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Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition ; 47(Supplement 2):S81, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2321557


Background: Patients with COVID-19 experience prolonged ICU stays. The rate of malnutrition in hospitalized patients remains controversial as well as the appropriate nutrition therapy for these patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of nutrition support on clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Method(s): This was a retrospective chart review involving 48 adults, critically ill patients admitted with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Data extracted included demographic, anthropometric, medical history, biochemical tests, medications, nutrition support protocol, clinical outcomes, length of stay, and ventilator status. We tested associations between aspects of nutrition support (such as early versus delayed feeding, adequacy, and patient positioning) and clinical outcomes (ICU length of stay, weight status, malnutrition status, refeeding syndrome, and ventilator days) using Chi-square, and t-tests, with significance established at the level of p <= 0.05. Result(s): Thirty-eight percent (18) of the patients met the criteria for malnutrition using the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) tool. Approximately 83% of these patients did not have a documented diagnosis of malnutrition in the electronic medical record. More than half of the patients in the study (58.3%) were placed in prone position as part of their treatment and only 7% of these had documented signs of feeding intolerance. None of the patients were switched to total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Only 37% of the patients received adequate protein within the first week of nutrition support while 98% had adequate or exceeded caloric needs. There was no difference in percent weight loss among patients who received inadequate protein compared to those who had adequate protein. Inadequate protein intake was associated with shorter ICU stays (p = 0.04) and fewer ventilator days (p = 0.01) compared to those with adequate protein. Patients who received inadequate or exceeded their calories needs also had shorter ICU stays and fewer ventilator days (p > 0.05). In the context of this study, shorter ICU stays translated into fewer days of life, as 98% of the studied population died before ICU discharge. There were no associations between early nutrition support and selected biochemical parameters. Conclusion(s): The rate of malnutrition was remarkable and largely undocumented. Most patients did not meet the minimum estimated protein needs. Studies with larger sample sizes are needed to examine appropriate protein needs and the effect of nutrition support in patients with COVID-19. Diagnosing and documenting malnutrition warrants heightened attention.

Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences ; Part E. 11:257-264, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2326014


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic, which started in December 2019, is still continuing to date (November 2021), and nobody knows how long it will remain. During this time, the world remains vigilant against the pandemic, causing new problems in various fields of life. At the same time, the public continues getting latest information about COVID-19. One and a half year is not a short time to continuously carry out COVID-19 preventive behavior, which in turn causes relaxation of COVID-19 preventive behavior. AIM: This study aims to determine the correlation between knowledge and COVID-19 preventive behavior after 1 year of pandemic among medical students and to find out factors that affect knowledge about COVID-19. METHOD(S): This is a descriptive-analytic cross-sectional study with 261 respondents collected from students of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara. Respondents' data were collected using an online questionnaire which had been tested for its validity and reliability. Distribution of sample size used proportionate stratified random sampling and simple random sampling. Data will be analyzed using Chi-square. RESULT(S): Of the 261 respondents analyzed, 247 respondents (94.7%) had good level of knowledge, 222 respondents (85.1%) had good level of preventive behavior, and the factors that influenced knowledge were the year of admission (p = 0.028) and family member with past confirmed case of COVID-19 (p = 0.011). The knowledge and preventive behavior relationship analysis showed p = 0.009 (PR = 4.864 [95% CI: 1.587-14.909]). CONCLUSION(S): Even though the pandemic has lasted for more than 1 year, medical students with good level of knowledge still carry out good preventive behavior showing a meaningful relationship between knowledge and preventive behavior. Level of knowledge is influenced by the year of admission and family member with past confirmed case of the year of admission and family member with past confirmed case of COVID-19.Copyright © 2023 Chandra Pranata Salim.

Journal of Clinical Rheumatology ; 29(4 Supplement 1):S4-S5, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2324507


Objectives: Few studies evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of different COVID-19 vaccine platforms in patients with primary Sjogren's Syndrome (pSS). The present study aims to assess the immunogenicity through anti-spike IgG antibodies after the COVID-19 vaccine dose in heterologous groups compared to homologous regimen in patients with pSS. Method(s): These data are from the SAFER study: 'Safety and efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine in rheumatic disease', a real-life phase IV multicenter longitudinal study, evaluating patients since before the first dose. Pregnant women, those with a history of serious adverse events prior to any vaccine, and those with other causes of immunosuppression were excluded. Patients with pSS > 18 years, classified according to ACR/EULAR 2016 classification criteria were included. Antibodies against the Receptor Binding Domain - RBD portion of the Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 (IgG-S) were measured by chemiluminescence (Architect SARS-CoV-2 Quanti II, Abbott), before the first dose and 28 days after the 2nd and 3rd dose. Seropositivity was defined as IgG-Spike titers >=7.1 BAU/mL. Patients received adenoviral vector (ChAdOx1, Astrazeneca), mRNA (Pfizer) or inactivated SARS-COV-2 (Coronavac). Non-parametric methods were used. The alpha level of significance was set at 5%. Result(s): 56 participants received 3 doses, 46 +/- 11 years old, disease duration 7.62 years, 92.9% female, 41.1% White and 55.4% Mixed. The homologous third-booster dose group (n = 15, all ChAdOx1) and heterologous group (n = 41) were homogeneous for age, sex, ethnicity, comorbidities, medication and baseline IgG-S median [IQR] titers. After primary vaccination (2 doses) IgG-S median and titers [IQR] were similar in homologous and heterologous groups (373.03 [179.58, 843.92] vs. 473.36 [119.05, 1059.60], p = 0.705). Third-booster dose induced higher IgG-S median [IQR] titers compared to only 2 doses (1229.54 [333.55, 4365.47] vs 464.95 [140.42, 1015.25], p alpha 0.001). Heterologous 3rd-booster induced higher IgG-S median [IQR] titers than homologous scheme with ChAdOx1 (1779.52 [335.83, 4523.89] vs 730.76 [303.37, 1858.98], p = 0.150), Fig 1 and 2, although not statistically significant. Conclusion(s): Third booster dose induced higher humoral immune response compared to two doses whichmay improve protection against COVID-19 in patients with pSS. Although not statistically significant, the response to the heterologous scheme tended to be better than the response to the homologous booster vaccination, which heterologous booster scheme tended to respond better than homologous booster vaccination, which is relevant in this immunosuppressed population. Increasing the sample size will help clarify this issue. .

Rheumatology (United Kingdom) ; 62(Supplement 2):ii51-ii52, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2324199


Background/Aims Cases of new autoimmune and autoinflammatory conditions have been reported among COVID-19 survivors. A literature review on newonset autoimmune connective tissue diseases (ACTDs) following infection with COVID-19 is lacking.This systematic literature review aimed to evaluate the potential association between COVID-19 infection and the development of new-onset ACTDs in adults. Methods Articles published until September 2022, investigating the association between COVID-19 infection and new-onset ACTDs were included. The ''population'' searched was patients with disease terms for autoimmune connective tissue diseases, including (but not limited to) systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjogren's syndrome, systemic sclerosis (SSc), any idiopathic inflammatory myositis (IIM), antisynthetase syndrome, mixed CTD and undifferentiated CTD (and related MeSH terms), with ''intervention'' as COVID-19 and related terms. For terms for COVID-19, a dedicated search strategy developed by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence was used.Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched, restricted to English-language articles only. Eligible articles were: case reports and series (of any sample size), observational studies, qualitative studies and randomised controlled trials. Patients developing ACTDs without prior COVID-19 or reporting flares of existing ACTDs were excluded. Information was extracted on patient demographics, new ACTDs' onset time, clinical characteristics, COVID-19 and ACTD treatment, and COVID-19 and ACTDs outcomes. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42022358750). Results After deduplication, 2239 articles were identified. After screening title and , 2196 papers were excluded, with 43 proceeding to fulltext screening. Ultimately, 28 articles (all single case reports) were included. Of the 28 included patients, 64.3% were female. The mean age was 51.1 years (range 20-89 years). The USA reported the most cases (9/28). ACTD diagnoses comprised: 11 (39.3%) IIM (including 4 cases of dermatomyositis);7 (25%) SLE;4 (14.3%) anti-synthetase syndrome;4 (14.3%) SSc;2 (7.1%) other ACTD (one diagnosed with lupus/MCTD overlap). Of eight, four (14.3%) patients (including that with lupus/MCTD) were diagnosed with lupus nephritis. The average onset time from COVID-19 infection to ACTD diagnosis was 23.7days. A third of the patients were admitted to critical care, one for ACTD treatment for SLE with haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (14 sessions of plasmapheresis, rituximab and intravenous corticosteroids) and nine due to COVID-19. The majority (80%) of patients went into remission of ACTD following treatment, while two (10%) patients died- one due to macrophage activation syndrome associated with anti-synthetase syndrome and two from unreported causes. Conclusion Our results suggest a potential association between COVID-19 infection and new-onset ACTDs, predominantly in young females, reflective of wider CTD epidemiology. The aetiology and mechanisms by which ACTDs arise following COVID-19 infection remain unknown and require more robust epidemiological data.

Journal of Kerman University of Medical Sciences ; 30(2):92-99, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2323820


Background: There is still no specific treatment strategy for COVID-19 other than supportive management. The potential biological benefits of ozone therapy include reduced tissue hypoxia, decreased hypercoagulability, modulated immune function by inhibiting inflammatory mediators, improved phagocytic function, and impaired viral replication. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of intravenous ozonated normal saline on patients with severe COVID-19 disease. Method(s): In this study, a single centralized randomized clinical trial was conducted on 80 hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19. The patients were selected by random allocation method and divided into two groups A and B. In group A (control group), patients were given standard drug treatment, and in group B (intervention group), patients received ozonated normal saline in addition to the standard drug treatment. In the intervention group, 400 mL of normal saline was weighed by 40 mug/ kg of body weight and was injected into patients within 15 to 30 minutes (80 to 120 drops per minute). This process was done daily every morning for a week. Primary and secondary outcomes of the disease included changes in the following items: length of hospital stay, inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein (CRP), clinical recovery, arterial blood oxygen status, improvement of blood disorders such as leukopenia and leukocytosis, duration of ventilator attachment, and rapid clearance of lung lesions on CT scans. The need for intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization, the length of ICU stay, and the mortality rate in patients of the two groups was compared. Result(s): According to the results of the initial outcome variable analysis, the probability of discharge of patients who received the normal ozonated saline intervention was 33% higher than patients who did not receive this intervention;however, this relationship was not statistically significant (HR = 0.67, 95%, CI = 0.42-1.06, P value = 0.089). The chance of ICU hospitalization in patients of the intervention group was three times more than that of the comparison group, but this relationship was not significant (odds ratio = 4.4 95% CI = 1.32-14.50, P value = 0.016). The use of ozonated normal saline was found to increase the risk of death by 1.5 times but this relationship was not statistically significant (odds ratio = 1.5, 95% CI = .24-9.75, P value = 0.646). Ozonated normal saline had a significant effect on changes in respiration rate (in the intervention group the number of breaths was decreased) and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (in the intervention group the erythrocyte sedimentation rate was increased);however, it had no significant effect on other indicators. Conclusion(s): The present study showed that ozone therapy in hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 could help improve some primary and secondary outcomes of the disease. Governments and health policymakers should make ozone therapy an available care service so that the need for advanced treatment facilities decreases;consequently, this measure may improve patient safety, prevent lung tissue destruction, and control cytokine storms in patients. Additionally, health decision-makers need to aim for the effective clinical improvement of patients, especially severe ones, and the reduction of their mortality. However, further large-scale multicenter studies with larger sample sizes considering drug side effects and other variables influencing the clinical course of COVID-19 can provide more information on the effectiveness and importance of ozone therapy.Copyright © 2023 The Author(s);Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

Endocrine Practice ; 29(5 Supplement):S10-S11, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2319517
Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia ; 29(2):60-66, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2318989
International Journal of Pharmacy Practice ; 31(Supplement 1):i12-i13, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2318503
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences ; 15(3):35-37, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2317581
Journal of Investigative Medicine ; 71(1):597-599, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2316662
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 31(2):35, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2315484
Journal of Cystic Fibrosis ; 21(Supplement 2):S68, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2315064