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Cureus ; 14(11): e31877, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2307222


The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 spread across many countries between 2020 and 2022. The similarities in clinical presentation with other endemic diseases pose a challenge to physicians in effectively diagnosing and treating the infection. Approximately 129 nations have a risk of dengue infection, and more than 100 of those are endemic to dengue. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of dengue cases decreased in many countries owing to the isolation measures followed. However, the common clinical presentation between them has led to misdiagnosis. Both COVID-19 and dengue fever cause a surge in pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, thus sharing a common pathophysiology. False positive serological test results also posed difficulty differentiating between COVID-19 and dengue fever. This review aims to compare the clinical features, pathophysiology, and immune response between dengue and COVID-19, to benefit public health management during the pandemic.

Cureus ; 14(11): e31493, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203297


Introduction Studies have reported similar clinical, biochemical, and radiological features between real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-positive and RT-PCR-negative patients. Therefore, the present study aims to assess differences in RT-PCR-positive versus RT-PCR-negative patients' characteristics. Methods We prospectively included 70 consecutive patients with typical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-like clinical features who were either RT-PCR-positive or negative, requiring admission to the intensive care unit. The patients were classified into positive and negative RT-PCR groups and evaluated for clinical features, comorbidities, laboratory findings, and radiologic features. Results Fifty-seven point one percent (57.1%; 40/70) were RT-PCR positive, and 42.9% (30/70) were RT-PCR negative patients. The respiratory rate was higher among negative patients (P = 0.02), whereas the mean duration of fever was longer (3.34 vs 2.5; P = 0.022) among positive patients. At presentation, RT-PCR-negative patients had lower saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO2) (near significant P = 0.058). Evaluation of co-morbidities revealed no differences. The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (4.57 vs 6.52; P = 0.048), C-reactive protein (CRP) (9.97 vs 22.7; P = 0.007), and serum ferritin (158 vs 248.52; P = 0.010) were higher in patients who tested negative for RT-PCR. Thrombocytopenia (2.42 vs 1.76; P = 0.009), D-dimer levels (408.91 vs 123.06; P = 0.03), and interleukin (IL-6) levels (219.3 vs 80.81; P = 0.04) were significantly elevated among RT-PCR positive patients. The percentage of lung involvement in negative cases was 42.29+/-22.78 vs 36.21+/-21.8 in positive cases (P=0.23). The CT severity score was similar in both cohorts. Conclusion Both RT-PCR-positive and negative patients have similar clinical, biochemical, and radiological features. Considering that we are amidst a pandemic, it is advisable to have a similar approach irrespective of the RT-PCR report and triage and isolate accordingly. We recommend an RT-PCR-negative intensive care unit (ICU) ward and that the treating physician take a call on the management with a holistic approach driven clinically by the laboratory findings and helped by radiological findings. Stressing only on the RT-PCR report for management can be counterproductive.

Cureus ; 12(9): e10442, 2020 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-800523


An 83-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED) during the peak of the first wave of the SARS CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic with severe abdominal pain, mimicking a severe abdominal pathology. He was found to have features suggestive of COVID-19 infection radiologically, with no leaking aortic aneurysm, bowel ischemia, pancreatitis, or perforation. With worsening symptoms, a repeat computer tomography (CT) scan four days later showed features of bowel ischemia, and he underwent a laparotomy and right hemicolectomy. Four real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) tests were negative. He was still considered to be infected with COVID-19 and died from complications arising from multi-organ failure. This case highlights an atypical presentation of a possible COVID-19 infection, the urgency to have additional diagnostic tests apart from rRT-PCR, and the necessity to use the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) during the pandemic.

Cureus ; 12(8): e9989, 2020 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738288


While the definitive diagnosis of the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is mainly made by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), some PCR-negative cases are diagnosed typically by a computed tomography (CT) scan's radiology. However, there are many different infectious and non-infectious diseases that have radiology like COVID-19. We are presenting a case of a patient having symptoms and a CT scan radiology comparable to that of COVID-19 and also having eosinophilia. The patient was initially diagnosed and treated as a COVID-19 patient. The patient stated that she had always complained of having dyspnea and cough, but it had increased even more in the past few days. Her thorax CT revealed bilateral ground-glass opacities with upper lobe predominance, which was reported as highly compatible with COVID-19 by radiologists. COVID-19 PCR result was negative twice. In laboratory results, eosinophil count was 2,850/mm3 and total Ig was 768 IU/mL. However, when the laboratory values and the radiological findings were combined with the patient's history, COVID-19 was excluded and the chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was accepted as a diagnosis. Clinicians more focused on COVID-19 while questioning the patients and while evaluating the laboratory and the radiological findings make it easier to miss other infectious and non-infectious diseases. Assessing the complete blood count result, focusing on the lymphocyte value, also makes it easy to skip eosinophilia.