposedanimals raise a new specter that even moderate noise exposures may result in damage specifically located in the synaptic region betweenthe sensory cells in the cochlea and primary auditory neurons. There is no way currently that scientists and clinicians can diagnose possibleauditory synaptic damage in humans, and diagnosis is critical for the development of innovative treatments. The objective of this project isto develop a statistical model that will accurately predict the likelihood of synaptopathy in humans who have had noise exposures in theirlives. The development of the statistical model will be supported by collecting non-invasive measurements in both humans and guinea pigs.Regulatory documents supporting human and animal testing have been approved both locally and through the relevant offices of theUSAMRMC. The animal laboratory was outfitted with a new sound booth for auditory testing, and data collection is on schedule to begin shortly. Research technicians have been hired to assist in both the human and animal facilities. However, overall progress has been significantly slowed by the seven months and ongoing international pandemic.

12.
Tier..rztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere ; 49(3):229-235, 2021.
Article in German | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1744014

ABSTRACT

These proceedings contain 25 papers from the 64th Annual Meeting of the Pathology Section of the German Veterinary Medical Association. Topics include tumour infiltrating lymphocytes in mammary carcinomas in domestic rabbits;what decides good or bad? - global gene expression analysis of the adenoma of the hepatoid perianal glands and adenocarcinoma the canine apocrine anal sac glands;the canine cutaneous histiocytoma - boring or perspective in immuno-oncology?;impact of antibiotic pretreatment on ventilator-induced lung injury: contradiction between histology and transcriptome analysis?;characterization of murine satellite glial cells of the dorsal root ganglia - a unique cell population with potential regenerative capacities;impact of antibiotic pretreatment on ventilator-induced lung injury: contradiction between histology and transcriptome analysis?;primary diffuse leptomeningeals oligodendrogliomatosis in a cat;pathomorphological studies of fibroadnexal dysplasia in dogs;pyogranulomatous inflammation in multiple Organs of a dog with evidence of Corynebacterium tuberculostearicum;ovary tumors in cats - overview of the examination material from 2009-2020 and case report of a recurrent dysgerminoma;atherosclerosis in the dog;spinal neuroenteric cyst in one Saint Bernard;MENX - an endogenous model for pseudohypoxic pheochromocytomas;molecular Level Evolution II: similarities of CLCA2 in sauropsids and mammals;in vivo detection of double-stranded Ribonucleic acid (RNA) as an early detection marker unclear viral infections using the example of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2) in experimental infected hamsters;the role of different mast cell subtypes in the context of intestinal carcinogenesis - a species-comparative approach;an underestimated treasure in paraffin - establishment of a global transcriptome analysis canine tumors from FFPE material based on QuantSeq 3' technology;well researched? - an approximation of the role of CLCA1 in joints through usage molecular databases;integration of digitized historical and cytopathology into an open source DICOM database and viewer system;3R 3D: skin model for the study of viral infections;CARD9 signaling promotes hippocampal neurogenesis and cytokine balance in a mouse model of virus-induced encephalitis;neuropathological changes after intranasal infection with Rift Valley fever virus - a murine model for human encephalitis;a T-cell a day keeps Theiler away - the influence non-reactive T-cells on the course of a Theiler virus infection in mice with C57BL/6 background;digitization in pathology - new opportunities and their obstacles;and specific features of satellite glial cells of dog and pig.

13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(2): 467-470, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736706

ABSTRACT

We report surveillance conducted in 217 pestiferous rodents in Hong Kong for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We did not detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA but identified 1 seropositive rodent, suggesting exposure to a virus antigenically similar to SARS-CoV-2. Potential exposure of urban rodents to SARS-CoV-2 cannot be ruled out.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Rodentia
14.
Nature ; 603(7899):13, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1730272
15.
Zhongguo Meijie Shengwuxue ji Kongzhi Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Vector Biology and Control ; 31(6):633-638, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1726807

ABSTRACT

Vectors can transmit Viruses by mechanical transmission. and some species can transmit Viruses by biological means. As for whether vectors can transmit severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-Z), this article assess the risk of several categories of vectors closely related to humans in transmitting SARS-CoV-Z. 50 as to provide a basis for developing more precise SARS-CoV-Z prevention and control measures. Based on the collected literature. the risk matrix method was used to evaluate the probability of vectors transmitting SARS-CoV-Z and determine the level of exposure to SARS-CoV-Z and the risk level of SARS-CnV-Z transmission for different vectors in different places. The preliminary results showed that the risk of mosquitoes in transmitting SARS-CUV-Z was Very low: rodents. cockroaches. and flies had a potential risk of mechanical transmission of SARS-COV-Z, and rodents also had a potential risk of biological transmission of SARS-CoV-Z;the three categories of vectors had different risks of the transmission of SARS-CoV-Z in different places, and the risk level of transmission was associated with the risk level of exposure to SARS-CoV-Z, as well as the distribution, density, and activity of vectors. In genera]. the risk of mosquitoes in transmitting SARS-CoV-Z could he excluded: the vectors including rodents, cockroaches, and flies have a potential but low risk of transmitting SARS-CoV-Z in specific planes and surroundings exposed to SARS-COV-Z.

16.
Journal of Food Safety and Quality ; 12(23):9109-9116, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1717220

ABSTRACT

Objective: To prepare the recombinant antigen and monoclonal antibody (mAb) of nucleocapsid protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARA-CoV-2).

17.
Journal of Medical Virology ; 93(4):1837-2553, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1716668

ABSTRACT

This special issue includes 109 articles focusing on COVID-19 and influenza H1N1;coinfections with SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses in Southeastern France;recurrent COVID-19 pneumonia in the course of chemotherapy;significance of IgA antibody testing for early detection of SARS-CoV-2;immunohistochemical expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in minor salivary glands during SARS-CoV-2 infection;the safety of remdesivir for COVID-19 patients;SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein intranasal inoculation induces local and systemic T cell responses in mice;risk factors for prolonged fatigue after recovery from COVID-19;influence of COVID-19 in patients with concurrent tuberculosis coinfections;interpretative immune targets and contemporary position for vaccine development against SARS-CoV-2.

18.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 23(1): 127-132, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575092

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Effective and safe anesthesia for rodents has long been a leading concern among biomedical researchers. Intraperitoneal injection constitutes an alternative to inhalant anesthesia. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify a safe, reliable, and effective anesthesia and postoperative analgesia protocol for laboratory rats exposed to painful procedures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-seven female Wistar rats in an ongoing study that required surgery were randomized into groups for three different intraperitoneal anesthesia protocols and three different analgesia regimens. The anesthesia groups were (1) medetomidine + ketamine (MK), (2) ketamine + xylacine (KX), and (3) fentanyl + medetomidine (FM). Three analgesia groups were equally distributed among the anesthesia groups: (1) local mepivacaine + oral ibuprofen (MI), (2) oral tramadol + oral ibuprofen (TI), and (3) local tramadol + oral tramadol + + oral ibuprofen (TTI). A core was assigned to measure anesthesia (0-3) and analgesia (0-2) effectiveness; the lower the score, the more effective the treatment. RESULTS: The mean MK score was 0.44 versus 2.00 for FM and 2.33 for KX. Mean score for analgesia on the first postoperative day was TTI (4.66) TI (9.13), and MI (10.14). Mean score 48 hours after surgery was TTI (3.4), TI (6.71), and MI (9.5). These differences were statistically significant. CONCLUSION: MK was shown to be a reliable, safe, and effective method of anesthesia. The TTI analgesia regimen is strongly recommended in light of these results.


Subject(s)
Fentanyl/pharmacology , Ketamine/pharmacology , Medetomidine/pharmacology , Xylazine/pharmacology , Adjuvants, Anesthesia/administration & dosage , Adjuvants, Anesthesia/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Dissociative/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Dissociative/pharmacology , Animals , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Medetomidine/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Xylazine/administration & dosage
19.
Virus Evol ; 6(2): veaa078, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1383237

ABSTRACT

To better understand the genetic diversity, host associations and evolution of coronaviruses (CoVs) in China we analyzed a total of 696 rodents encompassing 16 different species sampled from Zhejiang and Yunnan provinces. Based on reverse transcriptase PCR-based CoV screening of fecal samples and subsequent sequence analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene, we identified CoVs in diverse rodent species, comprising Apodemus agrarius, Apodemus chevrieri, Apodemus latronum, Bandicota indica, Eothenomys cachinus, Eothenomys miletus, Rattus andamanensis, Rattus norvegicus, and Rattus tanezumi. CoVs were particularly commonplace in A. chevrieri, with a detection rate of 12.44 per cent (24/193). Genetic and phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of three groups of CoVs carried by a range of rodents that were closely related to the Lucheng Rn rat CoV (LRNV), China Rattus CoV HKU24 (ChRCoV_HKU24), and Longquan Rl rat CoV (LRLV) identified previously. One newly identified A. chevrieri-associated virus closely related to LRNV lacked an NS2 gene. This virus had a similar genetic organization to AcCoV-JC34, recently discovered in the same rodent species in Yunnan, suggesting that it represents a new viral subtype. Notably, additional variants of LRNV were identified that contained putative non-structural (NS)2b genes located downstream of the NS2 gene that were likely derived from the host genome. Recombination events were also identified in the open reading frame (ORF) 1a gene of Lijiang-71. In sum, these data reveal the substantial genetic diversity and genomic complexity of rodent-borne CoVs, and extend our knowledge of these major wildlife virus reservoirs.

20.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376989

ABSTRACT

Rodents (order Rodentia), followed by bats (order Chiroptera), comprise the largest percentage of living mammals on earth. Thus, it is not surprising that these two orders account for many of the reservoirs of the zoonotic RNA viruses discovered to date. The spillover of these viruses from wildlife to human do not typically result in pandemics but rather geographically confined outbreaks of human infection and disease. While limited geographically, these viruses cause thousands of cases of human disease each year. In this review, we focus on three questions regarding zoonotic viruses that originate in bats and rodents. First, what biological strategies have evolved that allow RNA viruses to reside in bats and rodents? Second, what are the environmental and ecological causes that drive viral spillover? Third, how does virus spillover occur from bats and rodents to humans?


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Rodentia/virology , Virus Diseases/transmission , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Zoonoses/transmission
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