Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 65
Filter
1.
Non-conventional in English | WHOIRIS, Grey literature | ID: grc-754717

ABSTRACT

The 10th meeting of the European Regional Verification Commission for Measles and Rubella Elimination (RVC) took place online over four sessions on 6 October, 2 November, 8 December 2021 and 16 February 2022 to review the 2020 annual status updates (ASUs) from Member States. The RVC evaluated 43 national ASUs for 2020 submitted by national verification committees (NVCs) by 16 February 2022. The RVC concluded that, by the end of 2020, 29 Member States had provided evidence to demonstrate that endemic transmission of measles was interrupted for at least 36 months and verified as eliminated. Similarly, endemic rubella transmission was interrupted in 41 Member States for at least 36 months and verified as eliminated. Due to large measles outbreaks in 2018 – 2019, measles transmission was considered to have been re-established in five countries that had previously achieved measles elimination status. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the customary annual RVC meeting was delayed and could not be held face to face, but the objectives of the annual meeting were met through the series of virtual meetings and teleconferences.

2.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2022 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076013

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Some vaccinated individuals fail to acquire an adequate immune response against infection. We aimed to determine whether mRNA severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination could induce a sufficient immune response against SARS-CoV-2 in low responders to other vaccinations. METHODS: Using data from health-care workers who received two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine (BioNTech/Pfizer), we conducted a single-centre, cross-sectional study to determine whether low responders to measles, rubella, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccinations could acquire sufficient antibodies after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. From May 2021 to June 2021, participants were tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (anti-S) IgG antibodies at least 2 weeks after the second dose of BNT162b2. The association between a low response to measles, rubella, and HBV vaccinations and the post-vaccination anti-S IgG titre was evaluated using the multivariable linear regression analysis. RESULTS: All 714 participants were positive for the anti-S IgG titre (≥50.0 AU/mL) after two doses of BNT162b2 (median, 7126.8 AU/mL; interquartile range, 4496.2-11 296.8). There were 323 (45.2%), 131 (18.3%), and 43 (6.0%) low responders to measles, rubella, and HBV vaccinations, respectively. In the multivariable linear regression analysis, low responders to rubella vaccination had significantly low acquisition of the anti-S IgG titre after two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine (standardized coefficient ß, -0.110; 95% CI, -0.175 to -0.044). CONCLUSIONS: A low response to rubella vaccination is a potential predictor of a reduced response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Further studies are needed to determine whether a low response to rubella vaccination is associated with the durability of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination-induced immune response.

3.
Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences ; 35(2):75-79, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2065356

ABSTRACT

The level of immunization of children and adolescents under the Protective Vaccination Program in Ukraine is lower than in Poland, and, due to the outbreak of the war in Ukraine, many people now live in conditions that are often unsanitary. Centers for refugees are also places of increased risk of outbreaks of infectious diseases. This risk is increased by the low percentage of the vaccinated, limited access to healthcare (including diagnostics) and overcrowding. The paper presents the state of vaccination in Ukraine against poliomyelitis, measles, diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis, the most important problems in the field of infectious diseases, as well as the resulting risks and the need to prevent them.

4.
Archives of Disease in Childhood ; 107(Supplement 2):A58, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064014

ABSTRACT

Aims The success of the childhood immunisation programme depends on parental confidence in the efficacy of vaccines. Parental hesitancy because of lack of access to evidence based information alongside the misinformation available on social media contributes to the poor uptake of vaccinations. Reliance on herd immunity is compromised if increasing cohorts begin to decline vaccines. Combating misinformation and gaining an understanding of reasons for refusal and hesitancy behaviours enables the implementation of interventions to prevent declines. Our study attempted to understand reasons and personal characteristics influencing parental refusal in accepting immunisations. Methods Using a semi-structured interview, parents of children who had missed immunisation appointments were contacted. The parents were asked a series of open-ended questions about the reasons for their non-attendance to appointments. Results Out of the 47 patients contacted, 19 patients responded. Main reasons for vaccine refusal included misinformation, homoeopathy and religion. Parents expressed concerns over the vaccine components and the negative impacts vaccines had previously had on the child or other family members. Alongside this some parents expressed a concern over a link between autism and the MMR vaccine. A review of the records did not provide any valid information to support these claims which were more perceptual than factual. Furthermore, one parent expressed a lack of trust in the whole immunisation programme since the beginning of the COVID- 19 pandemic and the roll out of vaccines. Conclusion Parental beliefs and hesitancy are key to the effectiveness of the childhood immunisation programme. Unless we can fully understand and counsel parents with the correct, evidence- based information we will not be able to change parental behaviours and reduce hesitancy surrounding vaccines. Social media and the plethora of information has a large contribution to the varied messages and information available to parents. Our study adds to existing information around the misinformation of vaccines. Public health programmes cannot combat misinformation and implement interventions unless there are more robust information campaigns.

5.
Chest ; 162(4):A1310, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060803

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Unique Inflammatory and Autoimmune Complications of COVID-19 Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Viral infections can induce an immune cascade which may incite varied autoimmune disease to take action. One such disease is dermatomyositis, a rare inflammatory disease with multisystemic involvement. As we enter the post pandemic era, several unique complications related to COVID-19 are now surfacing. Here we present a case of a 57-year-old female who developed dermatomyositis after recent Covid-19 infection. CASE PRESENTATION: Patient is a 57-year-old female who presented to our pulmonary clinic with complaints of cough and shortness of breath (SOB). Patient reported feeling ill since contracting COVID-19 in November 2020. Two months after being diagnosed with COVID-19 she started to experience generalized muscle and joint pain;she underwent extensive rheumatological workup which was consistent with Sjogren disease for which she was started on hydroxychloroquine. A month after initiation of medication she started to experience worsening cough and SOB and underwent pulmonary function testing (PFT) in our clinic which showed evidence of restrictive lung disease. Chest CT was consistent with interstitial changes, therefore a diagnosis of ILD (interstitial lung disease) due to connective tissue disorder was made. Further assessment revealed positive CPK and anti-Jo1 antibodies indicative of dermatomyositis as a cause of her ILD. She was started on oral steroids which helped improve her symptoms. DISCUSSION: Several viruses including EBV, Hepatitis C, Rubella, HTLV-1 and Parvovirus have been associated with development of autoimmune diseases. Viral infections, like COVID-19 have shown to trigger an intense immune response which in turn may lead to autoimmune activity against host antigen. SARS-CoV2 has been found to enter muscle cells through ACE-2 receptors, allowing for transfer of genetic material and skeletal muscle damage. Another proposed mechanism of COVID induced myopathy has been T-cell clonal expansion by the virus up regulating TLR4 receptors increasing expression of ACE2, therefore facilitating entry of viruses leading to further inflammation. Identification of very specific T cell receptor epitopes for SARS-COv2 in patients with dermatomyositis has suggested COVID-19 as a trigger for CD8-T cells which leads to dermatomyositis in these patients. Autoimmune reactions occur from varying mechanisms like epitope spreading and bystander activation to molecular mimicry triggered by viral infections. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-COv2 presented with several challenges in the field of medicine. As we enter the post COVID period in medicine, we will continue to face several challenges proposed by the inflammatory surge caused by this disease. It is therefore important clinicians recognize and report these rare cases to increase awareness regarding several post covid diseases. Reference #1: HUSSEIN, H. M.;RAHAL, E. A. The role of viral infections in the development of autoimmune diseases. Critical Reviews in Microbiology, [s. l.], v. 45, n. 4, p. 394–412, 2019. DOI 10.1080/1040841X.2019.1614904. Disponível em: https://search-ebscohost-com.proxy.lib.wayne.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=138199390&site=ehost-live&scope=site. Acesso em: 4 abr. 2022. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Kevser Akyuz No relevant relationships by Ranim Chamseddin No relevant relationships by Padmini Giri No relevant relationships by verisha khanam No relevant relationships by Emad Shehada No relevant relationships by Abdullah Yesilyaprak

6.
Weekly Epidemiological Record ; 97(6):33-40, 2022.
Article in English, French | GIM | ID: covidwho-2047164

ABSTRACT

Progress towards rubella elimination has accelerated since 2012, and, in 2020, rubella elimination had been verified in approximately one half the countries of the world. Progress is reflected in increased numbers of countries introducing RCV into national childhood immunization schedules and the coverage achieved. Between 2012 and 2020, the number of countries that introduced RCV increased from 132 to 173, and global coverage increased from 40% to 70%. Although the availability of vaccine increased and more LICs and LMICs have introduced RCV, estimates of coverage continue to reflect barriers to access in lower-income countries. Nevertheless, coverage decreased by only 1 percentage point between 2019 and 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. Progress is also reflected in the decrease in the number of reported cases, including a 48% decrease during 2012- 2019 and a further decrease in 2020.

7.
Drug Safety ; 45(10):1305, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2045322

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Monitoring safety of vaccines during mass immunization campaigns is challenging. Immunization programs usually focus on vaccination coverages and seldom invest time and effort in identifying and managing immunization-related safety issues. The safety surveillance initiatives taken by the Eritrean Pharmacovigilance Centre (EPC) following its integration into the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in late 2016 involved tactics that evolved with the deployment of newer vaccines over the years. Currently, Eritreas experience collectively enabled the country to operate in a higher level of proactivity, implementing strategies that go in line with principles of the latest concept of Smart Safety Surveillance (3S). Objective: This report shares Eritreas experience in monitoring adverse events following immunization (AEFI) during mass campaigns in 3S approach, presenting a lesson that can be learned for COVID-19 vaccine deployment. Methods: Tools, principles, AEFI-line lists, integration progresses, practices, and strategies used in Eritrea for AEFI surveillance during immunization campaigns were reviewed. The evolution of the AEFI surveillance system in Eritrea was tracked to observe the changes that the EPC introduced in every growth stage of its system. Moreover, search was made on VigiBase to demonstrate trends of AEFIs reporting overtime. Results: In the kickoff, the EPC started small in harnessing its integration with the EPI. In the first two years following integration, the center received only a few tens of AEFI reports through an entirely passive approach of spontaneous reporting. In 2018, the center opted for a more ambitious plan and implemented an active surveillance of newly introduced measles and rubella vaccine. Although it collected 916 AEFIs in a few days, serious cases warranting investigation were left uninvestigated. In 2019, in another highly ambitious turn, the EPC optimized its system to a more proactive approach that employs principles of 3S. Through the 3S approach, the EPC implemented strategies that enabled prevention and management of AEFIs more efficiently. Following investigation, several serious cases that would otherwise have compromised the immunization program were found to be coincidental. Of the more than 3600 AEFIs received following meningococcal-A vaccination campaign, several serious cases were successfully investigated and timely communicated. The reports represent about 80% of all the globally reported cases to the vaccine in VigiBase. Conclusion: 3S approach was found to be effective in monitoring and mitigating immunization campaign-related problems in Eritrea. Considering Eritreas strategies might be helpful for countries having similar setting in establishing a robust vaccine safety surveillance system during COVID-19 vaccine deployment.

8.
HPS Weekly Report ; 56:11, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2044719

ABSTRACT

In recent weeks, many Ukrainian refugees have crossed into Hungary, Poland, Moldova, and Romania. The WHO works with these and other nations to increase disease surveillance and provide immunization programs according to their schedules and policies. This article provides a summary of the recommendations provided by WHO to all countries in the region. According to the guidelines, countries must continue to make efforts to ensure that their resident populations, including refugee populations, are fully vaccinated against polio, measles, rubella, COVID-19, and other vaccine-preventable diseases. Vaccination against polio, measles, and rubella must be offered as a priority to incoming refugee children under the age of six who have missed any routine vaccinations Vaccine doses must be recorded and made available to vaccinated individuals.

9.
Weekly Epidemiological Record ; 96(44):540-548, 2021.
Article in English, French | GIM | ID: covidwho-2012096

ABSTRACT

This report, which updates previous reports, presents estimates of global, regional, and national vaccination coverage and trends as of 2020. It describes the changes in vaccination coverage and the numbers of unvaccinated and undervaccinated children as measured by receipt of the first and third doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP)in 2020, when the COVID-19 pandemic began, compared with 2019. Global coverage estimates with the third dose of DTP (DTP3) and a polio vaccine (Pol3) fell from 86% in 2019 to 83% in 2020. Similarly, MCV1 coverage fell from 86% in 2019 to 84% in 2020. The last year the coverage estimates were at 2020 levels was 2009 for DTP3 and 2014 for both MCV1 and the third dose of Pol (Pol3). Worldwide, 22.7 million children(17% of the target population) did not receive DTP in 2020, compared with 19.0 million (14%) in 2019. Children who did not receive the first DTP dose (DTP1) by age 12 months (zero-dose children) accounted for 95%of the increased number. Among those who did not receive DTP3 in 2020, approximately 17.1 million (75%)were zero-dose children. Global coverage decreased in 2020 compared with 2019 estimates for the completion of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV),and rubella-containing vaccine (RCV). To reach full coverage with all recommended vaccines, tailored strategies will be needed, especially to reach communities with a lot of children who haven't had any or enough vaccines.

10.
Weekly Epidemiological Record ; 96(1/2):1-10, 2021.
Article in English, French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2010657

ABSTRACT

This article provides a brief overview of the 31st meeting of the International TaskForce for Disease Eradication (ITFDE) that was convened at The Carter Center in Atlanta, GA, USA on 20-21 October 2020 to discuss "The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on eradication and elimination programmes and the way forward." It highlights the results of 7 eradication programmes, with specific conclusions and recommendations for each: Guinea Worm Eradication Programme(dracunculiasis;GWEP);Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI);elimination programmes for measles and rubella (MR), malaria, river blindness (onchocerciasis;RB), and lymphatic filariasis (LF);and the program for the Global Elimination of Trachoma.

11.
Medicine Today ; 23(1-2):31-41, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006856

ABSTRACT

Common causes of viral exanthems in Australia include herpesviruses, enteroviruses, parvovirus B19, varicella, measles and rubella viruses and mosquito-borne alphaviruses. The cause can often be diagnosed clinically from the rash distribution and morphology, confirmed only when necessary with serological or PCR tests. Most viral exanthems are self-limiting, requiring supportive care alone.

12.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2005711

ABSTRACT

Background: Infections occur with up to twofold increased risk in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and tenfold increased risk in multiple myeloma (MM). To reduce risk, revaccination following autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) is recommended to restore humoral immunity. We have previously shown that vaccine titers after AHCT have prognostic significance. In the COVID era, reliable clinical data about antibody titers is relevant yet scarce. We investigated the significance of different vaccine titers in newly diagnosed patients in different stages of the disease. Methods: The study population comprised of 77 patients with MGUS, smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) and MM who were seen at a tertiary cancer center from 2018- 2022. All patients had antibody titers (B. pertussis, Diptheria, H. Influenzae B, Hepatitis, Influenza, Meningitis, Mumps, Rubeola, Rubella, Poliovirus, S. pneumoniae, Varicella Zoster and Tetanus) tested at the time of diagnosis, prior to start of treatment if indicated. Titers were interpreted in accordance with the manufacturers' recommendations. Patient characteristics were compared using the Kruskal- Wallis and Fisher's exact tests. Associations with % titer positivity were evaluated using the Kruskal- Wallis test. Results: There was significant difference in antibody titer positivity between the different patient groups (51.4% in MGUS, 40.5% in SMM and 34.2% in MM) (p < 0.001). There was no difference in antibody titer positivity depending on age, sex or race. Among individual pathogens, there was a significant difference between the three groups in regards to titers for Diphtheria, Mumps, Poliovirus 3, Strep pneumoniae 19, Strep pneumoniae 56 and Varicella Zoster. Conclusions: Antibody titers for vaccine preventable diseases are significantly different between patients with MGUS, SMM and MM at the time of diagnosis, with MGUS having the highest and MM having the lowest positivity. Patient related factors such as age, sex or race were not associated with antibody titer positivity. Current guidelines for revaccination are not extended to patients with MGUS and SMM and can be considered in prospective trials.

13.
Pediatrics ; 149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003194

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite vaccines being attributed to the eradication of smallpox and prevention of many possibly fatal diseases, public confidence in vaccines has been on the decline, and the COVID-19 pandemic has further increased the vaccination gap across the world. A study done by the Michigan Care Improvement Registry compared age-recommended vaccination rates for patients from the years of 2016-2019 and the year 2020. The study showed that in the 16-month age cohort, children obtaining measles vaccine coverage declined from 76.1% in May 2019 to 70.9% in May 2020. An analysis by Scientific American showed only 44.7% of the number of vaccines administered in March 2019 were administered in March 2020 in the state of Texas. Methods: The Quality Improvement sector of the Health Technology department at the UT Health Science Center approved the project and collected data across UT Health primary pediatric care clinics in Harris County. The data points included all the pediatric appointments of patients who were eligible for the MMR 1 and 2 vaccines in 2019 and 2020. The data displayed which eligible patients for the MMR 1 and 2 vaccines received the vaccine at their appointment. The data was analyzed for overall trends of Harris County, and then subdivided by patient racial groups. Results: From 2019 to 2020, the MMR1 vaccination rate decreased from 52.15% to 43.55%, and the MMR2 vaccination rate decreased from 55.70% to 45.57%. Combining years 2019 and 2020, the percentage of eligible patients who did not receive the MMR1 vaccine consisted of 28.04% Caucasian, 22.05% African American, 17.11% Hispanic, Latino, or Latin American, 1.34% Asian or Pacific Islander, and 31.46% Other. The percentage of eligible patients in 2019 and 2020 who did not receive the MMR2 vaccine consisted of 28.05% Caucasian, 16.25% African American, 21.76% Hispanic, Latino, or Latin American, 1.75% Asian or Pacific Islander, and 32.18% Other. The demographic labeled “other” consisted of not answered and not specified patients. Conclusion: Overall, there was a clear decline in the rate of MMR vaccinations to eligible patients from 2019 to 2020. This indicates that the COVID-19 pandemic is potentially playing an even greater role in public health than previously thought due to increasing the possibility of a measles epidemic occurring in Harris County. Stratifying the data by race demonstrated which demographics were more prone to vaccination gaps. Patients who selected not answered/not specified and Caucasian patients were the most likely to experience a gap in vaccine administration leading to an increased chance of measles outbreaks in these groups of patients. This is valuable knowledge for providers to be aware of which groups are more predisposed to vaccine gaps, so the healthcare team can help close the gap through a targeted approach of care.

14.
SciDev.net ; 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1998623

ABSTRACT

Kevin Cain, CDC’s global immunisation director, said the combination of vaccine gaps, measles outbreaks, and declines in detection and diagnostics, increases the likelihood of measles-related deaths and serious complications in children. “Countries and global health partners must prioritise finding and vaccinating children against measles to reduce the risk of explosive outbreaks and preventable deaths from this disease,” he urged. Peter Ofware, Kenya country director at health and human rights organisation HealthRight International, said countries in Sub-Saharan Africa which are disproportionately affected by the disease must adopt a multi-sectoral approach to get vaccination campaigns back on track.

15.
J Biol Chem ; 298(8): 102250, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991134

ABSTRACT

Rubella, a viral disease characterized by a red skin rash, is well controlled because of an effective vaccine, but outbreaks are still occurring in the absence of available antiviral treatments. The Rubella virus (RUBV) papain-like protease (RubPro) is crucial for RUBV replication, cleaving the nonstructural polyprotein p200 into two multifunctional proteins, p150 and p90. This protease could represent a potential drug target, but structural and mechanistic details important for the inhibition of this enzyme are unclear. Here, we report a novel crystal structure of RubPro at a resolution of 1.64 Å. The RubPro adopts a unique papain-like protease fold, with a similar catalytic core to that of proteases from Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and foot-and-mouth disease virus while having a distinctive N-terminal fingers domain. RubPro has well-conserved sequence motifs that are also found in its newly discovered Rubivirus relatives. In addition, we show that the RubPro construct has protease activity in trans against a construct of RUBV protease-helicase and fluorogenic peptides. A protease-helicase construct, exogenously expressed in Escherichia coli, was also cleaved at the p150-p90 cleavage junction, demonstrating protease activity of the protease-helicase protein. We also demonstrate that RubPro possesses deubiquitylation activity, suggesting a potential role of RubPro in modulating the host's innate immune responses. We anticipate that these structural and functional insights of RubPro will advance our current understanding of its function and help facilitate more structure-based research into the RUBV replication machinery, in hopes of developing antiviral therapeutics against RUBV.


Subject(s)
Peptide Hydrolases , Rubella virus , Amino Acid Motifs , Papain/chemistry , Peptide Hydrolases/chemistry , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Protein Folding , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Rubella virus/chemistry , Rubella virus/enzymology
17.
Galician Medical Journal ; 28(3):3, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1979835

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus, which is causing the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic and has crippled the entire world, was discovered by June Dalziel Almeida - a school dropout from Scotland who had no formal medical education. She had to master the knowhow of immune electron microscopy to climb up the academic ladder and she finally discovered the coronavirus only to see her research paper getting rejected by reputed journals. A single mother is now associated with the coronavirus, as well as with a significant contribution to the classification of viruses, viral imaging and bringing Rubella virus, Hepatitis B virus and Human immunodeficiency virus into the limelight.

18.
Value in Health ; 25(7):S452-S453, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1926723

ABSTRACT

Objective: Colombia has an expanded program of immunization of >22 biologics mainly for younger than 6 years old. We aimed to estimate vaccination coverage in children under 6 years old in San Jacinto (Bolivar), in a post-conflict and COVID-19 pandemic scenario. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey from October to November of 2021, in a Caribbean municipality of Colombia (24,910 population) mostly affected by the armed conflict. A two-stage cluster sampling was used with a precision of 5.5% and a design effect of 2, considering a non-response rate of 20%. We collected data on immunization record cards and other basic sociodemographic information from surveys of caregivers of children. Absolute and timely-vaccine coverages adjusted by age were estimated. Data analysis was performed in Stata 13. Results: Out of 187 surveyed children, 159 (85.3%) had vaccination card. BCG (tuberculosis) vaccine had the greater coverage (99,3%), followed by Hb, pentavalent, and polio (>98%). All biologics showed absolute coverages greater than 90%, except for yellow fever (82.6%) and 5-year boosters (70% for MMR [measles, mumps, rubella] booster and 73% for polio and DPT booster). Age-appropriate timely vaccination coverages were lower than absolutes for all biologics. BCG and hepatitis B had coverages of 97% and initial doses of pentavalent, pneumococcal, polio, MMR, and first and second doses of rotavirus reported coverages greater than 91%. Second and third or booster dosages of pentavalent, polio, pneumococcal and booster of DPT, polio, and MMR had coverages between 70-80%. Lowest timely vaccination coverage were yellow fever (2.3%) and influenza (42.8% for first and 26.5% for second dosage). Conclusion: Although most vaccination coverages were greater than 90%, probably the mobility restrictions due to the pandemic severely impacted the timing of vaccination. Other plausible reasons are the timely flow of vaccines (opportunity in administration and vaccine shortages).

19.
Vox Sanguinis ; 117(SUPPL 1):264, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1916367

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 associated COVID-19 was declared as pandemic in March'20.It led to accelerated scientific development leading to production of several vaccines.In India,first vaccine used was ChAdOx1 nCoV-19.Reports of pro-thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications with it are there but isolated immune thrombocytopenia is rare.We are reporting secondary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) possibly attributed to COVID-19 vaccine. Aims: A 21-years female came to General Medicine with complaints of weakness,rashes all over body,bleeding from gums, menorrhagia and reddish discoloration of urine.She had history of COVID-19 vaccination 2 days back.On examination, she was mildly febrile, showed multiple pin-point petechial haemorrhages over face,abdomen,both limbs and sub-conjunctival haemorrhage with no complaints of headache/visual disturbances/pain abdomen/respiratory distress.Systemic examination showed no significant findings.She had no previous history of bleeding/drug intake/no family history of bleeding or any other significant conditions. Methods: Lab investigations showed Hb:8.6gm%,TLC:14,400/cmm, platelet counts:10,000/cmm.Peripheral blood smear showed normocytic normochromic RBC with leucocytosis and marked thrombocytopenia with absent hemoparasites.Urine examination showed numerous RBCs with no pus cells.S. electrolytes were normal, SGOT/ SGPT were mildly increased, total proteins were normal.S. bilirubin,urea,creatinine were normal.HIV,HCV,HBsAg,CMV IgM were negative.To rule out connective tissue disorders,ANA and dsDNA were performed which came negative.Her USG abdomen and CTchest were normal.COVID-19 RT-PCR was negative.ITP secondary to COVID-19 vaccination was suspected. Results: She was started with i.v. methylprednisolone pulse therapy for 3 days and IVIG for 2 days and also received trenexamic acid for menorrhagia.She received 6 units of random donor platelets which improved platelet count.After haematology consultation,oral prednisolone for 7 days with alternate day platelet count monitoring was started.She improved symptomatically with no new bleeding.She was discharged after 10 days with an advice to follow up. Summary/Conclusions: ITP is autoimmune disorder with autoantibodies against platelets,more common in females.It is usually idiopathic,but occasionally secondary to viral infections/vaccinations. Incidence of vaccine associated ITP is <1%.Previously reported with various vaccines like influenza,measles,mumps,rubella,etc.Vaccine induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) with COVID-19 vaccine has been well documented,but ITP is rare.VITT is usually characterized by major thrombotic episodes at unusual locations like sagittal sinus,splanchnic circulation,etc. with visual, neurological and abdominal features.No such findings seen in our case.Although she had low platelet count,yet mild symptoms which improved with conservative management with steroid and IVIG.Although we could not establish a temporal link;yet based on findings,ITP secondary to COVID-19 vaccine could not be ruled out.It is important to be aware of this complication as although rare,it could lead to significant morbidity and fatal bleed if not managed promptly. Steroids and IVIG is highly effective in ITP irrespective of cause.However,more investigations need to be done to establish a temporal relationship with COVID-19 vaccine. Nevertheless,occurrence of ITP should not be a deterrent in vaccination,though caution should be exerted in history of thrombocytopenia.

20.
Vaccine X ; 11: 100172, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914747

ABSTRACT

Healthcare personnel (HCP) are at occupational risk for acquisition of several vaccine-preventable diseases and transmission to patients. Vaccinations of HCP are justified to confer them immunity but also to protect susceptible patients and healthcare services from outbreaks, HCP absenteeism and presenteeism. Mandatory vaccination policies for HCP are increasingly adopted and achieve high and sustainable vaccination rates in short term. In this article we review the scientific evidence for HCP vaccination. We also address issues pertaining to vaccination policies for HCP and present the challenges of implementation of mandatory versus voluntary vaccination policies. Finally, we discuss the issue of mandatory vaccination of HCP against COVID-19.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL