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1.
Prospects (Paris) ; : 1-15, 2021 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085483

ABSTRACT

This article describes the socio-psychological effects of school closure on school-going urban girls in Dhaka, Bangladesh, during the Covid-19 pandemic. It illustrates the life of urban students in Bangladesh during the school-closing time and relates it to their previous normal life. It asserts that the strengths of traditional schools have important relevance to socialization, which was significantly disturbed during the pandemic due to home confinement. Based on both qualitative and quantitative data, the following components led to an understanding of the schools' role in the socialization of urban female students in Bangladesh: emotional attachments, interpersonal interactions, and physical activity. During confinement, the absence of these components put the students' socialization process at risk, resulting in socio-psychological changes in activities and behavioral patterns. Finally, the article recommends not considering online classes as the "new normal"; working toward vaccination and obtaining suitable health equipment for the reopening of traditional schools will do more to ensure the socio-psychological health of future generations.

2.
Prospects (Paris) ; : 1-15, 2021 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085482

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of Covid-19 worldwide has presented an unprecedented challenge for the equity-in-education agenda, especially in developing countries of the Global South (e.g., the English-speaking Caribbean). This article examines the impact school closures have had in Jamaica and Barbados, and highlights the emerging disparities the global pandemic has had on education. The central organizing questions are as follows: Who was affected by school closures in Barbados and Jamaica? How did the Ministries of Education (MOEs) support curriculum and instruction during the pandemic? What challenges does Covid-19 present for MOEs? What are the implications for education after Covid-19? School closure data suggest a gender disparity, with more males than females out of school due to Covid-19 from preprimary to secondary school in Barbados and Jamaica. MOEs in the region responded to school closures primarily by increasing access to technology to facilitate remote learning. Some of the challenges with continuing education for students during Covid-19 were due to a lack of infrastructure and amenities to support remote learning. Implications for education post-Covid-19 are considered.

3.
Data Brief ; 45: 108662, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2068869

ABSTRACT

This dataset provides an insight into the reality and experiences of online learning as perceived by secondary school students in Vietnam during COVID-related school closures. The dataset addresses four main aspects of online learning, namely (a) students' access to learning devices, (b) their digital skill readiness, (c) their experience with online learning and assessment activities, and (d) their overall evaluation of the effectiveness of online learning. The survey was administered online via Google Form from September to December 2021 with responses received from 5,327 secondary school students in 5 provinces of Vietnam. The dataset is expected to benefit local educators, administrators, and teachers who are interested in COVID educational practices and pedagogical interventions. The dataset can also benefit international researchers who wish to conduct comparative studies on student online learning or who wish to seek further insight into the responsiveness of an educational system to pandemic situations.

4.
J Adolesc Health ; 2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061415

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to examine where and with whom adolescents spent time during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to 2019. METHODS: Time diary data from the May 2019 to December 2020 waves of the American Time Use Survey were used to examine trends in where and with whom a sample of individuals aged 15-18 years (N = 437) spent their time. RESULTS: Only 13% of adolescents spent any time at school on a given day during the pandemic (May-December 2020), compared to 36% in the same period in 2019. Average time with friends decreased by 28%. Over the 7.5-month period, this amounts to an average of 204 fewer hours/34 fewer days in school and 86 fewer hours with friends. Time spent sleeping or sleepless did not change. DISCUSSION: Time at school and with friends decreased substantially during the first months of the pandemic.

5.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition ; 75(Supplement 1):S205-S206, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2057644

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Weight management is currently the only established treatment of pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Studies have shown improvements in liver histology, aminotransferase activity, and quality of life after weight loss in children with NAFLD.1 Recent studies demonstrate an accelerated rate of weight gain among children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic that has been attributed to many factors, including the inability to be in a structured school setting and disruptions in family income.2,3 Objective: Our study aims to explore the effect of COVID-19 stay-at-home mandates and school closures on weight gain and liver function tests in children with NAFLD. Method(s): Following IRB approval (IRB 2021-4333), a retrospective chart review was performed on children aged 13-20 years who were seen at Lurie Children's Hospital (LCH) hepatology clinic for NAFLD and had two or more clinic visits at least three months apart during the pandemic period, defined as 3/1/20-9/1/21, and the pre-pandemic period, defined as before 3/1/20. The two most recent visits at least three months apart were the ones selected for the pre-pandemic period. Demographic and clinical data (race, ethnicity, age, BMI, height, weight, AST, ALT) were ed. Monthly BMI, AST, and ALT differences during the two periods were calculated for each patient. Paired-samples T-Tests were used to analyze differences between the two periods. Relative risks for an increase in BMI, AST, or ALT during the pandemic period compared to the pre-pandemic period were calculated. Result(s): Our cohort included 102 patients, with mean age of 14.5 (SD 1.6) during pre-pandemic period and 15.6 (SD 1.4) during pandemic period, 71 (70%) males, and 85 (83%) identifying as Hispanic or Latino. Mean BMI was 34.2 kg/m2 (SD 7.16) with mean Z-score of 2.16 (SD 0.56) during pre-pandemic period and mean BMI of 35.5 kg/m2 (SD 7.0) with mean Z-score of 2.21 (SD 0.56) during pandemic period. Seventy-seven (75%) children had a liver biopsy or other imaging consistent with their NAFLD diagnosis. There was a significant difference between monthly BMI differences during the pre-pandemic period (mean 0.0691 kg/m2/month, SD 0.271) and pandemic period (mean 0.161 kg/m2/month, SD 0.271);p=0.02. Of the 102 patients in our cohort, 75 had two or more ALT measurements at least three months apart during both time periods. There was a significant difference between monthly ALT differences during the pre-pandemic period (mean -2.39 IU/L, SD 8.67) and pandemic period (mean 1.70 IU/L, SD 11.3);p=0.01 (Figure 1). There was no significant difference between monthly AST differences during the two time periods. The relative risk of having an increase in BMI Z-score during the pandemic period compared to the pre-pandemic period was 1.37 (95% CI [1.09-1.72], p < 0.01, Figure 2). The relative risk of having an increase in ALT or AST during the pandemic period compared to the pre-pandemic period was not significant. Conclusion(s): Our cohort of children with NAFLD experienced an accelerated rate of BMI increases and ALT elevation during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings underscore the importance of increasing access to resources for healthy behaviors during public health emergencies or extended school closures in facilitating the health and well-being of children with NAFLD.

6.
J Prev (2022) ; 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048419

ABSTRACT

School closures due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have worsened mental health problems for children and adolescents worldwide. We aimed to examine the follow-up effectiveness of a transdiagnostic universal prevention program for anxiety of junior high school students after a nationwide school closure during the COVID-19 outbreak in Japan. A total of 117 junior high school students were included in the analysis. We used the Unified Universal Prevention Program for Diverse Disorders (Up2-D2) program; the Up2-D2 comprises cognitive-behavioral and positive psychological interventions provided over twelve 45-minute sessions. The program was originally implemented between June and July 2020, immediately after pandemic-related school closures had ended in Japan. The program assessments were based on students' responses to a questionnaire incorporating five scales to measure indicators such as internalizing and externalizing problems. Assessments were carried out before, immediately after, two-month, and six-month after implementing the program. Mixed models for the whole sample showed small anxiety improvement effects immediately post-intervention and two-month, and six-month assessments (g = -0.25, g = -0.44, and g = -0.30, respectively). The anxiety reducing effects were even greater for the higher-anxiety group at the post-, 2-month, and 6-month assessments (g = -1.48; g = -1.59; g = -1.06, respectively). Although there was no control group, these results indicate that the transdiagnostic universal prevention intervention reduce only anxiety, but not other outcomes (depression, anger, and self-efficacy) in junior high students returning to school following school closures related to the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan.

7.
Cyber-Physical Systems: AI and COVID-19 ; : 207-218, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2048747

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has stirred up the world, and its overwhelming impacts can be seen from micro to macro level, that is, from an individual’s day-to-day functioning to the broader level—health sector, finance sector, and off course, the education sector. The younger generation is considered to be the torchbearer of the society. As such, their nutrition, health, safety, and providing education for a holistic development being basic essential needs should be a prime concern for policymakers and all nations worldwide. The present theoretical framework sheds light on the negative as well as the positive impact of COVID-19 on education. It presents a critical analysis of how the education sector experienced a shift from contact teaching to digital learning and got a boost through various online platforms despite having its limitations at the same time including the multidimensional impact of uncertainty and difficulties in sustaining. The chapter also emphasizes the effects of home confinements on students and teachers as well. In this way, the present chapter puts forth the pros and cons of online teaching including various other related aspects. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

8.
Pandemic Risk, Response, and Resilience: COVID-19 Responses in Cities around the World ; : 445-456, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2035607

ABSTRACT

Long-term school closures, as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic, have led to an unprecedented risk associated with children's education, protection, and well-being. The reopening of schools has to be safe and consistent with each area's COVID-19 health response. In such situations, it is essential to consider the need for school-based services such as immunization and school meals, as well as mental health and psychosocial support. Miyagi University of Education, Sendai, has experienced the reopening of schools after they were closed after the earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011. This study describes how school risk management and resilience can contribute to successfully reopening schools after the occurrence of disasters caused by natural hazards such as earthquakes and tsunamis, as well as biological hazards such as COVID-19. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

9.
International Journal of Educational Research ; 115, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2015396

ABSTRACT

Remote learning programs were rapidly implemented throughout the COVID-19 pandemic during school closures. We drew on an ongoing longitudinal study of a cohort of children in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana to survey children (N = 1,844), their caregivers, and teachers to examine learning experiences during the ten months of school closures in Ghana in 2020. We documented inequalities in remote learning opportunities offered by public and private schools, as well as who accessed remote learning and the quality of learning opportunities. In addition, controlling for pre-pandemic learning outcomes, we documented learning gaps, with food insecure, low socioeconomic status, and public-school children performing significantly worse than their peers (0.2–0.3 SD gap). Results highlight pandemic-related inequalities in a cohort of Ghanaian primary schoolchildren. © 2022

10.
J Econ Psychol ; 93: 102549, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007874

ABSTRACT

This paper studies the health and well-being of children during the COVID-19 lockdowns in a developing country context. Using surveys for low-income households in rural areas of Pakistan, we find that lockdowns are associated with worsened health and well-being of children. Exploring potential economic and noneconomic mechanisms behind this negative association, we find that children participating in the labor market due to extreme poverty suffer the worst impact from lockdowns. These results call for policies that target resources towards households where children's participation in the labor market is more likely since leaving vulnerable children behind will have a lasting economic impact for developing economies.

11.
Pediatrics ; 149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003101

ABSTRACT

Background: Influenza and bronchiolitis are serious infections especially among vulnerable pediatric populations. Earlier studies have suggested that the transmission of influenza viruses can be reduced by face masking and social distancing measures. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, Ohio adopted various measures including school closing, travel restrictions, social distancing, and face masking in March, 2020. These measures have created a unique opportunity to study the impact of social distancing measures on the spread of potentially serious viral infections such as influenza and respiratory syncytial viral (RSV) infections of children in our locality. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study conducted at Akron Children's hospital in Northeast Ohio where the peak respiratory season extends from October to April. The primary outcome was to evaluate the prevalence of influenza A and B and RSV infections before and after implementation of social distancing measures. Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was also tracked for comparison. Viral assay data were collected between October 1, 2020 through April 30th, 2021 (during the pandemic and social distancing implementation) and compared with two pre-COVID19 respiratory seasons: 2018-19 and 2019-20. Results from all patients who received viral testing as a part of their medical care were included. Viral tests included rapid antigen tests for Influenza A/B and RSV (Quidel SoFIA), Respiratory Film Array (BioFire, includes flu, RSV, and SARS-CoV-2 targets), and single target tests for SARS-CoV-2 from multiple vendors (see Table 1). Results: There was a dramatic increase in viral testing in the 2020-2021 respiratory season. With most of the new test targeting SARS-CoV-2, Flu and RSV antigen tests decreased significantly but were replaced in part by Respiratory FilmArray use (Table 1). Pre-COVID-19, the peak incidence of RSV occurred in December for the 2018-19 (28.9%, average of 8.8%) and 2019- 20 (24.7%, average of 8.8%) seasons. After social distancing measures, the incidence and positivity rate for RSV was 0% until March 14, 2021 when the first RSV case was detected in our locality, concurrent with relaxation of social distancing measures. Pre-COVID 19, the peak incidence of Influenza A virus occurred during February in the seasons 2018-19 (40.9%;average of 13.6%) and 2019-20 (24.1%, average of 6.1%). Influenza B had a low incidence throughout 2018-2019 (average of 0.3%) with a peak during January in the 2019-2020 season (24.0%, average of 6.8%). During the 2020-2021 season, we detected only two isolated cases of Influenza B virus and no cases of Influenza A virus through April 30, 2021 (Figure-1). Conclusion: Social distancing and mask mandates can be effective tools to decrease the rates of potentially serious infections such as Influenza and RSV in the pediatric population. Travel restrictions and school closures likely had an affect but were not evaluated during this study.

12.
Hong Kong Journal of Paediatrics ; 27(1):63-64, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003058

ABSTRACT

Background: School closure is one of the main global health policies performed worldwide during the coronavir us di sease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. Despite all of the advantages, there may be some risks for children who are quarantined. This study aimed to objectively measure and compares the sleep patterns of Hong Kong school students before and during the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: Baseline assessment was performed before the first wave of the COVID-19 outbreak in Hong Kong. The sleep pattern was recorded by a physical activity monitor (Actigraph wGT3X-BT, Pensacola, Florida, USA). The follow-up assessment was conducted in early 2020. Findings: In total, 718 students were collected in the baseline . Sub sequently 1 40 students joined t he reassessment between March and April 2020. Analysis of sleep timing shows that 98.0% primary students, 78.0% secondary students and 79.9% primary school students and 58.8% secondary school students go to bed before midnight before and after the outbreak, respectively (p<0.001). Mean sleep duration (hours) was 6.81 (0.62) and 8.09 (0.07) at baseline and during the outbreak, respectively. The differences in the mean sleep features for total sleep time, sleep fragmentation index and sleep fragmentation were 0.92 (1.64), 1.64 (6.95) and 2.49 (9.18), respectively. The overall sleep quality was poorer as evidenced by delays in bedtime and wake up time, increased duration in bed, longer sleep latency, increases in the movement and fragmentation indices. Conclusion: This exceptional longitudinal study reported objective data on the change in sleep patterns before and during the COVID-19 outbreak with school closures.

13.
Pediatrics ; 149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003045

ABSTRACT

Background: Adverse experiences in early childhood can have short and long-term consequences on an individual's physical and mental well-being (1). Inversely, secure attachments between infants and their parents help foster healthy social, emotional and cognitive child development (2). However, parenthood can be a period of heightened stress, even under ideal circumstances (3,4). The year 2020 brought forth new parenting challenges, with the presence of the COVID-19 pandemic. Increased levels of unemployment, financial insecurity, school closures, decreased communal support and social isolation led to augmented parental stress and burnout, which has shown to result in higher cases of abuse and neglect (3,4). Now more than ever, it is crucial that appropriate parenting interventions be available to families with infants (1). Programs like the Incredible Years™ Parents and Babies (IYPB), foster peer support networks and shared learning (5). This study aims to evaluate the impact of the IYPB curriculum for parents with infants. Methods: IYPB is a structured parent-baby group. This pilot study will evaluate the effects of IYPB on parenting confidence, maternal attachment, and infant well-being and development. It will also evaluate the implementation and acceptance of IYPB online. Recruitment was limited to 36, English or Spanish speaking mothers and their infants aged 0-12 months. Four, 8 weeklong workshops of 9 mother-infant dyads each will be conducted by two trained facilitators through a secure virtual platform. Pre- and post-intervention questionaries will be completed (demographics, Ages and Stages, Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, maternal attachment inventory, Karitane parenting confidence scale). Parents will complete an evaluation after each class, and after the final session, they will complete a satisfaction survey and participate in a focus group. Results: One online group with 9 parents took place from 2/13 to 4/10/2021. The average age of infants was 24 weeks and mean age of mothers was 31 years. Preliminary themes from focus group transcripts highlight the benefits of networking and learning from other parents and experts. Participants thought follow-up communication with facilitators was beneficial for those who felt alone during the pandemic. Some comments included: “I liked meeting with other moms and professionals in a safe space and learning skills to help with babies' development. I also appreciated being able to talk in small groups and normalize our experiences as parents with young children and feel seen and heard.” “I just feel so much more capable and comfortable raising a child after having had these foundational building blocks”. Barriers to participation included time constraints, work obligations, and childcare. Conclusion: Online parenting groups during a pandemic have allowed mothers to connect with one another and build support networks. Recruitment is ongoing and additional data will be collected and analyzed to determine the effects of IYPB on maternal attachment and infant development.

14.
Public Health ; 210: 160-162, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1983854

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Determine if a school-based Test-to-Stay (TTS) program designed to minimize learning loss reduced the incidence of COVID-19 in a US primary school district. STUDY DESIGN: Observational, simple summary analysis of attendance and effectiveness of a TTS program implemented in a California school district. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of nested medical and demographic data. Survival curves were plotted using a cumulative hazard function to compare the probability of infection among close contacts exposed at school at different points of time between participants who participated in TTS versus those who did not participate in TTS. A Cox proportional hazards regression model with time-dependent covariates was used to estimate the association of TTS status with the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Univariate Cox regression analysis revealed that after adjustment, enrollment in TTS was negatively correlated with the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (hazard ratio 0.096; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.024-0.390; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: TTS is an effective component of a layered protection strategy to prevent COVID-19 transmission in schools and communities, while minimizing the loss of in-person instruction in primary schools.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child, Preschool , Humans , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
15.
Deutsches Arzteblatt International ; 119(22-23):A999-A1004, 2022.
Article in German | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1980301
16.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 58(10): 1841-1846, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937973

ABSTRACT

AIM: During the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, the governments of many countries responded to high levels of infection with lockdowns. As a result, some children were reported to experience weight gain. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of school closures on body mass index (BMI) in Japanese children. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of students enrolled in the participating schools (6- to 11-year-old elementary school students and 12- to 14-year-old junior high school students) between 2015 and 2020. Using school health check-up data, annual changes in the BMI standard deviation score (ΔBMI-SDS) were calculated. We compared ΔBMI-SDS in 2019-2020 with the corresponding control years. RESULTS: 19 565 children with complete data were included in the analysis. Median ΔBMI-SDS in 2019-2020 were 0.24-0.35 in elementary school boys, 0.10-0.13 in junior high school boys, -0.02 to 0.15 in elementary school girls and -0.14 to -0.10 in junior high school girls. In comparison with every control year, ΔBMI-SDS in 2019-2020 were significantly higher in elementary school boys (control years: -0.07 to 0.14) and junior high school boys (control years: -0.04 to 0.06), and significantly lower in junior high school girls (control years: -0.06 to 0.09). CONCLUSION: BMI-SDS increased significantly in elementary and junior high school boys, but decreased significantly in junior high school girls. The pandemic appears to have had an impact on Japanese children that was different from other countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Retrospective Studies
17.
REVISTA ELECTRONICA DE INVESTIGACION EDUCATIVA ; 24, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1939628

ABSTRACT

The objective of this research was to identify and characterize actions taken by autonomous public universities in Mexico in response to COVID-19. The study is theoretically grounded in the notion of emergency education, which refers to broad prevention, mitigation, preparation, response, normalization, and educational recovery mechanisms for disasters. We conducted an exploratory-descriptive study, analyzing information posted on university websites from January 15 to June 30, 2020. It was found that many universities adopted reactive measures, albeit with no far-reaching prevention and mitigation strategies before they went into shutdown. We conclude there is a need to develop institutional policies that lay the foundation for an educational culture able to respond proactively to future catastrophes and for a shift from enacting guidelines for academic continuity to preparing broad education programs for emergencies.

18.
Int J Educ Res ; 114: 102011, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926509

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to worldwide school closures, with a risk of learning loss. Sweden kept primary schools open, but it is unknown whether student and teacher absence and pandemic-related stress factors affected teaching and student progress negatively. In this study, reading assessment data from 97,073 Swedish primary school students (grades 1-3) were analysed to investigate potential learning loss. Results showed that word decoding and reading comprehension scores were not lower during the pandemic compared to before the pandemic, that students from low socio-economic backgrounds were not especially affected, and that the proportion of students with weak decoding skills did not increase during the pandemic. Study limitations are discussed. We conclude that open schools benefitted Swedish primary school students.

19.
Facilities ; 40(9/10):573-593, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1922471

ABSTRACT

Purpose>The recent COVID-19 pandemic compelled people to spend most of their time at home to avoid spreading the virus, signifying staying away from offices, schools and marketplaces and where many people congregate. This situation put enormous pressure on residential buildings, which functioned as alternative spaces to schools and offices. This paper aims to investigate the impacts of home-based online classes because of the COVID-19 outbreak on residential buildings in Saudi Arabia.Design/methodology/approach>This study collected population-representative survey data from 324 eligible respondents using an online questionnaire and conducts descriptive and Spearman's correlation analysis using the SPSS 28.0 program.Findings>This study found that the use of space during COVID-19, home-based learning space comfort and home-based online learning perception affected home-based online space requirements during the school lockdowns. Higher school levels, learning space comfort levels, types of education and number of school-aged children in a house were correlated with various types of discomfort experienced during home-based online learning. Lastly, the parents' preference for their children to continue online studies was correlated with the adverse effects of online learning and the possible advantages of online learning.Originality/value>Lack of studies about the impact of home-based online classes on residential space requirement and use resulted in insufficient investigation and documentation of the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on home-based learning environments. This research contributes to the literature on the factors affecting spatial requirement during emergencies and how significant this relationship is.

20.
Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences Reports ; 1(2):e17, 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1905928

ABSTRACT

Aim Online classes were implemented in numerous schools during the school closure due to COVID-19. The present study examined the relationship between online classes during national school closure and mental health symptoms after the reopening of schools. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey from October 1 to November 7, 2020 using an anonymous self-reported questionnaire to evaluate 21 junior and senior high schools in the Saitama prefecture of Japan. Out of the 5538 students who were recruited, 5000 agreed to participate. The relationship between the implementation of online classes and mental health symptoms (emotional symptoms, psychotic experience [PE], and smartphone addiction) was evaluated using mixed-effect logistic regression models, while controlling for individual and class-level covariates (e.g., gender, grades). Results Implementation of online classes was reported by 78.2% of classroom teachers, and it was associated with lower rates of emotional symptoms (OR?=?0.79, 95% CI?=?0.63?0.99, p?=?0.040) and smartphone addiction (OR?=?0.79, 95% CI?=?0.65?0.96, p?=?0.020), but not related to PE (OR?=?0.91, 95% CI?=?0.61?1.36, p?=?0.637). Conclusions Implementing online classes during the national school closure might have had a potential protective effect for adolescents' mental health symptoms (especially emotional symptoms and smartphone addiction) after the reopening of schools during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

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