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1.
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care ; 11(5):2045-2050, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1875941

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has toppled the world since first case noted in 2019, and the cases have been increasing there after. This grave effect is caused by the cytokine storm induced inflammation produced by the noxious virus. As it is an inflammatory state, various acute phase reactants are expected to raise;thus serum ferritin is contemplated to increase. Here we aim to anchor serum ferritin as a way marker for diagnosis and management of COVID-19 patients and study its role as a prognostic marker. Another aspect is the association of COVID-19 with the N: L ratio;observation has stated that higher N: L ratio results in more severe outcome. The study aimed to establish a correlation of COVID-19 severity with serum ferritin in the form of HRCT Score, N: L Ratio and Clinical Outcome in the patients admitted in Intensive Care Unit. Result: Out of 200 patients who were admitted in the intensive care unit with COVID-19, the association of serum ferritin with N: L Ratio and HRCT Score was significant, and the association of serum ferritin with clinical outcome in terms of discharged and expired was found to be statistically significant.

2.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 35(3): 475-484, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875339

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The use of telemedicine increased during the global Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Rural populations often struggle with adequate access to care while simultaneously experiencing multiple health disparities. Yet, telemedicine use during the COVID-19 pandemic has been understudied on its effect on visit completion in rural populations. The primary purpose of this study is to understand how telemedicine delivery of family medicine care affects patient access and visit completion rates in a rural primary care setting. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study on primary care patient visits at an academic family medicine clinic that serves a largely rural population. We gathered patient demographic and visit type and completion data on all patients seen in the West Virginia University Department of Family Medicine between January 2019 and November 2020. RESULTS: The final sample included 110,999 patient visits, including 13,013 telemedicine visit types. Our results show that telemedicine can increase completion rates by about 20% among a sample of all ages and a sample of adults only. Working-aged persons are more likely to complete telemedicine visits. Older persons with higher risk scores are more likely to complete their visits if they use telemedicine. CONCLUSIONS: Telemedicine can be a tool to improve patient access to primary care in rural populations. Our findings suggest that telemedicine may facilitate access to care for difficult-to-reach patients, such as those in rural areas, as well as those who have rigid work schedules, live longer distances from the clinic, have complex health problems, and are from areas of higher poverty and/or lower education.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Primary Health Care , Retrospective Studies , Rural Population
3.
JMIR Diabetes ; 7(2): e37534, 2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875302

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Latinos living in rural South Texas have a higher prevalence of diabetes, but their access to diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES) is limited. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test the feasibility of a community health worker-led, mobile health (mHealth)-based DSMES intervention to reduce disparities in accessing DSMES in underserved rural Latino residents in South Texas. METHODS: This 12-week, single-arm, pre-post trial was delivered by trained community health workers to 15 adults with type 2 diabetes. The intervention consisted of digital diabetes education, self-monitoring, a cloud-based connected platform, and community health worker support. Feasibility was evaluated as retention, actual intervention use, program satisfaction, and barriers to implementation. We also explored the intervention's effect on weight loss and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). RESULTS: All 15 participants were Latino (mean age 61.87 years, SD 10.67; 9/15 female, 60%). The retention rate at posttest was 14 of 15 (93%). On average, the participants completed 37 of 42 (88%) digital diabetes education lessons with 8 participants completing all lessons. Participants spent 81/91 days (89%) step tracking, 71/91 days (78%) food logging, 43/91 days (47%) blood glucose self-monitoring, and 74/91 days (81%) weight self-monitoring. The level of program satisfaction was high. On average, participants lost 3.5 (SD 3.2) kg of body weight (P=.001), while HbA1c level remained unchanged from baseline (6.91%, SD 1.28%) to posttest (7.04%, SD 1.66%; P=.668). CONCLUSIONS: A community health worker-led mHealth-based intervention was feasible and acceptable to improve access to DSMES services for Latino adults living in rural communities. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to test intervention efficacy on weight loss and glycemic control.

4.
Children ; 9(5):704, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871362

ABSTRACT

Globally, physical activity levels (PAL) among able-bodied and children with a form of disability remain low. This study aims to characterize PAL and identify the demographic variables affecting children from partaking exercises to promote active lifestyles. Methods: The Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities questionnaire was used for the study. A total of 140 data responses were collected online or physically via passive snowball recruitment and quantitatively analyzed. Results: Five factors were extracted from the dimensions, consisting of household chores, household maintenance, high intensity exercise training, miscellaneous activities and school-related activities. Able-bodied children were significantly (p = 0.000) more active (median = 15.05, IQR = 13.06) than children with physical disabilities (median = 3.09, IQR = 2.58). The B40 household group reported significantly (p < 0.05, MET < 5.16/week) lower participation in health-beneficial (moderate-vigorous intensity) exercises as recommended by international guidelines. Conclusion: Children with physical disabilities reported significantly lower education achievements and PAL compared to their able-bodied counterpart. The majority of Malaysian children (69.3%) surveyed did not achieve the recommended aerobic exercise prescription.

5.
Quality in Ageing and Older Adults ; : 9, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1868512

ABSTRACT

Purpose The purpose of this study is to highlight the challenges and opportunities for the well-being of older migrants and refugees in rural Australia by learning from the example of the Bhutanese community in Albury, New South Wales. Design/methodology/approach This viewpoint focusses on health and aged care barriers that affect the well-being of older migrants and refugees in Australia. It also demonstrates how these can be intensified due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings Engagement though agriculture, and a sense of "belonging" strengthen the cultural well-being of the Bhutanese older adults in Albury. However, major issues remain as health-related resources and information are lacking in rural Australia. How this group's meaningful activities in Albury enabled collaborations to be built is shown in this working example and can provide lessons for other communities that experience similar problems of disconnection as they get older. Research limitations/implications The information regarding the Bhutanese older adults in Albury is primarily based on the authors' personal communication with the General Secretary of the Bhutanese Australian Community Support Group in Albury Wodonga Inc. Originality/value Australia's older population is growing rapidly, and older adults from culturally and linguistically diverse migrant and refugee backgrounds face numerous barriers such as limited linguistic, health and digital literacy. The authors describe common health and aged care issues that affect the well-being of older adults in rural Australia. They particularly emphasize those that occurred or intensified due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This novel information is now especially relevant to the health and aged care sectors in changing and diverse communities not only in Australia but also overseas.

6.
Prev Med Rep ; 28: 101845, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867680

ABSTRACT

Rural young adults may be more averse to receiving a COVID-19 immunization than urban young adults. We aimed to assess differences in COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy for rural, compared with urban, young adults and characterize modifiable factors. This cross-sectional online survey collected demographic data, vaccination attitudes, and COVID-19 impacts from 2937 young adults, ages 18-26 years, across the western U.S. from October 2020 to April 2021. Rurality was determined by participants' zip code and classified using the rural and urban continuum codes (RUCC). Multivariable logistic regression described adjusted (age, gender, race and ethnicity, being a current student, and month of survey) odds of self-reported intent to receive the COVID-19 vaccination by rurality. Mediation analysis was used to decompose total effects into average direct effects and average causal mediation (indirect) effects. Rural participants had 40% lower odds than urban participants of intending to receive the COVID-19 vaccine after adjustments (adjusted odds ratio, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.50-0.76]). The direct effect remained (P < 0.001), but was mediated by both education (8.3%, P < 0.001) and month in which the survey was taken (23.5%, P < 0.001). We observed a divergence after December 2020 in vaccination intent between rural and urban young adults that widened over time. Hesitancy to receive the COVID-19 vaccine was greater among rural, compared with urban young adults, and grew disproportionally after December 2020. Mediation by whether one was a current student or not suggests differences in sources of information for vaccination decision-making, and highlights areas for addressing vaccine hesitancy.

7.
Inform Med Unlocked ; 31: 100981, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867271

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 is a severe threat to human health. This paper aims to investigate the status of mass health self-examination awareness and its influencing factors during the COVID-19 epidemic and establish complete health information to intervene in the prevention and control of the COVID-19 epidemic. The study used a simple random sampling method to survey permanent residents (9761 people) aged 15-70 years in a region of Jiangsu Province, China. The survey collected data using a questionnaire with acceptable reliability and validity. The data were entered into SPSS 26, and the data were analyzed using the chi-square test, ANOVA, and logistic regression. The differences in the status of mass health self-examination during COVID-19 were statistically significant (P < 0.05) in terms of the literacy level of the grassroots population, ease of access to medical care, primary medical and health conditions, the situation of medical examination programs, and the construction of primary health information technology. The establishment of comprehensive and systematic primary health information can effectively assist in raising people's awareness of health self-examination and promoting health behaviors, which is essential for enhancing COVID-19 prevention and intervention.

8.
Journal of Global Health Reports ; 6(e2022024), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1865746

ABSTRACT

Haiti's Central Plateau region suffers from significant malnutrition, economic hardship, and a crisis level of food insecurity. Already the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, Haiti has pervasively high malnutrition rates, but the Central Plateau is among the most severely affected areas. One in five children of the Central Plateau suffers from malnutrition, and the region exhibits a devastating 30% rate of child stunting. Our US-based team affiliated with Klinik Sen Jozef, a community-respected medical clinic in the Central Plateau city of Thomassique. We partnered with local Haitian leadership, a local agronomist, and Trees That Feed Foundation to introduce breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) and an innovative development model to combat local malnutrition. Five years into the program, we have partnered with 152 farmers, and we have enhanced our malnutrition program with breadfruit derivatives. This report addresses the lessons we learned to assist others looking to introduce models or crops in a similar manner. Our experience is particularly significant in light of the COVID-19 pandemic, as supply chain disruptions have worsened food insecurity for more than 800 million people in low-income countries.

9.
Journal of Global Health Reports ; 5(e2021073), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1865735

ABSTRACT

Background: Progress in reducing malaria incidence and deaths has stalled, in part due to limited access to quality malaria testing and treatment amongst rural populations. This time-series analysis aims to describe changes in rural malaria diagnosis and treatment before and during the rollout of Liberia's National Community Health Assistant (CHA) program. It also explores how malaria service delivery changed during the COVID-19 epidemic.

10.
Aust J Rural Health ; 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865074

ABSTRACT

AIM: COVID-19 rapidly transformed how Australians access health care services. This paper considers how the inability for urban patients to access in-person care expediated the introduction of virtual solutions in health service delivery thus creating a new access paradigm for rural and remote Australians. CONTEXT: 'Physical distancing' is a phrase synonymous with public health responses to COVID-19 in Australia, but distance is a decades-long problem for rural health access. Counterintuitively, the pandemic and associated restrictions on mobility have reduced in real terms the distance from, and therefore the time taken to access, critical public services. 'Lockdowns' have unlocked health access for rural and remote Australians in ways that had been rejected prior to 2020. The pandemic has disrupted traditional delivery models and allowed the piloting of novel solutions, at the same time as stress-testing current delivery systems. In the process, it has laid bare a myopia we term 'urban paternalism' in understanding and delivering rural health. APPROACH: This commentary outlines how the COVID-19 operating environment has challenged traditional urban-dominated policy thinking about virtual health care delivery and how greater availability of telehealth appointments goes some way to reducing the health access gap for rural and remote Australians. CONCLUSION: Australian Commonwealth Government policy changes to expand the Medical Benefit Scheme (MBS) to include telephone or online health consultations are a positive initiative towards supporting Australians through the ongoing public health crisis and have also created access parity for some rural and remote patients. Although initially announced as a temporary COVID-19 measure in March 2020, telehealth has now become a permanent feature of the Medicare landscape. This significant public health reform has paved the way for a more flexible and inclusive universal health care system but, more importantly, taken much needed steps towards improving access to primary health care for patients in rural and remote areas. Now the question is: Can the health care system integrate this virtual model of delivery into 'business as usual' to ensure the long-term sustainability of telehealth services to rural and remote Australia?

11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862798

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic led to large increases in telemedicine activity worldwide. This rapid growth, however, may have impacted the quality of care where compliance with guidelines and best practices are concerned. The aim of this study was to describe the recent practices of a telemedicine activity (teleconsultations) and the breaches of best practice guidelines committed by general practitioners (GPs) in the Greater Eastern Region of France. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a 33-item questionnaire and was provided to the Regional Association of Healthcare Professionals, Union Régionale des Professionnels de Santé (URPS) to be shared amongst the GPs. Between April and June 2021, a total of 233 responses were received, showing that (i) by practicing telemedicine in an urban area, (ii) performing a teleconsultation at the patient's initiative, and (iii) carrying out more than five teleconsultations per week were factors associated with a significantly higher level of best practices in telemedicine. All in all, roughly a quarter of GPs (25.3%, n = 59) had a self-declared good telemedicine practice, and the rules of good practice are of heterogeneous application. Despite the benefits of learning on the job for teleconsultation implementation during the COVID-19 lockdowns, there may be a clear need to develop structured and adapted telemedicine training programs for private practice GPs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , General Practitioners , Remote Consultation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics
12.
Am J Health Promot ; : 8901171221105265, 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861906

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Pandemic-related isolation may exacerbate loneliness among rural adults; we sought to characterize loneliness and associated factors among rural adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: Remotely delivered self-management education (SME) workshops, rural upstate New York, May-December 2020. SUBJECTS: Rural SME workshop enrollees, aged 18+, n = 229. MEASURES: De Jong Gierveld 6-Item Loneliness Scale, sociodemographics, workshop type (chronic disease, chronic pain, diabetes), delivery mode (videoconference, phone, self-study); data collected via workshop process measures and enrollment surveys. ANALYSIS: Multivariable linear regression. RESULTS: Mean overall, emotional and social loneliness scores were 2.78 (SD = 1.91), 1.27 (SD = 1.02), and 1.52 (SD = 1.26). Being not married/partnered (ß = .61) and self-reported depression/anxiety (ß = .64) were associated with higher overall scores, and selection of videoconference (ß = -.77) and self-study (ß =-.85) modes with lower scores. Self-reported depression/anxiety (ß = .51) was associated with increased emotional loneliness. Being not married/not partnered (ß = .37) and selection of chronic pain workshops (ß = .64) was were associated with increased social loneliness. Selection of videoconference (ß = -.44) and self-study (ß = -.51) delivery modes were protective of social loneliness. CONCLUSION: In addition to marital status and depression/anxiety, experiencing chronic pain and selecting phone-based workshops were associated with higher degrees of loneliness among rural adults during the pandemic. The latter may be partly explained by insufficient internet access. Health educators should be prepared to address loneliness in rural areas during the pandemic.

13.
تأثیر همه گیری کووید - 91 بر سلامت روان جمعیت روستایی در ایران ; 24(3):537-549, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1857524

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, which has caused anxiety and fear in humans, has negatively affected the mental health of millions of people. This study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 disease on mental health of Iranian rural households. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 375 rural households from October 2nd to 29th, 2020. Data was gathered using the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) questionnaire. Descriptive analysis and multivariable logistic regression were performed to evaluate the factors associated with mental health. High rates of paranoid ideation disorder (64.6%), interpersonal sensitivity (59.5%), and hostility (48.1%) were recorded among the Iranian rural population during the COVID-19 pandemic. Females tended to show more symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, and paranoid ideation. Additionally, gender, the number of children, amount of loans, loss of a family member or friend due to COVID-19, worry about food insecurity, exposure to news about COVID-19, and access to medical centers were significant predictors of mental health. These findings indicate the need for public policies centered on mental disorders in rural areas during the COVID19 pandemic and the need for measures to protect vulnerable groups in the rural population. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Agricultural Science & Technology is the property of Tarbiat Modares University Press and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

14.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(4), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1854942

ABSTRACT

Evidence on how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected women's reproductive health remains scarce, particularly for low- and middle-income countries. Deleterious indirect effects seem likely, particularly on access to contraception and risk of unwanted pregnancies, but rigorous evaluations using quasi-experimental designs are lacking. Taking a diachronic perspective, we aimed to investigate the effects of the pandemic on four indicators of women's reproductive health: history of recent adverse events during pregnancy (past), use of contraception and unwanted pregnancies (present), and childbearing intentions (future). This study was conducted in four rural health districts of Burkina Faso: Banfora, Leo, Sindou and Tenado. Two rounds of household surveys (before and during the pandemic) were conducted in a panel of 696 households using standardized questionnaires. The households were selected using a stratified two-stage random sampling method. All women aged 15-49 years living in the household were eligible for the study. The same households were visited twice, in February 2020 and February 2021. The effects were estimated by fitting hierarchical regression models with fixed effects or random intercepts at the individual level. A total of 814 and 597 women reported being sexually active before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, respectively. The odds of not wanting (any more) children were two times higher during the pandemic than before (2.0, 95% CI [1.32-3.04]). Among those with childbearing intention, the average desired delay until the next pregnancy increased from 28.7 to 32.8 months. When comparing 2021 versus 2020, there was an increase in the adjusted odds ratio of contraception use (1.23, 95% CI [1.08-1.40]), unwanted pregnancies (2.07, 95% CI [1.01-4.25]), and self-reported history of miscarriages, abortions, or stillbirths in the previous 12 months (2.4, 95% CI [1.04-5.43]). Our findings in rural Burkina Faso do not support the predicted detrimental effects of COVID-19 on the use of family planning services in LMICs, but confirm that it negatively affects pregnancy intentions. Use of contraception increased significantly among women in the panel, but arguably not enough to avoid an increase in unwanted pregnancies.

15.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(2), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1854936

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately impacted the physical and mental health, and the economic stability, of specific population subgroups in different ways, deepening existing disparities. Essential workers have faced the greatest risk of exposure to COVID-19;women have been burdened by caretaking responsibilities;and rural residents have experienced healthcare access barriers. Each of these factors did not occur on their own. While most research has so far focused on individual factors related to COVID-19 disparities, few have explored the complex relationships between the multiple components of COVID-19 vulnerabilities. Using structural equation modeling on a sample of United States (U.S.) workers (N=2800), we aimed to (1) identify factor clusters that make up specific COVID-19 vulnerabilities, and (2) explore how these vulnerabilities affected specific subgroups, specifically essential workers, women and rural residents. We identified 3 COVID-19 vulnerabilities: financial, mental health, and healthcare access;9 out of 10 respondents experienced one;15% reported all three. Essential workers [standardized coefficient (beta)=0.23;unstandardized coefficient (B)=0.21, 95% CI=0.17, 0.24] and rural residents (beta=0.13;B=0.12, 95% CI=0.09, 0.16) experienced more financial vulnerability than non-essential workers and non-rural residents, respectively. Women (beta=0.22;B=0.65, 95% CI=0.65, 0.74) experienced worse mental health than men;whereas essential workers reported better mental health (beta=-0.08;B=-0.25, 95% CI=-0.38, -0.13) than other workers. Rural residents (beta=0.09;B=0.15, 95% CI=0.07, 0.24) experienced more healthcare access barriers than non-rural residents. Findings highlight how interrelated financial, mental health, and healthcare access vulnerabilities contribute to the disproportionate COVID-19-related burden among U.S. workers. Policies to secure employment conditions, including fixed income and paid sick leave, are urgently needed to mitigate pandemic-associated disparities.

16.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(1), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1854931

ABSTRACT

How COVID-19 vaccine is distributed within low- and middle-income countries has received little attention outside of equity or logistical concerns but may ultimately affect campaign impact in terms of infections, severe cases, or deaths averted. In this study we examined whether subnational (urban-rural) prioritization may affect the cumulative two-year impact on disease transmission and burden of a vaccination campaign using an agent-based model of COVID-19 in a representative COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access (COVAX) Advanced Market Commitment (AMC) setting. We simulated a range of vaccination strategies that differed by urban-rural prioritization, age group prioritization, timing of introduction, and final coverage level. Urban prioritization averted more infections in only a narrow set of scenarios, when internal migration rates were low and vaccination was started by day 30 of an outbreak. Rural prioritization was the optimal strategy for all other scenarios, e.g., with higher internal migration rates or later start dates, due to the presence of a large immunological naive rural population. Among other factors, timing of the vaccination campaign was important to determining maximum impact, and delays as short as 30 days prevented larger campaigns from having the same impact as smaller campaigns that began earlier. The optimal age group for prioritization depended on choice of metric, as prioritizing older adults consistently averted more deaths across all of the scenarios. While guidelines exist for these latter factors, urban-rural allocation is an orthogonal factor that we predict to affect impact and warrants consideration as countries plan the scale-up of their vaccination campaigns.

17.
Clin Pract ; 12(3): 243-252, 2022 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855523

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated a pharmacist-led telephonic Medication Therapy Management (MTM) program for rural patients in Arizona with poor access to healthcare services. A pharmacist provided telephonic MTM services to eligible adult patients living in rural Arizona communities with a diagnosis of diabetes and/or hypertension. Data were collected and summarized descriptively for demographic and health conditions, clinical values, and medication-related problems (MRPs) at the initial consultation, and follow-up data collected at 1 and 3 months. A total of 33 patients had baseline and one-month follow-up data, while 15 patients also had three-month follow-up data. At the initial consultation, the following MRPs were identified: medication adherence issues, dose-related concerns, adverse drug events (ADE), high-risk medications, and therapeutic duplications. Recommendations were made for patients to have the influenza, herpes zoster, and pneumonia vaccines; and to initiate a statin, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, angiotensin receptor blocker, beta-blocker, and/or rescue inhaler. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that while pharmacists can identify and make clinical recommendations to patients, the value of these interventions is not fully realized due to recommendations not being implemented and difficulties with patient follow-up, which may have been due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Additional efforts to address these shortcomings are therefore required.

18.
Food Secur ; : 1-10, 2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850452

ABSTRACT

To examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on food insecurity in the Blackfeet American Indian Tribal Community. American Indian adults residing on the Blackfeet reservation in Northwest Montana (n = 167) participated in a longitudinal survey across 4 months during the COVID-19 pandemic (August 24, 2020- November 30, 2020). Participants reported on demographics and food insecurity. We examined trajectories of food insecurity alongside COVID-19 incidence. While food insecurity was high in the Blackfeet community preceding the pandemic, 79% of our sample reported significantly greater food insecurity at the end of the study. Blackfeet women were more likely to report higher levels of food insecurity and having more people in the household predicted higher food insecurity. Longitudinal data indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated already high levels of food insecurity in the Blackfeet community. Existing programs and policies are inadequate to address this public health concern in AI tribal communities.

19.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 13: 21501319221096249, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846766

ABSTRACT

Nutrition is a critical part of health and development but over 3 million people in the UK are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition (93% living in the community). As part of a wider nutritional clinical review program across England, this specific pilot focused on proactive nutritional reviews within 1 rural practice, to explore how exacerbation of illness for patients with long-term conditions may be prevented and quality of life improved through the avoidance of malnutrition; identified through the timely delivery of holistic clinical assessments; and managed with nutritional interventions that patients actively engage with. These objectives were of particular significance in 2020 due to the challenges posed by Covid-19 in the delivery of healthcare. Within the pilot activity, a selection of patients at the practice were identified based on predetermined criteria. The intervention was delivered remotely by a clinical pharmacist. Two methods of communication with patients were explored during the pilot-initially communicating by letter, and latterly by telephone call. From a registered patient population of 6138, 59 of these patients were flagged to the practice for assessment as required and 102 patients were prioritized for remote assessment. Following a notes review, 60 patients were contacted via telephone with no action for 39 patients; 16 patients agreeing to a "food-first" approach; and 5 patients prescribed ONS. Results from the pilot and wider program activity demonstrate that patients willingly engaged in a proactive approach to remote assessments when using appropriate communication channels. It has also demonstrated that through guidelines adherence resulting in more appropriate prescribing, there are significant cost savings to be made through the implementation of remote nutritional assessments in primary care. Further research is required to address the system-wide benefit that these reviews and the identification of adults at risk of malnutrition could deliver.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Adult , COVID-19/complications , England , Humans , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Quality of Life
20.
Am J Mens Health ; 16(3): 15579883221097539, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846739

ABSTRACT

The widespread psychological effects of contagion mitigation measures associated with the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are well known. Phases of "lockdown" have increased levels of anxiety and depression globally. Most research uses methods such as self-reporting that highlight the greater impact of the pandemic on the mental health of females. Emergency medical data from ambulance services may be a better reflection of male mental health. We use ambulance data to identify unusual clusters of high rates of male mental health emergencies occurring in the East Midlands of the United Kingdom during the first national "lockdown" and to explore factors that may explain clusters. Analysis of more than 5,000 cases of male mental health emergencies revealed 19 unusual spatial clusters. Binary logistic regression analysis (χ2 = 787.22, df = 20, p ≤ .001) identified 16 factors that explained clusters, including proximity to "healthy" features of the physical landscape, urban and rural dynamics, and socioeconomic condition. Our findings suggest that the factors underlying vulnerability of males to severe mental health conditions during "lockdown" vary within and between rural and urban spaces, and that the wider "hinterland" surrounding clusters influences the social and physical access of males to services that facilitate mental health support. Limitations on social engagement to mitigate effects of the pandemic are likely to continue. Our approach could inform delivery of emergency services and the development of community-level services to support vulnerable males during periods of social isolation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ambulances , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergencies , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
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