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1.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(9): 1417-1423, 2022 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066671

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) during the COVID-19 pandemic has been affected to varying degrees. This study is the first to explore the impact of COVID-19 on the treatment and prognosis of rural and urban AMI in developing countries. METHODOLOGY: A total of 128 patients with AMI in our hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic were enrolled. A total of 197 patients diagnosed with AMI before the COVID-19 pandemic were selected as the control group and one year of follow-up was performed. RESULTS: Hospital stay and the proportion of Killip class ≥ 2 patients were increased among rural AMI patients in the 'during COVID-19' group, compared with the 'before COVID-19' group. Among ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) total and rural STEMI patients, the treatment time in the during-COVID-19 group was longer than that in the before-COVID-19 group, whereas only the symptom to door (S to D) total and door to balloon (D to B) were extended in urban STEMI patients. In AMI total and rural AMI patients, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and all-cause mortality were increased in the during-COVID-19 group compared with the before-COVID-19 group. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the survival and occurrence of MACEs in AMI total and rural AMI patients were significantly higher in the during-COVID-19 group. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic led to delayed treatment and worse prognosis in AMI patients. Rural areas appear to be at a greater risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pandemics , Prognosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Time Factors
2.
Iconos ; 26(3):95-115, 2022.
Article in Spanish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2067396

ABSTRACT

En este artículo se analiza la implicación de las madres, los padres y representantes legales en el aprendizaje activo de niños y niñas que cursan grados de primaria y secundaria en un escenario particular: la enseñanza en línea durante la pandemia por la covid-19 en Ecuador. Para ello, se aplicó un cuestionario de 45 preguntas a una muestra de 6206 personas segmentadas según su zona geográfica. En el área rural, el grado de involucramiento en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje virtual se refleja, particularmente, al establecer el horario de sueño y en la aceptación por parte de los y las estudiantes de las críticas sobre las actividades realizadas. Para la zona urbana, se evidencia el manejo del enojo de los niños y las niñas, y el reconocimiento de sus fortalezas en las asignaturas. En cuanto a las estrategias, en el área rural aumenta la presión de progenitoras/es sobre educandos y educandas a fin de que realicen las actividades escolares, en tanto que, en la urbana, dialogan más con sus hijos e hijas cuando pierden el control, prestando más atención a sus emociones y necesidades. Así, la diferenciación se condensa en la siguiente expresión: en las zonas rurales, las madres, los padres y representantes se enfocan en la disciplina, mientras que en las urbanas se orientan hacia el espectro académico y emocional.Alternate :This article analyzes the involvement of mothers, fathers, and legal guardians in the active learning of children in primary and secondary schools in a particular scenario: online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic in Ecuador. For this purpose, a 45-question survey was applied to a sample of 6,206 people, segmented according to their geographic areas. In the rural area, the degree of involvement in virtual teaching-learning processes is reflected, in particular, in the establishment of sleep schedules and the acknowledgement by student of criticisms of their activities. For the urban area, children's anger management and the recognition of their strengths in subject matters are evident. In terms of strategies, in rural areas, parents put more pressure on students to carry out school activities, whereas in urban areas, parents talk more with their children when they lose control, paying more attention to their emotions and needs. Thus, the differentiation is summarized in the following expression: in rural areas, mothers, fathers, and guardians focus on discipline, while in urban areas they are oriented towards the academic and emotional spectrum.

3.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12949, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066486

ABSTRACT

Pujon Kidul Village, Pujon District, Malang Regency, is an area with tourism potential that has been developed since 2017 with the concept of agricultural tourism. Throughout the development of tourism villages, Pujon Kidul Village has succeeded in accelerating economic growth and providing jobs for the community. However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, tourism villages have been severely affected, leading to the temporary closure of tourist attractions and community businesses. This research aimed to identify what indicators form social capital variables and the relationship between social capital variables and community adaptation patterns in dealing with pandemics in the study location. This was quantitative research with confirmatory factor analysis to determine the indicators of forming social capital and structural equation modeling analysis to determine the relationship between the variables. Based on the findings, it is known that trust in forming a social network is 0.468. Furthermore, the social network forms community actions of 0.046 and influences community resilience by 0.007. Therefore, good social capital will make it easier for the community to participate in collective action as a form of caring for each other during the pandemic. This action also influences the community to survive in a pandemic crisis, thus creating an adaptation pattern for the Pujon Kidul Tourism Village community in facing a pandemic.

4.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12466, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066416

ABSTRACT

Poverty in rural areas remains rife and high despite the rapid societal developments and technological advancements the world is riding on, brought about by the advent of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Most communities and individuals in many rural areas of the world often face near zero to limited access to basic services such as access to energy and healthcare. The study’s objective is to develop linkages between smart rural health indicators and smart rural energy indicators. This is achieved by using a six-stage method developed over a two year period. The method uses sustainable development goals as a point of departure;however, in this study, the focus is on healthcare and energy access. The following indicators has been derived: the number of patients in a village monitored remotely, the number of persons having access to a mobile health clinic powered by a renewable energy source, the number of network routers powered by renewable energy to enable drone usage in a village, and the accessibility of a patient’s database by the village surgeon remotely due to reliable and accessible servers powered by a mixture of sustainable and renewable energy. The paper concludes that a sustainable, renewable energy mix acts as the enabling link that renders healthcare services in rural villages accessible to all.

5.
Sustainability ; 14(19):11938, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066378

ABSTRACT

With the diversification of tourist demand for a destinations’ supply, rural tourism destinations are facing an increasingly fierce competition environment. Creating brand value and improving tourists’ willingness to revisit has become an inevitable strategic choice for rural tourism destinations. In this study, we proposed a framework of “tourism motivation-destination image-satisfaction-willingness to revisit” to investigate rural tourism. We investigated from the aspects of learning and entertainment motivation, novelty-seeking motivation, natural environment, cultural environment, social environment, infrastructure, and tourist satisfaction. To analyze data, a questionnaire survey was administered to 545 tourists using structural equation modeling (SEM) technology. The findings indicated that learning and entertainment motivation, natural environment, social environment, and tourist satisfaction had a direct and positive effect on tourists’ willingness to revisit. In addition, tourist satisfaction played an intermediary role between tourists’ tourism motivation and destination terrain image and their propensity to return. On this basis, some suggestions and illuminations are put forward to increase tourists’ willingness to revisit.

6.
Energies ; 15(19):7374, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2065784

ABSTRACT

With rising electricity demand, heavy reliance on imports, and recent economic downturns due to the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, supply chain bottlenecks, and the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Thailand is suffering severely from energy resilience risks. The government has therefore set a goal of decentralizing energy production through small-scale distributed renewable energy systems. To support their design and the planning process, we simulate multiple scenarios with wind turbines, photovoltaic systems, and battery storage for a model community in rural Nakhon Phanom, Thailand. Using the software NESSI4D, we evaluate and discuss their impact on energy resilience by considering environmental sustainability, economic attractiveness, and independence from the central power grid. To fill the gap of missing data on energy demand, we synthesize high-resolution load profiles from the Thailand Vietnam Socio-Economic Panel. We conclude that distributed photovoltaic systems with additional battery storage are only suitable to promote energy resilience if the government provides appropriate financial incentives. Considering temporal variations and local conditions, as well as a participatory decision-making process, are crucial for the long-term success of energy projects. Our advice to decision-makers is to design policies and regulatory support that are aligned with the preferences and needs of target communities.

7.
i-Manager's Journal on Management ; 16(3):29-36, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2056929

ABSTRACT

Cashless transactions are common in business sectors and in cities to a large extent. But after the announcement of the demonetization of all Rs. 500 and Rs. 1,000 banknotes on November 8, 2016 by the Government of India, all the sectors to the maximum extent adopted cashless transactions. SHGs too have adopted this culture by installing mobile apps on their smart phones. During 2015-16, NABARD, through its project Eshakti digitisation of SHGs, has made an attempt to update the SHG bookkeeping on a real time basis to bring transparency and credibility. The project EShakti had the advantage of addressing the problem of book keeping through available technology, knowing the credit history of SHG members, generating grades for SHGs based on their financial and non-financial records and making them available to all important stakeholders. The stakeholders, namely bankers can now take informed decisions on extending credit linkages on the basis of reports generated through EShakti. In this paper, an attempt is made to study the adoption of cashless transactions in SHGs in the Konaseema region.

8.
Journal of Medical & Allied Sciences ; 11(2):130-136, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2056053

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 outbreak has been declared pandemic by World Health Organization (WHO). This study was planned to know the current COVID-19 situation in district and to know the impact of data driven preventive strategy to curtail the cases (Between 3rd August and 2nd September 2020). This is a cross sectional study done in tribal district of Gujarat. Total registered patients upto 2nd September 2020 were included in the study. Out of total 1189 patients, 34.4% were female. Recovery rate on 3rd August 2020 was 44.8% which is increased to 82.09% on 2nd September 2020. Positivity rate declined from 5.2% to 2.3% despite increase in test per million from 5042 to 51606 between 3rd August and 2nd September 2020. This decrease in test positivity rate attributed to preventive strategy followed by district. Over a period of one month (3rd August to 2nd September) district observed gradual decrease in Compound daily growth rate (CDGR) and increase in doubling time. Over a period of time, downward trend in cases detection and increase in recovery rate observed due to preventive strategies followed by district. To curtail the COVID-19 it is required to keep constant watch on spread, as few cases leftundiagnosed can make big spike in district.

9.
Journal of Medical & Allied Sciences ; 11(2):125-129, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2056052

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by World Health Organization (WHO) three months after the first case of Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) was reported in Wuhan, China in late December 2019. India recorded its first COVID-19 case on 30th January 2020. As on 30th September 2020, a total of 63,01,156 COVID-19 cases and 98,585 deaths have been reported in the country. An observational study was carried out among all COVID-19 positive cases admitted in Dedicated COVID Hospital Government Medical College Aurangabad, Maharashtra during the period between 1st April to 30th September with the aim to study demographic distribution, clinical manifestation and co morbid status of COVID-19 positive patients. Out of total 6,564 COVID suspect patients admitted in DCH within the study period a total of 2,986 tested positive for COVID-19. Out of these 2,986 patients 1,812 (60.68%) were discharged according to the ICMR guidelines while 724 (24.25%) cases died due to COVID-19. There were still 379 (12.69%) of active cases in the hospital. Among the admitted patients the largest stratum of 1,156 (38.71%) was contributed by patients belonging to the age group of 41-60 years while only 68 (2.28%) patients were in the age group of above 80 years of age. On admission the most frequent clinical profile was characterized by breathlessness (37%) and fever (35%). While 7.82% of the patients were asymptomatic. Among the patients, hypertension (n=679) was the most prevalent co-morbidity followed by diabetes (n=573) and ischemic heart disease (n=166).

10.
8th International Conference on E-Business and Mobile Commerce, ICEMC 2022 ; : 125-131, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2053355

ABSTRACT

As an important pillar of the real economy, small-micro enterprises are facing many difficulties in operation under the dual impact of the global economic downturn and the COVID-19 epidemic. And they are in urgent need of external financing to tide over the difficulties. The purpose of rural commercial bank is to serve small and medium-sized enterprises and agriculture, rural areas and farmers. Therefore, the financing of rural commercial bank is crucial for the development of small-micro enterprises. However, due to unstable development mode, imperfect management mechanism and other reasons, small-micro enterprises usually have high credit risk, which brings great challenges to the loan risk control of rural commercial bank. Effective evaluation of credit risk of small-micro enterprises is the basis of rural commercial bank's loan decision-making and an important issue concerned by theory and practice. This paper studies the credit risk evaluation model of rural commercial bank for small-micro enterprises. Firstly, a set of credit risk evaluation indicator system combining financial and behavioral indicators is constructed, which expands the disadvantages of traditional research that only considers financial indicators is too one-sided. Secondly, XGBoost model is used to screen indicators and build a credit risk evaluation model of small-micro enterprises based on improved random forest. Finally, the effectiveness of the model is verified by comparing with other traditional models, and the experiment proves that the introduction of behavioral indicators can significantly improve the effectiveness of the model. © 2022 ACM.

11.
International Journal of Social Economics ; 49(12):1713-1726, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2051866

ABSTRACT

Purpose>This study explores the relationship between financial literacy and quality of life (QoL). The study further examines the mediating effect of fintech adoption and the moderating effect of leisure on the relationship between financial literacy and QoL.Design/methodology/approach>Using convenience sampling, 345 respondents participated in a cross-sectional survey. To test the moderated mediation hypotheses, the PROCESS macro was used.Findings>The results reveal the mediating effect of fintech adoption on the relationship between financial literacy and QoL, highlighting the importance of digital literacy in an increasingly digitalized society. Moreover, leisure moderates the mediating relationship. Individuals with high leisure are more likely to perceive the uncertainties and risks associated with new technology optimistically – an observation supported by existing literature on the relationships among leisure, perceived freedom, and internal locus of control.Practical implications>Financial literacy must incorporate digital literacy in order to utilize innovative technology for more efficient financial management. Additionally, having a sense of control over life outcomes can lead to well-being.Originality/value>Previous research on fintech adoption is mostly related to financial inclusion for the unbanked population in underprivileged rural areas. Here, fintech usage by the general public is the focus. The study also reveals the significance of leisure, as those who have high financial literacy are more likely to adopt fintech when they have more freedom in their lives, which leads to higher QoL.Peer review>The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-10-2021-0633.

12.
International Journal of Social Economics ; 49(12):1697-1712, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2051865

ABSTRACT

Purpose>This paper aims at analyzing the determinants of access to relief under social assistance programs among rural households during COVID-19 outbreaks in India.Design/methodology/approach>The study is based on the data of COVID-19-Related Shocks Survey, which covered 5,200 rural households across 6 states of India namely Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh. The access to relief has been assessed as relief-in kind (RIK) as a free special package of wheat, rice, and pulses, supplied through the public distribution system;and direct benefit transfer (DBT) in cash under the Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN) Yojana and the Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana (PMJDY). The association between demographic profiles of rural households and access to relief has been analyzed using the chi-square test. Further, marginal effects have been estimated to assess the determinants of rural households' access to relief.Findings>The results show a significant association between types of relief vis-à-vis demographic profiles of the rural households. A significant difference in access to relief among rural households is also evident across the states. Further, the analysis of the marginal effects indicates that female-headed households belonging to lower social class, depending on non-agricultural occupation with lower income, belonging to below poverty line families and seeking wage employment, are more likely to access relief as food grains;whereas male respondents with lower age, belonging to lower-income quartile with memberships in Self Help Groups are more likely to access the cash benefit transfers.Practical implications>The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the food security and livelihood of many across the globe, which necessitated provisioning a package of support to everyone, particularly rural poor households. The World Bank undertook the COVID-19-Related Shocks Survey to provide a quick policy response for managing the risk of COVID-19 outbreak effectively. The results of this study provide timely insights for developing an effective relief strategy for rural households during a crisis.Originality/value>There is limited investigation on access to relief by rural households during the COVID-19 outbreaks and factors affecting the access to relief in terms of cash and kind. This study has utilized a reliable data source to analyze the access of relief packages by the rural communities during the coronavirus outbreak.Peer review>The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-10-2021-0632.

13.
Gender and Development ; 30(1/2):217-246, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2050957

ABSTRACT

India's National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA), in the last 15 years, has evolved as the world's largest employer of the last resort. This social protection, specifically designed as a demand-driven automatic employment stabiliser to enable households to cope with livelihood shocks, offers 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to all rural households. The budget for this unique legislative entitlement in a developing country was nearly doubled from US$8 billion in 2019-20 to $15 billion in 2020-21 to partially offset the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns. After the first pandemic wave, NREGA provided employment to 76 million households - more than a third of all rural Indian families. Even though women have consistently worked more than half the NREGA person-days annually, in the midst of the pandemic women's share of employment declined by 2 per cent in 2020-21. However, this may have been a temporary decrease due to the unprecedented mass reverse exodus of urban migrants to their rural villages. Still, state-level analysis in this research highlights the persistent under-utilisation of NREGA by women in the poorer states of the Indo-Gangetic plain. On the other hand, the southern states have higher participation of women due to a combination of factors including better human development outcomes, higher wages, and sometimes better child-care facilities at worksites, which are necessary nationwide remedies. In particular, in the state of Kerala the novel integration of the government-initiated Kudumbashree community self-help women's groups with NREGA has led to the feminisation of the programme. This convergence provides important insights on the significance of women's participation in the decentralised management of NREGA to dilute both gender-intensive and gender-exclusive barriers, which could be fruitfully replicated nationwide.

14.
American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research (Online) ; 29(2):126-154, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2047019

ABSTRACT

This paper presents how a community mobilization program to prevent suicide was adapted to an online format to accommodate the impossibility of in-person delivery in Alaska Native communities during the COVID-19 pandemic. The intervention, Promoting Community Conversations About Research to End Suicide (PC CARES), was created collaboratively by researchers and Alaska Native communities with the goal of bringing community members together to create research-informed and community-led suicide prevention activities in their communities. To continue our work during the COVID-19 pandemic and restrictions, we adapted the PC CARES model to a synchronous remote delivery format. This shift included moving from predominantly Alaska Native participants to one of a mainly non-Native school staff audience. This required a pivot from Alaska Native self-determination toward cultural humility and community collaboration for school-based staff, with multilevel youth suicide prevention remaining the primary aim. This reorientation can offer important insight into how to build more responsive programs for those who are not from the communities they serve. Here, we provide a narrative overview of our collaborative adaptation process, illustrated by data collected during synchronous remote facilitation of the program, and reflect on how the shift in format and audience impacted program delivery and content. The adaptation process strove to maintain the core animating features of self-determination for Alaska Native communities and people as well as the translation of scientific knowledge to practice for greater impact.

15.
Academy of Marketing Studies Journal ; 26(S2), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2046913

ABSTRACT

The sustainable economy is an era of women as entrepreneurs perceiving, organizing resources, novel opportunities, and undertaking risks to achieve their goals in developing new innovative ventures for measuring new horizons in the time of pandemic when the whole world was facing a huge problem of covid 19. India was one of the most affected countries in that time migrant people were returned to the country and become jobless in that situation, women especially rural and semi-urban tribal emerged as e new entrepreneurs in every sector especially in micro-entrepreneurs slowly because due to pandemic demand and supply was slowed down but handmade mask moon craft bamboo craft wooden work. There is potency in women entrepreneurs to confront numerous challenges, such as ensuring sustainability, equilibrium, creating equity, and diverging economies in inclusive socio-economic development, tremendous seizing by business opportunities in this commercial world. One district one product (ODOP) when started in 2018 in Uttar Pradesh incited by Japan government in 1979 and it became so famous in Uttar Pradesh to boost economy and artisan of 75 districts of up women artisan increase and transformed in entrepreneurship Uttar Pradesh and northeast of India before pandemic were experiencing an economic renovation through transformation technology but pandemic has slowdown their speed but after then it again increasing by the national slogan of vocal for local through atmanirbhar Baharat Abhiyan through the growth of women-oriented handicraft industries like moon craft, bamboo craft (MSMEs). The study aims to;identify the entrepreneurial performance, growth trends of women’s entrepreneurship in the micro-enterprises(handicraft) in India after post-pandemic and its impact on women;examine entrepreneurial activities of women’s significantly vary across the form of women-led enterprises, type of organization, and activity nature and type of organization;challenges faced by women entrepreneur and explore the prospect through micro-entrepreneurial activities. It involves the application of descriptive quantitative analysis of Research methodology both from primary and secondary data collected from an online survey and different databases obtained from the government, NGO self-help group.

16.
Academy of Marketing Studies Journal ; 26(S2), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2046737

ABSTRACT

The devastating social, economic and mental disruption caused due to pandemic has forced the decisionmakers to rewrite the script and opens up a way for transformative resilience, green and more digitally enabled strategies and recovery leading to a next wave of economic prosperity. Prior to the pandemic, many recognized the need for a new economic model that is less environmentally damaging, not much dependent on the globalized linear supply chain, cheap raw material and is less wasteful. Post pandemic crisis calls for a need to transition to a new thinking, resilience, and sustainable and circular way of doing business in alignment with other global challenges. In this reference, this study provides an insight into what resilient circular economy strategies looks like post Covid-19. Also, the study highlights the Challenges and opportunities created by resilient circular economy (CE) towards a sustainable business model. For this purpose, a semi- structured interviews are conducted with 23 executives across industries on resilience and CE. The study concludes that the transition from old linear model to a new closed loop model is not as easy as it looks like, it requires a thoughtful collaboration, creating synergies between the systems, participation, resilience mindset (which involves rethinking, redefining, and reinventing our priorities, resources, skills), political momentum, connectivity, diversity and most importantly systems thinking. Study is conceptual and qualitative in nature. Analysis of interviews together with the literature forms the basis of the research study. The study suggest that the circular economy must embed a strong sociological basis to manage both slow social variables such as company culture, employee’s mindset, human capital, worker habit and feedbacks.

17.
Human Organization ; 81(3):229-239, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2046146

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic posed challenges to a community-based participatory research (CBPR) project for rural-dwelling adults with cancer in eastern North Carolina. This project trained Latino community leaders as palliative care lay advisors (PCLAs) to deliver information on cancer symptom management and advance care planning (ACP). Pandemic impacts were assessed using data from team meetings and fieldnotes, journal memos, online booster sessions, participant encounter forms and digital correspondence. Three key results were: 1) the disproportionate effects of COVID -19 on PCLAs and their communities;2) the need for a major study redesign that extended the recruitment region and changed the mode of intervention delivery;and 3) the adoption of new channels of communication. Online discussions and in-person meetings with PCLAs sustained engagement, resulting in a two-year, 73 percent retention rate, and addressed community concerns about COVID-19. Applied outcomes included the selection by the regional cancer center of a 2022 goal to improve cultural care for Latinos and the empowerment of PCLAs as community advocates. The challenges created by COVID-19 were met by the study team's ongoing commitment to CBPR principles, flexible adaptations to a changing environment, and strong relationships forged with community members and advocacy groups.

18.
Academy of Marketing Studies Journal ; 26(S4), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2045833

ABSTRACT

The aim of advertising is to encourage consumers to buy or use what the company is offering. AIDA theory of advertising describes the effect of advertising media. According to AIDA model, a potential consumer goes through 4 phases when deciding whether to buy a product and these correlate to the 4 phases of the AIDA model. AIDA theory of advertising describes the effect of advertising media. The acronym AIDA stands for Attention/Awareness, Interest, Desire and action. The effectiveness of any advertising campaign can be easily judged through the four stages of AIDA theory. In the first phase, the attention of consumers is captured. Once the consumer is aware that the product or service exists, the business should work on increasing the potential’s customer’s interest level. In the third phase, an emotional connection is established moving consumer’s mindset from “I like it” to “I want it”. In the last stage, the focus is on achieving ultimate goal which is to drive the receiver of the marketing campaign to initiate action and purchase the product or service. India accounts for about 90% of the population in South Asia and 59% of the 1.3 billion people still defecate in open, making it the single largest contributor to open defecation in the world. India loses atleast 1000 children a day to diarrhoeal deaths due to open defecation and lack of proper sanitation facilities. Due to the increment of awareness of environmental issues, health issues and also economic issues, Swachh Bharat campaign has been established. On launching Swachh Bharat Abhiya, PM Narendra Modi had said “the pursuit of cleanliness can be an economic activity contributing to GDP growth, reduction in health care costs and a source of employment. Mahatma Gandhi wished to see a "Clean India" where people work hand in hand to make the country clean. To work seriously towards this vision of Gandhi Ji, Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi launched the Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan on October 2, 2014 and asked people from all walks of life to help in successful implementation of this mission. He invited all the Indians to devote 100 hours to clean their surroundings. In order to bring out behaviour change, extensive awareness generation initiatives would need to be undertaken with regards to the negative healthcare issues related to open defecation. The campaign has been described as "beyond politics" and "inspired by patriotism". Post COVID the need for social distancing and personal hygiene is going to bring about several structural changes right from how people stand in a queue or get a haircut to flying or watching movies. The new institutional practices are likely to remain in place for a longer period of time, with some becoming a permanent feature of public life. The present paper seeks to study the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (SBA) through the lens of AIDA model. The study investigates the perception of people towards SBA through behavioural antecedents viz. attitude towards SBA, role of social media & subjective norms. This study is carried out to explore consumers’ demographic variables and their significant influence on the 4 variables of AIDA theory. Research Methodology: This quantitative study employed the exploratory research design. Data was collected from 335 respondents from all over India which covered North region, South-East, South-West, East, West, North-East, North-West and central region with the help of a structured questionnaire and focus groups. Percentage analyses, one way ANOVA and multiple regression are the statistical tools adopted for testing the hypotheses using SPSS. Findings and Implications: The statistically significant results revealed that category influences interest, desire & action of individuals. Education also positively impacts desire & action of individuals. Service class people were found to show more interest in SBA. Females were found to show more desire and action towards SBA activities. Single respondents show more desire in SBA. Religion was also found to affect SBA activities. People from Eastern egion are more attentive to SBA activities while people from South West region were found to show interest in SBA activities. North West people have desire to actively participate in SBA while respondents from South East are the most action-oriented people as far as SBA activities are concerned.

19.
The Rural Educator ; 43(3):67-69, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2044884

ABSTRACT

Lines of inquiry include: * Models for supporting rural student, family, teacher, and leader mental health * Models for supporting access to specialized staff - both those that serve diverse student populations as well as those who are the sole provider of health and wellness services in their district (e.g. bilingual staff, school psychologists, counselors, and/or nurses) * Identifying interrelationships between community health and environmental health * Factors mediating access to diagnosis and early intervention supports for young children * The long-term effects of COVID-19 * Identifying access and equity issues related to chemical dependence and substance use recovery PARTNERSHIPS AND COMMUNITY RELATIONSHIPS This category identifies the richness and strengths found in rural educational partnerships while also recognizing the tensions that sometimes complicate community relationships. Lines of inquiry include: * Identification of transferable partnership qualities * Interdisciplinary teams working with multi-sited partnerships or networks * Bi-directional partnership establishment with mutual benefit * Conditions for access to diverse partnership opportunities * Understanding partnership power dynamics * The ways that public and political discourse on contentious topics shape relationships between communities and school/district leaders TEACHER AND LEADER PREPARATION, RECRUITMENT, AND RETENTION Workforce is a pressing issue for rural schools. Lines of inquiry include: * Defining the scope and impact of rural teacher/leader shortages across content areas and contexts, such as the disproportionate impact of teacher/leader shortages on certain subgroups of students and families (i.e. disabled and linguistically diverse learners) * Identifying approaches to addressing rural teacher/leader recruitment and retention * Promising models for contextually relevant rural teacher and leader preparation * Centering equity and justice in rural teacher and leader professional development and pre-service preparation * Approaches to recruiting and retaining more racially and linguistically diverse teachers and leaders to the rural education workforce COLLEGE AND CAREER TRAJECTORY This category recognizes the need for research on both college and career pathways for rural students, including expectations and aspirations, access to information and academic offerings, and transition to post-secondary pathways.

20.
J Migr Health ; 6: 100137, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041957

ABSTRACT

Access to birth registration among the refugees, migrants, and undocumented or stateless individuals in Sabah and Peninsular Malaysia remains hindered largely due to their lack of legal status. This study identifies the barriers to birth registration faced by these communities, including during the COVID-19 pandemic, and explores the extent to which digital technologies may overcome or amplify these barriers. Findings are reported from a review of literature, websites, and media articles and semi-structured interviews with community-based organisations and community leaders representing the communities. The themes for the questions were structured based on Plan International's (2015) Step-by-step Guide for Identifying and Addressing the Risks to Children in Digitised birth registration systems. We identified that the digitalisation of birth registration poses more risks of exclusion than benefits to the marginalised communities without a secure and inclusive operating environment. Subject to an inequality assessment to evaluate and address the existing inequalities, a hybrid system that factors in the role of citizen facilitation hubs would be ideal for ensuring no one gets "left behind".

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