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1.
Schoolchildren of the COVID-19 pandemic: Impact and opportunities ; : 139-151, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2113365

ABSTRACT

Millions of children face food insecurity in the United States. Schools play a major role in addressing the problem of food insecurity through the National School Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program which provide meals to children at little to no cost. During the COVID-19 pandemic, schools abruptly closed leaving students without their primary source of nutrition. This chapter highlights responses from federal, state, and local agencies. Additionally, responses from local organizations and school districts are discussed. The researchers review a partnership built to address emergency food relief after the school closures. Data from an impact and need study conducted by the South Texas community partnership demonstrate gaps in programs which left the most vulnerable populations in severe need of assistance. This study reinforces the need for and importance of community partnerships to identify and address gaps in the current programs. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

2.
Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences ; 84(1-A):No Pagination Specified, 2023.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2111844

ABSTRACT

Numerous studies have been conducted on the impact school climate and culture has on student achievement, but little has been studied on how climate and culture impacts student attendance. This study focuses specifically on the teacher-student relationship, parent engagement, and school safety and how these three areas of emphasis affect student attendance. When students feel disconnected, parents are unengaged, and safety concerns are present within the school setting, attendance barriers are created for students. This mixed-methods explanatory approach provided researchers the opportunity to survey all middle school students and interview 10 individual students per grade level for further investigation into what barriers are present at Rural #0535 Middle School. Although the results from the student body were generally favorable, there were pockets of concern in each of the three areas that indicate the reasons why students are absent from school. With the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as chronic absenteeism, school leaders must identify ways to address the concerns identified within the investigations. Once identified, school administrators can begin to eliminate the obstacles that are hindering students from attending school. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

3.
Br J Educ Psychol ; 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107934

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in school closures worldwide and unexcused absences have increased since schools reopened. AIMS: Drawing on multiple stakeholders' perspectives, we aimed to (i) develop a detailed understanding of how school attendance problems (SAPs) have manifested for primary school-aged children in the context of COVID-19; and (ii) identify promising community-based intervention strategies. METHODS: We used a qualitative design with two sequential phases of data collection. Phase 1 involved insight generation using qualitative surveys with parents and professionals working in primary education settings. These results were used to guide in-depth stakeholder interviews in Phase 2. SAMPLE: Phase 1 included 29 parents of primary-school children experiencing SAPs and 19 professionals. Phase 2 included 10 parents and 12 professionals. Parents were recruited through social media; professionals were identified through schools and associated networks in Southern England. RESULTS: Attendance was particularly challenging for children with special educational needs and pre-existing anxiety problems. Compounding factors included COVID-related anxiety, difficulties adapting to new school routines, poor home-school communication and collaboration, and concerns about academic catch-up. Effective support was characterized by schools and families working closely together. Recommendations for practice improvements centred on early intervention, re-building parent-school relationships, peer support for parents, and improving special educational provision. CONCLUSION: New interventions for SAPs must be sensitive to the ongoing COVID-19 context. Help should be easily accessible in the community and address modifiable risk and protective factors for individual children, in family systems, and at the home-school interface.

4.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(7):351-352, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067741

ABSTRACT

Objective: COVID-19 pandemic pushed unprepared educational institutes towards online sessions. Though equivalence of online sessions proved already in many studies before pandemic, unplanned sessions and inexperienced teachers with networking issues and novice software for online sessions could not meet the standard of teaching that was expected or experienced during these sessions. We planned this study to know perspective of learners to measure quality of online sessions and to find out factors which could improve these sessions in future. Design: Prospective questionnaire based study Place & duration of study: Hitec IMS Dental College, from 10th Feb 2022 to 10th March 2022 Methodology: Questionnaire was distributed to 150 students of BDS who has attended online session during COVID-19 pandemic. Results: 85% of the responders appreciated online sessions happening during pandemic to avoid wastage of time but as high as 50% students were of the opinion that teachers could not maintain standard of teaching as in on campus session. Factors for this dis-satisfaction of students included issues like connectivity issues, gadgets of students as well as teachers, novelty to softwares to attend online class, and psychological issues like depression. So at the end 83% of students preferred on-campus sessions on on-line sessions. Conclusion: On the basis of findings of this study, it is recommended that we should continue activity of online teaching with improvement in resources and train our staff and students even in the absence of such emergency.

5.
Archives of Disease in Childhood ; 107(Supplement 2):A57-A58, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064013

ABSTRACT

Aims The London Post COVID Syndrome Pathway was set up in October in 2020 in order to meet the needs of children affected by persistent symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection. The UK CLoCk study (1), 11-17 years, showed high symptom prevalence, increasing from time of testing to 3 months (35.4% to 66.5% in SARS-CoV-2 positive cases and 8.3% to 53.3% in controls). ONS (2) data from a large, randomly selected population survey (April 2020 to August 2021) reported symptom prevalence 4-8 weeks after infection of 3.3% in primary aged children (vs 3.6% in negative controls) and 4.6% (vs 2.9%) in secondary aged. The Zoe Kings study (3) showed 1.8% of children had symptoms beyond 8 weeks after infection. The COVID pandemic has affected ethnic minorities and those in deprived communities the most. Here, we aimed to describe referral patterns and ascertain factors influencing inequalities in access to care. Methods We collected demographic and clinical data from our Post COVID clinics, from October 2020 to January 2022. Deprivation deciles were based on the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD 2019). Decile 1 represents the most deprived 10% (decile) in England and Decile 10 represents the least deprived 10%. Analyses were descriptive. Results A total of 86 patients were referred with persistent symptoms (median age 14, range 7-18). The female:male ratio was 1.5:1 (52:34). Ethnicity data was available for n=74. Of those 5% identified from Black backgrounds (expected 13.30%);9% Asian (vs 18.50%);12% Other Ethnic Groups (vs 3.40%), 7% Mixed Ethnic Groups (vs 5%) and 53% White (vs 59.80%). Median IMD score was 6, with mode =7 (London mean 3, mode =1). Conclusion Our data suggests children from more affluent (less deprived) areas are accessing the service, with an underrepresentation of males. A small number of patients were referred compared to those reporting persistent symptoms in national surveys. This may be due to a relatively lower number having impairment and/or a lack of awareness amongst professionals. Ethnicity data shows a lower number than expected Black (40% less) and Asian (50% less) backgrounds are accessing support. Since schools re-opened in September 2021 reduced school attendance has been reported for many children. Persistent symptoms are common post viral infection, and most children recover. However, for some these can be debilitating. If children have reduced school attendance due to persistent symptoms they need prompt access to care. Our study raises concern about access to Post COVID services for all children (particularly males and those from minority backgrounds), raising lack of awareness amongst GPs and schools as a possibility. Proactive case finding is needed, particularly in hardly-reached groups. NHS England has recommended a lead for supporting equality to help this and is in post. The numbers of children accessing care is smaller than the number reporting symptoms, an area that requires further study.

6.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 63(7):3272-A0324, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2057747

ABSTRACT

Purpose : Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) is a form of asthenopia that manifests with symptoms such as eye pain/discomfort, headache, and blurred vision, among others. Early identification of CVS is especially relevant during the COVID-19 pandemic, which has led to an increase in virtual schooling and digital screen time among children worldwide. This study seeks to evaluate differences in etiologies of eye pain, treatment recommendations, and the relationship between refractive errors and eye pain in the pediatric population before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods : After IRB approval, we retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who visited our tertiary care institution between 2018 and 2021 with a chief complaint of eye pain, determined by the encounter's primary ICD-10 code. Patients who visited before 03/11/2020, when the WHO declared COVID-19 a pandemic, were classified as the pre-pandemic group (PPG), while patients who consulted after this date were classified as the during-pandemic group (DPG). Demographics, symptoms, refractive error, treatment, and schooling method were recorded as covariates and analyzed using a Chi-square and Fisher's exact test. Results : 38 patients were included in the study (21 PPG;17 DPG). The mean age was 10.1 ± 3.2 years, and the majority were African American (44.7%). Virtual school attendance for the PPG and DPG was 4.8% and 58.8%, respectively (P<0.05) (Table 1). There was a higher prevalence of reported blurry vision, headaches, eye redness, eye swelling, and rubbing among DPG patients (Table 1). Counseling on screen time minimization was more likely to be documented in the DPG (Table 2). A greater proportion of patients were prescribed new glasses in the DPG though there was no significant relationship between eye pain and refractive error or anisometropia in either group (P>0.05). Conclusions : The increased prevalence of CVS symptoms in the DPG suggests an association between virtual schooling and CVS in children. There is a role for ophthalmologists to improve rates of counseling for the prevention of eye pain-related symptomatology with digital device usage. Further studies will survey parents to assess their awareness of conservative treatments for eye pain such as artificial tears and decreased screen time.

7.
Pediatrics ; 149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003377

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic children were deprived of in-person attendance at school and experienced social isolation. The impact of these social-distancing measures on pediatric mental health is only now being unraveled. We conducted a descriptive review of psychiatric diagnoses at a pediatric outpatient practice in a Southern Illinois rural community. We compared the trends of pediatric psychiatric diagnosis before and following the COVID pandemic. Methods: Pediatric Group LLC has multiple office locations in Rural Southern Illinois catering to about 10,000 pediatric patients staffed by pediatric providers and a clinical psychologist. The pediatric population has remained stable during the period. The care providers and practices have remained unchanged over the past four years. We did a retrospective review of electronic health records from January 2019 through June 2021. Using ICD10 diagnostic codes, we analyzed the top 100 diagnoses made at the pediatric practice. Diagnoses were broadly classified into psychiatric and non-psychiatric categories. Psychiatric illnesses included anxiety, attention deficit hypersensitivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorders, mood disorders, sleep disorders, and other psychiatric illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Descriptive comparisons were made between pre-COVID (2019) and post-COVID (2021) periods. Results: Compared to a baseline of 5044 encounters in 2019 (pre-COVID), attendance was 9% lower (4680) in 2020. Attendance dropped by 14% (2206) in the first half of 2020, increasing by 11% (2474) to reach preCOVID levels in the second half of 2020. The attendances continued to increase in the first half of 2021, reaching 43% higher (3614) numbers compared to pre-COVID levels. Compared to 2019 and 2020, an increase in all psychiatric diagnoses was seen in our offices in the year 2021. Further analysis of the year 2021 showed significant increases in Anxiety and Depressive disorders, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Disruptive Mood Dysregulation disorder (DMDD), and Major Depressive disorders (MDD) that almost doubled the statistics from the pre-COVID period. Sleep disorders and Post Traumatic Distress Disorder (PTSD) visits increased by far more than 150 percent. (Table 1) Conclusion: A steady increase in pediatric psychiatric illness has been noted in the second half of 2020 and first half of 2021 following COVID pandemic. We observed an increase by over two times with almost all the psychiatric disorders in 2021. The overall increase in the incidence of various pediatric psychiatric illnesses is concerning. We believe that the absence of in-school attendance may have played a significant role.

8.
Journal of Cystic Fibrosis ; 21:S43, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1996748

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Children with cystic fibrosis (CF) in Sweden are routinely monitored at the hospital more often than the recommended CF guidelines. The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged the healthcare system and the use of digital tools and virtual visits has rapidly increased. The aim of this study was to investigate how children experienced home spirometry (HS) and virtual visits. Methods: A prospective multicentre study including children aged 5–17 years from all 4 Swedish CF centres were conducted between May 2020 to November 2021. All participants received a home spirometer AirNext (NuvoAir,Stockholm, Sweden). Physical visits could be converted to virtual visits during the study and the children were instructed to perform HS prior to both virtual and a physical visits. An anonymous survey was conducted at the end of the study. Results: A total of 60 children with CF were included in the study. During the mean (range) study period of 6.8 (3.1–11.5) months, they completed on average 2.3 (1–4) virtual visits and 3.0 (2–4) physical visits. The survey was completed by 55 (92%) participating children with a mean age of 11.5 (5– 17) years. The virtual visitswere rated just as high as the physical meetings. No child felt more stressed with the opportunity to perform HS;on the contrary, some children (22%) felt less stressed with this possibility. After the introduction of HS, almost all children (98%) responded that they felt calmer or as before the introduction of HS. Half of the children responded that they nowunderstand their CF-disease better than before. Virtual visits reduced the burden of travel time to the hospital and shortened the mean time away from school up to 3.0 (1.3–4.0) days over a year. Conclusion: Home spirometry increased the understanding of the CF lung disease and did not cause more stress in children with CF. Virtual visits were very appreciated and provide a possibility to decrease school absenteeism due to fewer physical visits at the hospital.

9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; 63(8):707-716, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1968987

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of intervention policies on coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) dissemination. Materials and Methods: An age-structured compartmental model for the COVID-19 outbreak was proposed to predict the impact of control measures in the Seoul/Gyeonggi region. The model was calibrated based on actual data and realistic situations, including daily vaccine doses, proportion of delta variant cases, and confirmed cases by age. We simulated different scenarios for non-pharmaceutical interventions by varying social distancing and school attendance strategies. Results: Two-step mitigation of social distancing without in-person classes would result in a rapid increase in confirmed cases up to 10000 but would keep severe cases within the manageable range of the health care system. The overall impact of taking down the distancing level by one step with twice the increase in contacts at school was comparable to the above scenario. Implementation of two-step mitigation of social distancing along with a two-fold increase in contacts among the school-age group would dra-matically increase confirmed and severe cases by over 80000 and 100, respectively, as early as the beginning of December. This policy would cause the situation to spiral out of control, considering the scale of the response and time to prepare. On the other hand, the burden on the current healthcare system caused by two-step mitigation of social distancing and 40% increased contacts in the school-age group was manageable if prepared. Conclusion: A compromise between social distancing and school attendance policy and timely preparations for the spread of COVID-19 are required.

10.
Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences ; 83(9-A):No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1958191

ABSTRACT

This mixed-methods case study aimed to explore absenteeism and attendance expectations in Caufield, a pseudonym for a New England school district that facilitated an overnight one-to-one technology distribution in response to COVID-19. The sample consisted of one middle school in a four-school district in Connecticut. This research study sought to understand attendance expectations and the access and use of technology in response to COVID-19. In addition, the study explored limitations to online learning due to the absenteeism of teachers and students. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

11.
Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties ; 27(1):1-2, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956512
12.
Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences ; 83(9-A):No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1929285

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused schools nationwide to open the 2019-2020 school year with educational options for students and parents. Distance learning has become increasingly popular with the ability to learn anytime and anywhere. Traditional learning provides face-to-face instruction with the ability for collaboration among students. This quantitative study compared the impact of virtual or face-to-face instruction on students' progress towards high school graduation. Specifically, this study investigated the effect the two instructional models had on course failures, grade point average, and attendance. Lastly, this study investigated the influence a tiered two intervention, Extended School Day, had on students identified as Off-Track students who had earned less than the required credits and had a grade point average below 2.0. Unpaired, two-tailed t-tests were used to determine the instructional model's impact on course failures, absenteeism, and grade point average. Archival data from a suburban high school from the 2019- 2020 school year was analyzed. The results showed that distance education students accumulated less course failures and better grade point averages for semester one. The results shifted towards traditional learning for semester two, and a Fisher Exact test was used to calculate the effect Extended School Day had on Off-Track students. The results demonstrated this two-tiered intervention benefitted those who attended by decreasing course failures thus increasing grade point average. These results suggested that distance education provided a better learning environment for students during the beginning of the 2019-2020 school year. However, traditional education impacted students more positively during the second semester. Therefore, distance education may be a good option during times of emergency, but it cannot be the only option for all students. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

13.
Frontiers in Education ; 7:12, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1928413

ABSTRACT

According to Norway's Educational Act (2-1), all children and youths from age 6 to 16 have a right and an obligation to attend free and inclusive education, and most of them attend public schools. Attending school is important for students' social and academic development and learning;however, some children do not attend school caused by a myriad of possible reasons. Interventions for students with school attendance problems (SAPs) must be individually adopted for each student based on a careful assessment of the difficulties and strengths of individuals and in the student's environment. Homeschooling might be one intervention for students with SAPs;however, researchers and stakeholders do not agree that this is an optimal intervention. Schools that were closed from the middle of March 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic provided an opportunity to investigate remote education more closely. An explorative study was conducted that analyzed 248 teachers' in-depth perspectives on how to use and integrate experiences from the period of remote education for students with SAPs when schools reopen. Moreover, teachers' perspectives on whether school return would be harder or easier for SAP students following remote education were investigated. The teachers' experiences might be useful when planning school return for students who have been absent for prolonged periods.

14.
Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine ; 10(5 SUPPL 2), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1916579

ABSTRACT

Background: Since April 2020, some high schools were closed to in-person teaching, and interscholastic and club sports were cancelled in an attempt to slow the spread of COVID- 19. While some US adolescents participated in sports since April 2020, other US adolescents did not participate in sports during this time. It is unknown what effect sport participation has had on the health of adolescents. Hypothesis/Purpose: To identify how sport participation during the COVID-19 pandemic impacted the health of adolescents. Methods: Adolescents across the US were recruited via social media to complete an online survey in the spring of 2021. Participants were asked to report their demographics (age, gender, race), whether they participated in school club or school sports since May 2020, type of school they attended (in-person, online, hybrid), and measures of mental health (MH), physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QoL). Assessments included the: General Anxiety Disorder-7 Item (GAD-7) for anxiety, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Item (PHQ-9) for depression, Pediatric Functional Activity Brief Scale (PFABS) for physical activity, and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQL) for quality of life. Assessment scores were compared for respondents who participated in sports (PAR) with those that did not participate in sports (NoPAR). Univariable comparisons between the groups were made via ttests or chi-square tests while means for continuous outcome measures were compared between the groups by ANOVA models that controlled for age, gender, race and the type of school attendance. Results: 4,693 adolescents (52% female, Age = 16.1+1.3 yrs., grades 9-12) from 38 states participated in the study with PAR = 4,286 (91%) and NoPAR = 407 (9%). NoPAR participants reported a higher prevalence of moderate to severe levels of anxiety (29.3% vs 21.3%, p<0.001) and depression (40.7% vs 19.8%, p<0.001). NoPAR participants reported lower (worse) PFABS scores (mean 13.2 [95%CI 12.4, 13.9] vs 21.2 [20.7, 21.6] p<0.001) and lower (worse) PedsQL total scores compared to the PAR group (77.9 [76.5, 79.3] vs. 83.2 [82.3, 84.1], p<0.001). Conclusions: Adolescents who did not play a sport during the COVID-19 pandemic reported significantly higher levels of anxiety and depression, as well as lower physical activity and quality of life scores compared to adolescents who did play a school or club sport. Participation in organized sports may offer an important opportunity to improve physical activity and mental health for adolescents during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.

15.
Swiss Medical Weekly ; 152(SUPPL 258):16S, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1913165

ABSTRACT

Post-COVID syndrome (or long COVID) is a set of multiple symptoms oc-curring after a documented SARS-CoV-2 infection and persisting for more than 2 months. The pediatric population is also affected, especially pre-adolescents and adolescents, even if data about this age group are still scarce. Persistent symptoms can have a strong impact on quality of life and schooling, school absenteeism and social withdrawal being of major concern. For this reason, the Division of General Pediatrics at the Univer-sity Hospital of Geneva has set up in May 2021 a specific consultation for adolescents with post-COVID syndrome, offering global and multidiscipli-nary care. To date 50 patients have been addressed to our consultation by their gen-eral practitioner. The mean age is 14 years, two thirds are girls. The symp-toms are multiple and non-specific, and are similar to those described in adults. The most frequent ones are fatigue, dizziness, headaches, dysp-nea, loss of smell, brain fog, sleep disorders, mood disorders. The Peds-QL questionnaire (assessing 4 aspects of teenagers' daily life), shows an impact of these symptoms on the quality of life, schooling and daily activities being the most affected. Reassuringly, peer relationships seem preserved. Impact on schooling is important, with two thirds of pa-tients reporting an impact on school performance, and one fourth having extended school absenteeism. The Adolescent Depression Rating Scale shows that 44% of our patients are at risk for depression. One third needs a psychological support. If necessary, patients can be referred to specialized consultations in our multidisciplinary group (ENT, pulmonology, neurology, cardiology, etc.) or to complementary examinations (Tilt-Test, stress test). Patients having symptoms due to physical activity (fatigability, shortness of breath, dysau-tonomia with standing position intolerance) can benefit from a progres-sive and individualized reconditioning program with an adapted sport coach. We offer a global follow-up to patients and families. School attendance is supported by making individual arrangements if required, through close collaboration with the education system. Repetition of the questionnaires 3-6 months after the beginning of the follow-up shows a trend towards clear improvement, however a longer follow-up period would be necessary to confirm these observations. (To allow fully up-to-date informations, numbers are susceptible to change until June).

16.
Scottish Medical Journal ; 67(2):NP18, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1896169

ABSTRACT

Background: Renal transplant patients are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease than the general population. Excess weight is a significant risk factor for all patients, with weight gain post-transplant a particular concern. Methods: This retrospective observational study of children attending the renal transplant clinic monitored changes in weight and body mass index over the first 12 months of the SARS-Cov-2 pandemic, during which multiple restrictions on socialising and school attendance occurred. Results: 46 post-kidney transplant patients at least 6 months post-transplant were included. 26 patients gained weight, 11 patients had stable weight and 9 lost weight. The mean weight z-score across the patient cohort increased from -0.053 at start of lockdown 1, to 0.132 4 months post-lockdown 1, increasing further to 0.196 after lockdown 2. Mean BMI z-score increased from 0.633 at onset of lockdown to 0.788 at end of lockdown 1. Conclusion: The majority of paediatric post-kidney transplant patients demonstrated increases in weight and BMI z-score over the periods of lockdown. The potential consequences of the pandemic and societal responses continue to emerge.

17.
Journal of Investigative Medicine ; 70(4):1057, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1868754

ABSTRACT

Purpose of Study A subset of children and adolescents who have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 can experience recurrent or persistent symptoms beyond the typical recovery period. The constellation of findings that occur post-infection is known Post-Acute Sequelae of Covid-19 (PASC). Relatively little is known about this condition in the pediatric population. This study aimed to explore the clinical spectrum and outcomes of children and adolescents diagnosed with PASC within a large healthcare system. Methods Used In this cross-sectional study, encounter- and patient-level data were extracted from the electronic health records (EHR) of patients <21 years who had at least one health care visit between 5/1/21 and 9/30/21 in an ambulatory site affiliated with the Yale-New Haven Health System. Individuals with a PASC-associated encounter were identified using Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED) codes, the standard for encoding patient conditions in the EHR. Free-text data fields denoting the 'reason for visit' were also queried to optimize case-finding. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize demographics, clinical characteristics, and management of pediatric patients with PASC. Summary of Results During the study period, there were 66,590 pediatric patients with an encounter in the health system, of which 1,520 had a Covid-19-related encounter diagnosis, and 37 had PASC. The mean age for PASC was 16 years (± 4), and 65% were female. Most identified their race/ ethnicity as either White (59%), Black (5%), or Hispanic (32%). The most common comorbidities included atopy (32%), asthma (22%), and obesity (12%). Approximately 28% of children diagnosed with PASC had no prior medical history, and 30% were previously active in sports before Covid- 19. In the acute phase of the disease, most (88%) had a mild illness, and only 12% required hospitalization. The median time between acute Covid-19 and their PASC encounter was 3 weeks (IQR 1-5). The most prevalent symptoms are shown in figure 1. Patients with PASC had a mean follow-up of 2.6 months. Medical utilization was high, with an average of 3 medical encounters per patient (range 1-12). Most (75%) had minimal to no limitations in daily functioning, though at least 5% experienced severe limitations and reported high rates of school absenteeism. Out of the 31 patients screened for depression, 8 (26%) tested positive. Cardiology and pulmonology evaluated 72% and 48% of PASC cases, respectively, yet only 8% found abnormalities in their work-up. Conclusions This study highlights the wide range of clinical symptoms children and adolescents can experience post-Covid- 19. PASC can occur even after mild SARS-COV-2 infections and may lead to severe limitations. To better understand the true risk SARS-CoV-2 poses to children, more research is needed to quantify the long-term outcomes of infection and the impact PASC has on quality of life. (Figure Presented).

18.
Aust J Soc Issues ; 2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866502

ABSTRACT

This paper contributes to the growing body of research that demonstrates uneven impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on educational outcomes of students from different socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. We evaluate the early impacts of COVID-19 on student attendance in secondary school and show how these impacts depend on students' SES. We employ a quasi-experimental design, using difference-in-differences (DiD) estimation extended to incorporate third-order differences over time between low-SES and other students, and pre- versus during-COVID-19, leveraging robust administrative data extracted from the registers of the Tasmanian Department of Education. Using data from multiple cohorts of secondary school students in government schools in Tasmania (N = 14,135), we find that while the attendance rates were similar pre- and during-COVID-19 for high-SES students, there was a significant drop in attendance rates during COVID-19 among socioeconomically disadvantaged students, demonstrating the more pronounced impacts of COVID-19 for these students. The findings demonstrate that even "relatively short" lockdowns, as those in Tasmania in 2020 (30-40 days of home learning), can significantly affect the learning experiences of students from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds. We discuss the implications of this for future pandemic planning in educational policy and practice and how this needs to be addressed in Australia's COVID-19 recovery.

19.
South African Medical Journal ; 112(4):252-258, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1798761

ABSTRACT

Articles on teenage pregnancies have been proliferating in both the popular press and the medical media. We analysed data available in the public sector database, the District Health Information System, from 2017 to 2021. During this time, the number of births to young teenagers aged 10 - 14 years increased by 48.7% (from a baseline of 2 726, which is very high by developed-country standards) and the birth rate per 1 000 girls in this age category increased from 1.1 to 1.5. These increases occurred year on year in most provinces. In adolescent girls aged 15 - 19, the number of births increased by 17.9% (from a baseline of 114 329) and the birth rate per 1 000 girls in this age category increased from 49.6 to 55.6. These increases also occurred year on year in a continuous upward trend as well as in all provinces, but at different rates. Generally, rates were higher in the more rural provinces such as Limpopo, Mpumalanga and Eastern Cape than in more urban provinces such as Gauteng and Western Cape. The increases during the past 2 years were particularly large and may be due to disruption of health and school services with decreased access to these as a result of COVID-19. These metrics pose serious questions to society in general and especially to the health, education and social sectors, as they reflect socioeconomic circumstances (e.g. sexual and gender-based violence, economic security of families, school attendance) as well as inadequate health education, life skills and access to health services.

20.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112:S109-S111, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1777043

ABSTRACT

Overdose deaths accelerated with the emergence of COVID-19, and this acceleration was fastest among Black, Latinx, and Native Americans, whose overdose rates had already increased before COVID-19.1,2 COVID-19 led to limits on access to medications for opioid use disorder and harm-reduction services, exacerbating low treatment and retention rates,3-5 in the face of toxic drug supplies laced with high-potency synthetic opioids.6 Disproportionate deaths from substance use disorders (SUDs) and from COVID-19 among low-income people marginalized by race, ethnicity, and migrant status have similar upstream causes of exposure, including unstable and crowded housing, high-risk employment or unemployment, and high levels of policing and incarceration, combined with low levels of access to health care and preventive measures. Punitive drug law enforcement discourages help seeking and treatment and leads to unstable drug supplies that are contaminated with fentanyl and other high-potency synthetic opioids that heighten overdose risk.10 Incarcerated people are at an elevated risk of drug overdose in the weeks following release,11 and communities with high incarceration rates have higher mortality.12 Drug courts disproportionately cite low-income people of color for infractions, leading to imprisonment rather than treatment.13 Economic precarity and unstable housing disrupt the social networks that sustain health and prevent overdose.14 Urban planners often displace residents of Black and Latinx neighborhoods, leaving them exposed to narcotic trade and HIV.15 The child welfare system disproportionately removes low-income Black, Latinx, and Indigenous children from families affected by SUDs, and children raised in foster care are at high risk for SUDs.16,17 Therefore, reducing SUD-related deaths and disability requires the redress of discriminatory public policies. Studies of integration of buprenorphine maintenance with organized healing sessions, fishing, hunting, and community gardening in Canadian First Nations communities have shown high rates oftreatment retention (74%) at 18 months,22 and healing sessions combined with buprenorphine have had high levels oftreatment participation, community-level reductions in criminal charges and child protection measures, increased school attendance, and increased flu vaccination.23 Faith-Based Organizations as Partners Imani Breakthrough is a culturally informed approach based on a partnership of Yale University Department of Psychiatry clinicians with Black and Latinx churches. CONCLUSIONS Clinicians can use their symbolic capital to advocate policies that address SDOH and collaborate with community organizations and nonhealth sectors to identify and act on institutional barriers to their patients' health, such as through a structural competency approach.25 Health systems must engage communities, destigmatize SUD, and link to social services with locally controlled, adaptable funds akin to the Ryan White CARE Act to build community-based infrastructure: accessible, trusted services including in cultural, faith-based, and harm-reduction organizations as well as local businesses such as pharmacies.

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