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1.
Revista Cubana de Farmacia ; 55(2), 2022.
Article in Spanish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955701

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 has caused concern in the Peruvian population due to the health impact it generates and given the slow progress of vaccination, people opt for pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures to prevent the disease. Objective: Analyze the association of pharmacological and non-pharmacological preventive measures during the COVID-19 pandemic with the characteristics of the inhabitants of Virú, Peru. Methods: A cross-sectional, correlational design was applied. A questionnaire of questions was used based on the characteristics of the inhabitants (age, sex and type of work) and food consumption, use of solutions and medicines for the prevention of COVID-19. The presence of COVID-19 was evaluated with the rapid test called Standard™ COVID 19 IgM/IgG;the sample was of 191 residents who went to Guadalupito Health Center in Virú. Results: The non-pharmacological measures most frequently applied by villagers during the COVID-19 pandemic were the consumption of citrus fruits (79%), garlic, onions (42%) and kion (26%). The pharmacological ones were ivermectin (14%) and paracetamol (12%). None of the measures were associated with the presence of COVID-19. Conclusions: Health professionals should emphasize through the different media that the measures analyzed in this study cannot prevent COVID-19. This constitutes valuable information for those people who do not take into account the usefulness of vaccines and challenge the disease by limiting their lives, with the exclusive use of certain foods, herbs and medicines.

2.
Rural Remote Health ; 22(3): 6751, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955301

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global pandemic, giving rise to a serious global health threat. Many countries including Greece have seen a two-wave pattern of reported cases, with a first wave in spring and a second in autumn of 2020. METHODS: A cross-sectional seroprevalence study was designed to measure the prevalence of IgG antibodies with a quantitative SARS-CoV-2 IgG lab-based serology test, chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay, against novel coronavirus in rural areas in Greece after the second pandemic wave. The study was conducted on 29 January 2021 in a rural semi-closed area, the municipality of Deskati, prefecture of western Macedonia in Greece after the second pandemic wave. RESULTS: Sixty-nine participants were included in this study. The present study demonstrated a high prevalence of COVID-19 infection (31 of 69 total participants; 45%) and those who were working in the public sector were at higher risk of COVID-19 infection in comparison to their counterparts in private sector (p=0.05364), (relative risk 2.64; 95% confidence interval 1.001-7.086). CONCLUSION: The study presents data showing a high prevalence of herd immunity for COVID-19 in a semi-closed area in Greece. These findings might help to understand the characteristics of this second wave, the behaviour and danger of SARS-CoV-2 in rural areas in Greece and Europe generally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Prevalence , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Workplace
3.
Revista FSA ; 19(7):10-28, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1955022

ABSTRACT

Rural tourism increasingly awakens the approximation of the rural to the urban by offering a diversified portfolio of attractions that, when organized in the format of tourist routes, strategically articulate current and future ventures. The objective of this wais to analyze the absorptive capacity (CA) in the offer of rural tourism in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Rota das Trutas, located in the municipality of São José dos Ausentes (RS, Brazil). In methodological terms, a qualitative multi-case s was carried out in two projects with an online interview with the owners of the projects and data wad analyzed using the content analysis technique. The results demonstrated the lack of prior knowledge to work in tourism basedon agricultural activities, and new knowledge was accessed through technical assistance, nonetheless assimilation has limitations, and its application could be expanded. As a result of the AC, the fragility of the relationship between the potential AC and the achieved AC resulting from the transmission of internal knowledge by the owners is evident. The COVID-19 pandemic changed the routines and led them to adopt tourist security protocols, culminating in the increase in demand, as well as arousing interest in offering new personalized services and expanding existing ones. (English) [ FROM AUTHOR] O turismo rural desperta cada vez mais a aproximação do rural ao urbano, ao oferecer um diversificado portfólio de atrativos que, quando organizados no formato de roteiros turísticos, articulam estrategicamente empreendimentos atuais e futuros. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a capacidade de absorção (CA) na oferta de turismo rural frente à pandemia COVID-19 na Rota das Trutas, localizada no município de São José dos Ausentes (RS, Brasil). Em termos metodológicos, foi realizado um multicaso qualitativo em dois projetos com uma entrevista online com os proprietários dos projetos e dados analisados através da técnica de análise de conteúdo. Os resultados demonstraram a falta de conhecimento prévio para atuar no turismo com base na atividade agropecuária, e novos conhecimentos foram acessados por meio da assistência técnica, porém a assimilação apresenta limitações e sua aplicação poderia ser ampliada. Como resultado da CA, fica evidente a fragilidade da relação entre a CA potencial e a CA realizada, decorrente da transmissão de conhecimentos internos pelos proprietários. A pandemia COVID-19 mudou as rotinas e levou-os a adotar protocolos de segurança turística, culminando no aumento da demanda, além de despertar o interesse em oferecer novos serviços personalizados e ampliar os existentes. (Portuguese) [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Revista FSA is the property of Revista FSA (Faculdade Santo Agostinho) and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

4.
ISA Trans ; 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1945311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of COVID-19 on the Global scale is tremendously drastic. There are several types of research going on across the world simultaneously to understand and overcome this dire pandemic outbreak. This paper is purely a statistical study on a distinct set of datasets regarding COVID-19 in India. The motivation of this study is to provide an insight into the rapid growth of confirmed COVID-19 cases in India. METHODS: The rapid growth of COVID-19 cases in India started in March 2020. The main objective of this paper is to provide a solid statistical model for the policymaker to handle this kind of pandemic situation in the near future with nonlinear data. In this paper, the data was got from 1st April to 29th November 2020. To come up with a solid statistical model, various nonlinear data such as confirmed COVID-19 cases, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, the total population (state-wise), the total area in km2 (state-wise), and the total rural and urban population count (state-wise) have been analyzed. In this paper, six different Generalized Additive Models (GAM) was identified after a thorough analysis of other researchers' (Xie and Zhu, 2020; Prata et al., 2020) findings. RESULTS: In all perspectives, the results were identified and analyzed. The GAM model regarding total COVID-19 confirmed cases, total population, and the total rural population provides the best average fit of R2 value of 0.934. As the population value is quite high, the author has concise it using logarithm to provide the best p-value of 0.000542 and 0.001407 for a relation between the total number of COVID-19 cases regarding the total population and total rural population respectively.

5.
Journal of Hypertension ; 40:e106-e107, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1937700

ABSTRACT

Objective: During the COVID pandemic patients with hypertension were trained to self-monitor blood pressures at home . A post service transformation evaluation was undertaken as COVID restrictions were eased to assess if patients would prefer office blood pressure vs home monitoring for ongoing care. Design and method: A retrospective analysis of all patients who consented to home blood monitoring during the COVID pandemic was undertaken at 12 months across three health centre in a rural population. Patients were asked of their perception of doing home blood pressure readings and their confidence and satisfaction with this method vs office. Method: Patients were asked during routine medication reviews and at the end of 12 months of their confidence and satisfaction and difficulties with managing home blood pressure monitoring in order to understand their preferences for future care Results: Of the total of over 2000 patients with known diagnosis of hypertension n = 2000, a sample cohort of 500 patients (sample size 25%) were asked as they had medication reviews of their confidence with the self-monitoring. The no of patients who felt confident and wished to continue was quite high 70% this did not vary across the ages i.e. both young and the elderly were content doing their own home blood readings. Only 50 patients (11.8%) wanted office readings reasons were affordability and lack of confidence with the reliability of home readings and those who were very elderly wanted the human contact which they previously had. Conclusions: Home blood pressure self-monitoring is a safe reliable and evidenced based and previously underutilized method of monitoring patients with hypertension. We believe the office readings of blood pressure still have a place in routine care but the overwhelming response and satisfaction with home blood pressure is likely to change monitoring and lead to better overall blood pressure control. (Figure Presented).

6.
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care ; 11(6):2896-2899, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1934412

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) is a disease caused by a virus named SARS-CoV-2 and was discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, a global threat has largely affected the country's economic and social values. Moreover, the mitigation strategies being used to counterattack the pandemic attributes a lot of unrest and stress in the masses which has led to several mental health problems like anxiety, depression, sleep loss, post-traumatic stress disorder, etc.

7.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925442

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study is to understand how telehealth impacts the needs of the senior population in the outpatient general neurology clinic providing care for an underserved and rural population. Background: Telehealth services are increasing due to the ongoing global pandemic and overall advancement of technology. Despite the telehealth platform's ability to alleviate many obstacles, it can present new challenges for the elderly population. The senior population currently face a subset of barriers to healthcare, such as disabilities, chronic disease, healthcare costs, limited transportation, and preventing Covid-19 exposure. Design/Methods: Morehouse Healthcare in Atlanta, Georgia provides telehealth services to all of their patients in the general Neurology outpatient clinic. We implemented the IHI PDSA guidelines by assisting people greater than fifty years of age who were being evaluated for a neurological disorder were included. The level of assistance included (1) written help, (2) written and verbal help (3) no help. Written help consisted of prewritten instructions. Verbal help involved coaching participants over the phone. Notations were made if the patient received help from a family member. Patients were excluded if their account was activated on their smartphone. Patients also had the option to opt-out of using the platform. Results: The number of patients who did not require assistance with activating their accounts decreased with age: 50-59 (41%), 60-69 (23%), 70-79 (23%), 90-99 (14%). 70-79 was the large subset to accept assistance (50%). 60-69 was the largest subset to opt-out (38%). Prior to the outreach, most patients over the age of 50 had not activated their accounts. Following the phone calls, 36% successfully activated their accounts. Conclusions: This study helped identify the subsets of the aging population that need supplemental outreach for activating their telehealth accounts. Acknowledging the technological barriers that seniors may face can help improve health outcomes, especially for patients without caregivers.

8.
European Journal of Preventive Cardiology ; 29(SUPPL 1):i148-i149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1915581

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Unhealthy behaviours can be amplified during lockdown and organisations, like WHOand CDC, campaign on how to stay healthy at home. Lifestyle choices are of paramount importance for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Northern Greece was forcefully hit by the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and a hard lockdown was implemented in November 2020. Purpose: The aim of the study was to assess the (un)healthy behaviours of patients with CVDs during the second COVID-19 lockdown in Northern Greece and to compare the urban with the rural population. Methods: This is a cross-sectional short questionnaire telephone-based survey conducted in February 2021. Responders with known CVDs were primarily questioned (using a Likert-like scale) about smoking, diet and physical activity, along essential medical history. Beliefs about COVID-19 pandemic and vaccination were also considered. Sociodemographic details were noted. Patients who were placed under quarantine were excluded in this analysis. Results: The response rate was high (438 out of 700 calls, 62.6%) with the majority of the participants willing to speak for longer time than initially estimated. In total, answers by 395 patients (216 urban and 179 rural) (female 252/63.8%, mean age 57.3 years old) were incorporated. There were 200 active smokers questioned (urban: 119, 55.1% - rural: 81, 45.3%). More urban residents increased smoking (56, 47.1%) than rural ones (24, 29.6%). Of note, the majority of the rural patients reported smoking similarly than before the lockdown. Unfortunately, none of the questioned participants attempted to quit smoking. The mean BMI of the urban patients was 27.5 ± 4.3 kg/m2 (vs. 26.8 ± 3.8 kg/m2 before lockdown) corresponding to a mean weight gain of about 2 kg. The rise in mean BMI could be explained, partly, by the increased eating as reported by almost half of the urban participants (121, 56.0%). There was a smaller increase in mean BMI of the rural sample (from 26.6 ± 3.9 kg/m2 to 26.9 ± 4.1 kg/m2) corresponding to a mean weight gain of less than 1 kg. The limited weight gain is represented by the majority of the rural patients reported that they didn't change their eating habits. The vast minority of the urban and the rural participants answered that they increased exercising in comparison to their pre-lockdown habits (39, 18.1% vs 37, 19.4%, p>0.05), Contrary to that, more than half of the rural patients had maintained similar levels of physical activity (109, 57.1%). Conclusion: The hard lockdown in Greece during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic was accompanied with an aggravation of unhealthy choices by patients with CVDs. This observation was more apparent in the urban population. Further research is warrant to assess the clinical impact of these behaviours. Public campaigns are anxiously needed to promote healthy behaviours. (Figure Presented).

9.
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology ; 24(3):537-549, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1905055

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, which has caused anxiety and fear in humans, has negatively affected the mental health of millions of people. This study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 disease on mental health of Iranian rural households. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 375 rural households from October 2nd to 29th, 2020. Data was gathered using the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) questionnaire. Descriptive analysis and multivariable logistic regression were performed to evaluate the factors associated with mental health. High rates of paranoid ideation disorder (64.6%), interpersonal sensitivity (59.5%), and hostility (48.1%) were recorded among the Iranian rural population during the COVID-19 pandemic. Females tended to show more symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, and paranoid ideation. Additionally, gender, the number of children, amount of loans, loss of a family member or friend due to COVID-19, worry about food insecurity, exposure to news about COVID-19, and access to medical centers were significant predictors of mental health. These findings indicate the need for public policies centered on mental disorders in rural areas during the COVID-19 pandemic and the need for measures to protect vulnerable groups in the rural population.

10.
The School of Public Policy Publications (SPPP) ; 15, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1903888

ABSTRACT

Between 2011 and 2021, a significant number of Alberta’s towns, villages and rural areas experienced population stagnation or decline, while the cities and many nearby municipalities continued to grow. As smaller municipalities’ populations shrink or fail to grow, they also become disproportionately older—trends that can threaten tax bases and community involvement. This demographic trend has two main causes. First, Alberta’s cities offer increasing employment opportunities in the rapidly growing service sector, while many smaller communities have seen declines in employment in the resource and manufacturing sectors important to their economies and struggle to attract new industries. Thus, as in the rest of the country, towns, villages and municipal districts lose residents, especially young people, to where the jobs are. Second, while the province’s birth rate continues to decline, and overall growth has come to depend almost as much on international immigration as on natural growth, newcomers to the province tend to prefer the major urban areas. Following Alberta’s boom years, the last decade saw decreased migration from other provinces into Alberta and a declining fertility rate. The province’s economy is now on the mend, with the highest employment rate in Canada;however, the once-high birth rates and elevated rates of internal migration from other provinces are unlikely to return. The pace of growth will depend on Alberta’s ability to attract a healthy share of the many new immigrants Canada intends to welcome over the decade ahead. Alberta’s smaller municipalities, in turn, need strategies to attract immigrants. For this, they will require employment opportunities and dedicated resources to assist newcomers. Manitoba has had success in doing this and may offer Alberta an example of how to proceed. Some emerging economic and social trends may work to the benefit of smaller municipalities. For example, industries that require large amounts of land or significant storage facilities often opt to locate outside the big cities. New developments in agriculture and energy, especially in geothermal and hydrogen, may open new opportunities for growth in towns and rural areas. While Alberta is unlikely to replicate B.C.’s success in attracting retirees, the popularity of outdoor recreation provides a chance for many municipalities to attract new residents. Although changes in work practices brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic make future trends difficult to predict, as people continue to work at a distance from their places of employment, it is possible that Alberta could see a demographic shift away from the urban centres. Smaller municipalities may attract both city dwellers and immigrants seeking the benefits of life away from the cities, including bigger and less costly properties. Nevertheless, slower growth and population aging are likely to continue, and communities must use the coming years to prepare, putting in place necessary services, especially those related to health care. This is especially vital in communities far from the urban centres.

11.
Missouri medicine ; 117(3):216-221, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1887634

ABSTRACT

Show-Me ECHO, a state-funded project, provides access to education within a community of learners in order to optimize healthcare for the citizens of Missouri. Through videoconferencing and case-based review, ECHO shifts professional development from learning about medical problems in isolation to experiential learning as part of a multidisciplinary team. The establishment of a statewide COVID-19 ECHO is allowing a rapid response to this novel, unprecedented, and unanticipated health care crisis. There are many ongoing opportunities for clinicians from across the state to join a Show-Me ECHO learning community as a means to elevate their practice and improve ability to respond amidst a constantly evolving health care environment. Copyright 2020 by the Missouri State Medical Association.

12.
Australasian Journal of Dermatology ; 63(SUPPL 1):52, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1883172

ABSTRACT

Aims: The landscape of health service delivery has changed significantly in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare reports that health practitioners have delivered an increasing number of consultations via telehealth. To understand how this shift has manifested in dermatology, we present an audit of the Royal Melbourne Hospital dermatology telehealth service, comparing data collected between 2020 and 2021, and discuss factors affecting sustainability of clinics, the challenges faced, and lessons learnt. Methods: We performed a retrospective audit of all telehealth consultations (both telephone and video-conference) at the Royal Melbourne Hospital Department of Dermatology between February to September in 2020 and 2021. Data was manually extracted from electronic medical records. We collected data for the total number of visits, rural vs metropolitan status, rural health region if applicable, and Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme billing data for each month. Results: 1,056 telehealth consults were conducted in the 2021 period, comprising 28% of the 3,795 total Dermatology consults performed. 31% of these telehealth visits (330 consults) were with rural patients, representing a 42% increase from 2020 (233 consults). Review consults for patients on biologic therapy were particularly amenable to telehealth delivery within this rural cohort, experiencing a 141% growth from 49 consultations in 2020 to 118 in 2021. The most common reason for telehealth appointment was for inflammatory conditions (50% of all consults), followed by biologics reviews (37%), immunobullous conditions (6%), vascular anomalies and infective conditions (3% each), and benign and malignant skin lesions (2%). Conclusions: Telehealth consultations have proved essential in the delivery of many dermatological services throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Rural populations demonstrate an increasing benefit from telehealth services. Inflammatory and biologics reviews are visit indications which may be particularly amenable to telehealth delivery.

13.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(5): 1834-1841, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875940

ABSTRACT

Background: About 10% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at the time of diagnosis have more than one risk factor for developing foot ulceration, and it increases to 15% in a lifetime. The risk of development of Diabetic foot ulcers/gangrene can be prevented by the patient's self-foot care practice at home. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of awareness of self-foot care practice among diabetic patients in a rural setting. The study also aimed to identify the factors preventing dry or wet diabetic gangrene development and subsequent amputation. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out among 1687 people with diabetes mellitus (DM) who attended orthopedic and diabetic OPD in a tertiary care hospital in Kamrup, Assam, India. An appropriate self-explanatory questionnaire about knowledge of self-foot care practice was given to all study participants. Foot examination was performed by authors participated in the study on all patients. The observations and results were categorized according to the International Diabetes Federation foot risk categories. Results: Of 1687 patients included in this study, 298 (17.7%) had foot ulcers of various grades, 164 (9.76%) had peripheral vascular disease, and 484 (28.7%), had peripheral neuropathy of different grades. After multivariate analysis, patients on insulin and combination therapy and peripheral neuropathy were significantly associated with the presence of foot ulcers. The mean knowledge score was as low as 9.7 ± 4.8 out of a total score of 23. Low awareness and knowledge were associated with low mean scores due to a lack of formal education (8.3 ± 6.1). Among the 1687 patients, only 381 (22.5%) are aware and have some knowledge about self-foot care, and 686 (40.6%) had their feet examined by a doctor only once since their initial diagnosis. The incidence of development of diabetic-related complications was significantly low in those who know about foot self-care as well as those whose feet had been inspected by a physician at least once. Conclusion: The incidence of development of diabetic-related complications was significantly low in those who know about foot self-care as well as those whose feet had been examined by a physician of family doctors at least once. There is a need to educate all patients of diabetes about self-foot care. It is prudent to establish an integrated foot care services within primary care centers and in the diabetic clinic to identify feet at risk, institute early preventive measures, and provide continuous foot care education through images videos on WhatsApp to patients and primary health care givers.

14.
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences ; 13(3):158-162, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1863680

ABSTRACT

The Centre of Excellence in Wood Engineered Products (CeWEP) established in early 2017 aimed in making Sarawak the hup of the down-stream industry especially for the planted timber species. Wood engineered products generally produced by binding the strands, particles, fibres, veneers or boards of wood, together with adhesives to form composite materials. They are products precisely design with specifications and tested to meet national or international standards. Sarawak with land areas of 124,500 sq km, generated wood and timber products of more than 5 million metric tons since 2012 onward. These forest products catered mostly for the upstream industries such as sawn timbers, plywood, veneer, wood moulding, laminated boards, particleboards, MDF, woodchip, charcoal/briquette, laminated flooring and wood pellets. Advanced timber products have not been fully emphasized yet. It is high time for the Sarawak state to shift gear in the timber downstream industries focusing in wood engineered products from planted timber species. The state has for the past decade involved in timber plantation activities. Seven (7) timber species namely the Acacia mangium, Azadirachta excelsa, Kyaya ivorensis Neolamarckia cadamba, Octomeles sumatrana, Paraserianthes falcataria, and Tectona grandis have been planted in various location in the state. With an area of 2.8 million ha of planted forest, the state is seriously intended to increase the production of the downstream timber industry which is equivalent to the existing industry in Peninsular Malaysia. Timber downstream industries, such as laminated/composited furniture & construction materials that generate high income, are expected to be actively produce in 2030. The CeWEP is still at an early stage of its establishment. The occurrence of the Covid-19, especially from 2020 to 2022, has slowdown the progress pace of the centre. As of now, CeWEP has managed to reach stage 2 in the ten years of strategic planning. The repercussion progress will somehow be made to ensure the planning is completed successfully in 2030. With efforts being currently made by those involved in the University of Technology Sarawak (UTS) and with close cooperation and support by other internal and external agencies/networking, the CeWEP will play an important in utilizing the planted timber species in generating income for the rural people and Sarawak state government

15.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(2), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1854936

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately impacted the physical and mental health, and the economic stability, of specific population subgroups in different ways, deepening existing disparities. Essential workers have faced the greatest risk of exposure to COVID-19;women have been burdened by caretaking responsibilities;and rural residents have experienced healthcare access barriers. Each of these factors did not occur on their own. While most research has so far focused on individual factors related to COVID-19 disparities, few have explored the complex relationships between the multiple components of COVID-19 vulnerabilities. Using structural equation modeling on a sample of United States (U.S.) workers (N=2800), we aimed to (1) identify factor clusters that make up specific COVID-19 vulnerabilities, and (2) explore how these vulnerabilities affected specific subgroups, specifically essential workers, women and rural residents. We identified 3 COVID-19 vulnerabilities: financial, mental health, and healthcare access;9 out of 10 respondents experienced one;15% reported all three. Essential workers [standardized coefficient (beta)=0.23;unstandardized coefficient (B)=0.21, 95% CI=0.17, 0.24] and rural residents (beta=0.13;B=0.12, 95% CI=0.09, 0.16) experienced more financial vulnerability than non-essential workers and non-rural residents, respectively. Women (beta=0.22;B=0.65, 95% CI=0.65, 0.74) experienced worse mental health than men;whereas essential workers reported better mental health (beta=-0.08;B=-0.25, 95% CI=-0.38, -0.13) than other workers. Rural residents (beta=0.09;B=0.15, 95% CI=0.07, 0.24) experienced more healthcare access barriers than non-rural residents. Findings highlight how interrelated financial, mental health, and healthcare access vulnerabilities contribute to the disproportionate COVID-19-related burden among U.S. workers. Policies to secure employment conditions, including fixed income and paid sick leave, are urgently needed to mitigate pandemic-associated disparities.

16.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335847

ABSTRACT

Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) remain of high potential for hotspots for COVID-19 deaths and emerging variants given the inequality of vaccine distribution and their vulnerable healthcare systems. We aim to evaluate containment strategies that are sustainable and effective for LMICs. We constructed synthetic populations with varying contact and household structures to capture LMIC demographic characteristics that vary across communities. Using an agent-based model, we explored the optimal containment strategies for rural and urban communities by designing and simulating setting-specific strategies that deploy rapid diagnostic tests, symptom screening, contact tracing and physical distancing. In low-density rural communities, we found implementing either high quality (sensitivity > 50%) antigen rapid diagnostic tests or moderate physical distancing could contain the transmission. In urban communities, we demonstrated that both physical distancing and case finding are essential for containing COVID-19 (average infection rate < 10%). In high density communities that resemble slums and squatter settlements, physical distancing is less effective compared to rural and urban communities. Lastly, we demonstrated contact tracing is essential for effective containment. Our findings suggested that rapid diagnostic tests could be prioritised for control and monitor COVID-19 transmission and highlighted that contact survey data could guide strategy design to save resources for LMICs. An accompanying open source R package is available for simulating COVID-19 transmission based on contact network models.

17.
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 10:498-505, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1798869

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low availability of medical care and low level of comfort living in rural areas, underdeveloped infrastructure, and difficult working conditions lead to the deterioration of health of rural residents. Rural areas are characterized by less comfortable living conditions than in the city, which can affect health-related quality of life. AIM: The purpose of this study was to assess the satisfaction of the population with the quality of life in rural areas as well as to study the quality of life of the rural population of the Republic of Kazakhstan related to health. METHODS: This study was a one-stage cross-sectional study. Online questionnaire was asked by 411 local residents, of which only 302 were suitable for processing. RESULTS: The results showed that almost a third of the respondents are unemployed (27.2%). In the course of the survey, respondents could subjectively assess their own health, for example, almost a third of respondents (35.76%) assess their health as “poor” and “below average.” At the same time, 18.21% of respondents are not satisfied with the quality of medical services provided in rural areas. The coefficients of correlation between the desire to move to the city and age, income level, family composition, marital status, and type of housing were established. The universal social functioning-36 index was 0.6 (±0.02) for women and 0.55 (±0.033) for men CONCLUSIONS: We can say that the quality of life of the rural population remains quite low. This is evidenced by low income, high unemployment, and the problem of drinking water. Quarantine measures related to COVID-19 also had an impact on the increase in unemployment, however, during the quarantine, there is a deterioration in mental health indicators among men compared to women. The results of the study confirmed that the issue of accessibility of medical services remains very urgent for rural residents.

18.
International Journal of Agricultural Extension ; 9(3):525-532, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1791294

ABSTRACT

About 138 million population live in rural areas of Pakistan. Evidence confirmed that COVID-19 cases were found in rural areas of Pakistan distinctively. Vaccination is the best protection against the virus. In this paper, the main determinants, characteristics, safety precautions, and current statistics related to COVID-19 in rural areas of Pakistan are presented. This study focuses on a rural population that is highly susceptible to COVID-19 and has a relatively high fatality rate in recent months due to closer contact with humans, pets, and animals. Measures to prevent transmission of COVID-19 were very successful for younger and older aged people in Pakistan. The majority of patients with COVID-19 typically initially had a sore throat, cough, pneumonia, diarrhea, and fever. The situation in Pakistan remained in control as compared to the rest of the whole world. Additionally, after a long lockdown, the second and third wave of COVID-19 also had fewer effects on the Pakistan population compared to many other countries. The best cure for the COVID-19 infection should be vaccinated and also focused on personal care, hygiene, take ample sunlight, fresh air, and ensure personal protection as well as social distancing. Moreover, the Pakistan government should provide guidelines and training to healthcare workers, and safety essentials to be imposed on people who violate standard operating procedure (SOPs) like levied penalties, sealing shops, send to jails, etc. Additionally, now that the vaccine has been introduced, adaptations to COVID-19 safety restrictions should be made and include mandatory vaccination as well as precautionary measures for all citizens.

19.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-333168

ABSTRACT

Introduction Memory complaints resulting from COVID-19 may have a significant impact on the survivors' quality of life. Unfortunately, there is insufficient information available on memory loss and its relationship to COVID-19. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of memory complaints in post-COVID-19 patients and to find potential contributing factors. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 401 individuals who had previously been diagnosed with COVID-19 at four COVID testing centers situated across Bangladesh. The MAC-Q questionnaire was used to evaluate memory. A binary logistic regression model was fit to study the variables related to memory complaints, with a p-value of <0.05 deemed statistically significant. Result Memory complaints was prevalent in 19.2% of the post-COVID patients. Individual predictor analysis revealed that among the treatment modalities, steroids and antibiotics were associated with impaired memory. Multiple logistic regression showed that individuals who recovered from COVID-19 within six to twelve months were more likely to have memory deficits. Even though age, sex, oxygen demand, and hospitalization were not linked with memory complaints, rural residents exhibited more significant memory complaints than urban residents. Conclusion Nearly one-fifth of the COVID-19 patients suffer from various degrees of memory complaints within one year. However, no association was found between COVID-19 severity to memory complaints.

20.
2021 IEEE International Humanitarian Technology Conference, IHTC 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1784505

ABSTRACT

Access to the Internet is necessary to ensure equity for the right to education. However, about 75% of school-age children in rural areas of the world do not have access to the Internet at home. In the Ecuadorian context, only 5.1% of the rural population uses the Internet in public/state schools. Therefore, actions are necessary to reduce the digital gap to improve the quality of education in rural communities in Ecuador. An initiative of IEEE Ecuador, with the support of IEEE SIGHT and the Municipality of Nabón, allowed the rehabilitation of a data network in 40 schools in the Nabón community in 2020. This paper examines the impact of the project, through of the collection of quantitative and qualitative data through stakeholder surveys, to evaluate the impact of data network rehabilitation in the community during the first year of operation. The results show that the Internet in schools has improved the quality of education for students, has allowed children and young people to have access to online education during the COVID-19 pandemic, and has decreased the dropout rate in the benefited schools. The Internet service in schools has also allowed families to save money and entertain themselves. The paper also reports on the evaluation of the social impact of the project, through a Social Return On Investment (SROI) analysis. © 2021 IEEE.

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