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1.
Child's Nervous System ; 39(5):1378, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20239685

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic we observed a decrease of our shunt revision rate. In order to investigate a possible correlation with an assumingly lower general infection rate in children in times of lock down and homeschooling, we performed a detailed analysis of our shunt and general pediatric patient population. Method(s): Electronic patient charts retrieval for children admitted for shunt revision or infectious diseases was performed for four time periods (study period April 2020 - March 2021, control periods from three previous years). A detailed analysis of all shunt revision and infectious cases including age and season specific evaluation followed. Possible correlations were investigated. Result(s): A total of 318 shunt revision and 13,919 pediatric cases have been evaluated. The shunt revision rate during the study period was 29% less compared to the average rate of three previous years (p 0.061), the number of pediatric cases with main diagnosis infection dropped significantly (p < 0.05), whereas other pediatric admissions remained stable. Significant age or seasonal influences did not exist. The number of shunt revisions in association with a documented systemic infection or a primary shunt infection dropped significantly during the study period (p<0.05 each). This was not the case for underdrainage, overdrainage (p>0.05 each) or other indications. In general, infections of upper and lower airways, the gastrointestinal and nervous system decreased during the pandemic, urinary infection rates remained stable. Conclusion(s): The decreased shunt revision rate during the first year of the pandemic seems correlate with a decrease of the general infection rate in children and adolescents at the same time. Infectionassociated shunt failures showed a significant decrease during this period compared to previous years.

2.
Academic Journal of Naval Medical University ; 43(4):406-413, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20235803

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the changes of disease spectrum in pediatric inpatients before and after the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods The data of gender, age, habitual residence, diagnosis and other relevant information of 1 931 hospitalized children in Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Naval Medical University (Second Military Medical University) from Feb. 2019 to Jan. 2020 (1 year before the COVID-19 epidemic) and 618 hospitalized children from Feb. 2020 to Jan. 2021 (1 year after the COVID-19 epidemic) were collected. The total number, habitual residence, gender and disease spectrum of hospitalized children 1 year before and 1 year after the COVID-19 epidemic were statistically analyzed. Results The number of hospitalized children decreased by 68.00% (1 313/1 931) 1 year after the COVID-19 epidemic. The number of hospitalized children from other provinces and cities was decreased (17.80%110/618vs 29.00%560/1 931) and there was significantly difference in the distribution of habitual residence of hospitalized children between 1 year before and 1 year after the COVID-19 epidemic (P<0.01). One year after the COVID-19 epidemic, the number of children with respiratory diseases decreased by 92.04% (971/1 055), and the proportion was also decreased (13.59%84/618vs 54.63%1 055/1 931);the number of children with endocrine system diseases increased by 20.71% (29/140), and the proportion was increased (27.35%169/618vs 7.25%140/1 931);the number of children with neonatal diseases decreased by 43.01% (166/386), but the proportion was increased (35.60%220/618 vs 19.99%386/1 931). Compared with 1 year before the COVID-19 epidemic, there were significant differences in the proportions of respiratory diseases, endocrine system diseases and neonatal diseases in hospitalized children 1 year after the COVID-19 epidemic (all P<0.01). The age distribution of hospitalized children 1 year before and 1 year after the epidemic of COVID-19 was different (P<0.01), and the number of hospitalized children was also different in different seasons (P<0.05). One year after the epidemic of COVID-19, the number of hospitalized children with respiratory diseases was decreased most significantly, and the number of children with pneumonia decreased by 93.71% (655/699), with a significant difference found in the proportions of pneumonia between 1 year before and 1 year after the COVID-19 epidemic (52.38%44/84vs 66.26% 699/1 055, P<0.05). Compared with 1 year before the COVID-19 epidemic, the proportion of endocrine system diseases such as short stature/growth retardation was decreased and the proportion of precocious puberty/early puberty development was increased 1 year after the COVID-19 epidemic (P<0.05). Conclusion The COVID-19 epidemic has led to a significant decrease in hospitalized children in department of pediatric, especially in the proportion of respiratory diseases, but it has led to an increase in hospitalized children with endocrine system diseases, suggesting that epidemic prevention and control measures can effectively reduce respiratory diseases requiring hospitalization, but may increase precocious puberty and early puberty development. These changes should be considered by department of pediatrics in general hospitals.Copyright © 2022, Second Military Medical University Press. All rights reserved.

3.
American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 117(10 Supplement 2):S1072, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2324084

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During the COVID-19 pandemic, virtual interviews for resident and fellowship applicants became the standard. However, studies evaluating the experience of virtual interviews format are lacking. Accordingly, we sought to survey both gastroenterology fellowship applicants and interviewing faculty members about their experiences with the virtual interview process. Method(s): Interviewees and faculty at 13 different gastroenterology fellowship programs at academic medical centers across the United States completed a post-interview survey. The online survey was conducted during the 2020 ERAS fellowship interview season via Google Forms. The survey responses were anonymously collected and reported. Result(s): A total of 177 gastroenterology fellowship applicants and 83 faculty members completed the electronic surveys. Most participants reported a positive experience with 91% and 84% of applicants and faculty respectively, scoring at least 4 points on a 5-point scale. Eighty-8 percent and 85% of applicants and faculty respectively, reported that they had enough insight about the applicant or the fellowship program during the interview. Over 67% of applicants reported cost-savings of greater than $1,000 per interview. Thirty-6 percent of applicants reported that they missed the personal interaction with the current gastroenterology fellows in the respective programs and the experience of physically touring the facility. Twenty-7 percent and 25% of applicants and faculty experienced technical difficulties during the interview process, respectively. Thirty-one percent and 22% of applicants and faculty would like for the virtual interviews to be the standard of future fellowship interviews, while 35% and 42% of applicants and faculty would consider it in the future, respectively. Figure 1 shows the ranking process for both applicants and faculty. Conclusion(s): Virtual interviews were perceived as effective and cost-saving by both gastroenterology fellowship applicants and faculty members. The virtual experience was widely accepted by most applicants and faculty, with high potential to become the standard of fellowship interview process in the future. However, a substantial portion experienced technical difficulty. Further improvements in technology are needed to optimize the process and increase the acceptance of the virtual interview experience. (Figure Presented).

4.
Academic Journal of Naval Medical University ; 43(4):406-413, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2323167

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the changes of disease spectrum in pediatric inpatients before and after the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods The data of gender, age, habitual residence, diagnosis and other relevant information of 1 931 hospitalized children in Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Naval Medical University (Second Military Medical University) from Feb. 2019 to Jan. 2020 (1 year before the COVID-19 epidemic) and 618 hospitalized children from Feb. 2020 to Jan. 2021 (1 year after the COVID-19 epidemic) were collected. The total number, habitual residence, gender and disease spectrum of hospitalized children 1 year before and 1 year after the COVID-19 epidemic were statistically analyzed. Results The number of hospitalized children decreased by 68.00% (1 313/1 931) 1 year after the COVID-19 epidemic. The number of hospitalized children from other provinces and cities was decreased (17.80%[110/618]vs 29.00%[560/1 931]) and there was significantly difference in the distribution of habitual residence of hospitalized children between 1 year before and 1 year after the COVID-19 epidemic (P<0.01). One year after the COVID-19 epidemic, the number of children with respiratory diseases decreased by 92.04% (971/1 055), and the proportion was also decreased (13.59%[84/618]vs 54.63%[1 055/1 931]);the number of children with endocrine system diseases increased by 20.71% (29/140), and the proportion was increased (27.35%[169/618]vs 7.25%[140/1 931]);the number of children with neonatal diseases decreased by 43.01% (166/386), but the proportion was increased (35.60%[220/618] vs 19.99%[386/1 931]). Compared with 1 year before the COVID-19 epidemic, there were significant differences in the proportions of respiratory diseases, endocrine system diseases and neonatal diseases in hospitalized children 1 year after the COVID-19 epidemic (all P<0.01). The age distribution of hospitalized children 1 year before and 1 year after the epidemic of COVID-19 was different (P<0.01), and the number of hospitalized children was also different in different seasons (P<0.05). One year after the epidemic of COVID-19, the number of hospitalized children with respiratory diseases was decreased most significantly, and the number of children with pneumonia decreased by 93.71% (655/699), with a significant difference found in the proportions of pneumonia between 1 year before and 1 year after the COVID-19 epidemic (52.38%[44/84]vs 66.26% [699/1 055], P<0.05). Compared with 1 year before the COVID-19 epidemic, the proportion of endocrine system diseases such as short stature/growth retardation was decreased and the proportion of precocious puberty/early puberty development was increased 1 year after the COVID-19 epidemic (P<0.05). Conclusion The COVID-19 epidemic has led to a significant decrease in hospitalized children in department of pediatric, especially in the proportion of respiratory diseases, but it has led to an increase in hospitalized children with endocrine system diseases, suggesting that epidemic prevention and control measures can effectively reduce respiratory diseases requiring hospitalization, but may increase precocious puberty and early puberty development. These changes should be considered by department of pediatrics in general hospitals.Copyright © 2022, Second Military Medical University Press. All rights reserved.

5.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 130(Supplement 2):S44, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2323044

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance is a major threat to human health that is predicted to impact most heavily on sub-Saharan Africa, however there is a lack of clinical outcome data from drug-resistant infections in this setting. There are reasons to expect the COVID-19 pandemic to have both positive and negative impacts on AMR in Africa. We have recruited a series of prospective longitudinal cohorts from Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH), Blantyre, Malawi and the surrounding communities in the Southern Region of Malawi. The data from these cohorts has been used to describe the aetiology of febrile illness, the burden of antimicrobial resistance in this setting and the distribution of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing bacteria in humans, animals and the environment. Amongst a cohort of patients presenting to QECH unwell with febrile illness, 67% were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We identified a diagnosis in 145 of 225 (64%) participants, most commonly tuberculosis (TB;34%) followed by invasive bacterial infections (17%), arboviral infections (13%), and malaria (9%). In a second cohort with drug resistant infection, resistance to third-generation cephalosporins was associated with an increased probability of in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.44, 95% CI 1.02-2.04), longer hospital stays (1.5 days, 1.0-2.0) and decreased probability of discharge alive (HR 0.31, 0.22-0.45). In the community cohorts, a paucity of environmental health infrastructure and materials for safe sanitation was identified across all sites and ESBL-Enterobacterales were isolated from 41.8% of human stool, 29.8% of animal stool and 66.2% of river water samples and was associated with the wet season, living in urban areas, advanced age and in household-animal interactions. Life threatening febrile illness is common in Blantyre however, diagnostics are few, however the COVID-19 pandemic has led to rapid expansion of diagnostic capacity. We are, however frequently treating the wrong bugs with ceftriaxone, further there was significant expansion of azithromycin demand and usage during the pandemic. Current management of sepsis has not been optimised and ceftriaxone use is promoting carriage of ESBL bacteria out of the hospital and ESBL E. coli and K. pneumoniae are ubiquitous in the community, where environmental hygiene infrastructure and community antimicrobial stewardship are critically lacking.Copyright © 2023

6.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 130(Supplement 2):S107, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2321849

ABSTRACT

Intro: In the first year of SARS-CoV-2 (CoV-2) pandemic, prevalence of common respiratory viruses, like influenza A/B (Flu A/B) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), had a temporary decrease in worldwide circulation, Portugal being no exception. Since this type of viruses share similar routes of transmission with CoV-2, the preventive social measures implemented to avert the spread of the new virus had a significant impact in their transmission as well. With the evolution of pandemic in association with the application of different levels of lockdown restrictions and the reopening of society across several countries, a boost of the circulation of Flu A/B and RVS and/or a change in their seasonal epidemiology can occur and co-infection with CoV-2 may be a possibility. The aim of this work was the evaluation of the Flu A/B and RSV circulation during the last year in COVID-19 samples. Method(s): Between May 2021 and January 2022, about 104 205 human clinical samples for routine CoV-2 diagnostic were tested using Alinity M (Abbott) Resp- 4-Plex assay which simultaneously detected targets from CoV-2, Flu A/ B and RSV. Finding(s): A total of 6627 (6.36%) CoV-2, 483 (0.46%) Flu A, 42(0.04%) Flu B and 2606 (2.50%) RSV positive cases were detected, point out the presence of 75 co-infections: 57 RSV/CoV-2, 17 Flu A/ CoV-2 and 1 Flu B/CoV-2. In accordance with the increase of cases of both viruses, RSV/CoV-2 co-infection occurred mainly between August and December 2021 and Flu A/ CoV-2 between December 2021 and January 2022. It was observed a high RSV season atypically early (August) with only 15.8% of the concomitant cases occurring in children. Conclusion(s): In conclusion, this study reports that co-infection arose between these viruses highlighting the importance of a continuous respiratory pathogen surveillance during pandemics, as well as atypically peaks in atypical periods can emerge when restrictions change.Copyright © 2023

7.
Indian Veterinary Journal ; 100(2):12-19, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2326230

ABSTRACT

The occurrence of Cryptosporidium species infection and its risk factors in neonatal goats is less explored. Also it is due to the fact that diseases like colibacillosis and neonatal viral enteritis complex caused by Group A rotaviruses and Bovine corona viruses can co-exist with Cryptosporidium and can lead to mixed infections and the latter is often overlooked. Therefore, in the current research we explored the cryptosporidial occurrence in neonatal goats of Mathura district of Uttar Pradesh, India. In this study, a total of 644 faecal samples were collected from neonatal goats at different villages and certain organized farms of Mathura district age-wise, season-wise and breed-wise, and were examined for Cryptosporidium based on modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique, conventional 18SSU rRNA nested PCR assay. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in goats based on microscopy was 36.80% (237/644;p value <0.0001) and 18SSU rRNA nested PCR 52.95% (341/644;p value <0.0001) respectively. Cryptosporidium species typing was also done using 18SSU rRNA nested PCR-RFLP product using enzymes Mbo-II, Ssp-I and Vsp-I, which revealed species including C. parvum C. bovis, C. ryanae, C. hominis and C. andersoni. Also the infection was clinically associated based on age, gender and seasons to identify the causal relationships that precipitate the cryptosporidial infection in goat kids. Since mZN microscopy based screening requires expertise and may sometimes be confuse with other weak acid fast bodies and also due to low sensitivity, combination of diagnostic tests are used in this study to identify the best test combination that yields best statistical fit in terms of kappa-agreement and McNemar's test. Cryptosporidiosis is caused by an enteric protozoan parasite and the first report in sheep and goat was observed in early 1980s, with other important etiological agents for neonatal diarrhoea, mortality and morbidity in neonatal kids and lambs, responsible for economic losses.Copyright © 2023 Indian Veterinary Assocaition. All rights reserved.

8.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 130(Supplement 2):S39-S40, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2325577

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in December 2019 in China quickly spread to the rest of the world. By March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 pandemic, and several mitigation strategies were implemented worldwide, highlighting social distancing, quarantine and the use of face masks. Since then, many studies have reported the impact of these interventions on the occurrence of other infectious diseases, especially bacterial infectious diseases disseminated through airborne. Invasive infections with respiratory bacterial pathogens, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Bordetella pertussis, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae have had a marked decline in several countries of the world. Low- and middle-income (LMIC) and high-income countries (HIC) were at different seasons of the year when COVID-19 started and interventions were implemented, but long-lasting consequences of seasonal differences are yet to be elucidated. In this session, we aim to describe the impact of COVID-19 and related intervention strategies in bacterial infectious diseases between LMIC and HIC;determine whether and how the onset of COVID-19 pandemic has changed the broader scenario of infectious diseases;and envision future and emerging infectious diseases in the post-pandemic world.Copyright © 2023

9.
Journal of Investigative Medicine ; 69(1):121, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2320047

ABSTRACT

Purpose of Study The current depart process resulted in slow work-flow and patient safety and equity concerns. The QI project aimed to improve resident satisfaction with the hospital discharge process. Methods Used The QI project was designed using the Model for Improvement. Starting April 2020, Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles included: hiring clinical team coordinators;creating standard depart instructions for diabetic ketoacidosis, pyelonephritis, seizures, croup and dehydration;uploading instructions to Powerchart;and clinician reminders to use instructions with families. Measures examined monthly, included resident satisfaction and patient readmissions. Summary of Results Resident satisfaction improved from 4.8 (February 2020) to 7.8 (August 2020) for the overall discharge process;from 5.3 to 7.9 for family education on all key points;from 6.0 to 7.7 for smooth transition of care;from 3.0 to 7.4 for no language barriers;and from 3.0 to 6.7 for no unnecessary delays, on a scale of 0/strongly disagree/ terrible to 10/strongly agree/excellent. Readmissions also trended downward. Conclusions During this QI project to address the depart process, resident satisfaction improved and readmissions declined. These results are encouraging, but should be interpreted in the context of decreased patient census due to COVID-19 and non-respiratory season, which may have decreased workload and increased education time and interpreter access. Next steps include PDSAs related to health literacy and Spanish translation.

10.
NeuroQuantology ; 21(5):936-950, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2318169

ABSTRACT

One constraint of Thai soybean production is the volume of seeds used for cultivation in the dry season or after the rice season. PhuPha Man district, KhonKaenprovince, in Northeast Thailand, faces the same problem and can be solved by producing seeds during the rainy season for use in the dry season. The collaborative brainstorming to participatory action development employed in this community-based soybean production project involves four steps: (1) needs assessment, (2) planning, (3) implementation, and (4) evaluation. From 2019-2020, a total of 40 farmers jointly participated in this project: 20 from the Non-Korm Sub-district and 20 from the Sawab Sub-district. They agreed to implement three missions: (1) Farmer group management. A Community-based Soybean Seed Production Center (CSSPC) was established in each area. Each CSSPC was responsible for determining the structure and role of management, including the implementation of disciplines. (2) Seed production management. During its implementation, a shortage of rainfall and drought occurred from September to October 2019, causing soybean production to decline. Moreover, product harvesting and project evaluation took place at the site during the COVID-19 pandemic from January to May 2020, influencing the ability of farmers and facilitators to work together on group activities which required delicate management of the monitoring, control, production, exchange, and learning to solve problems. (3) Seed purchasing and distribution management. Rainfall shortage and drought influenced the ability of the farmers to produce the required soybean seeds. Consequently, the CSSPC did not purchase the seeds and manage their distribution.Copyright © 2023, Anka Publishers. All rights reserved.

11.
Journal of Investigative Medicine ; 69(4):927-928, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2317867

ABSTRACT

Purpose of study Proposal for an oral (or if required, parenteral) COVID-19 vaccination based upon this described technology. Investigational theory under study for the past 9 months of COVID-19 growing season. Coronavirus can attack and infect plant species. It was found that SARS-CoV-2 can infect various plant species. Others have found plants, for example tobacco as a good growth medium for Coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2. This current study has found various plants species infected with SARS-CoV-2 by rPCR. As the plants were located beside a well used hiking trail for humans, and were infected along the trail including various species with SARS-CoV-2, hypothesized that human airborne contact had caused infection in the bordering plants. Humans were observed to be coughing while walking on the trail, and were not wearing masks. The plant leaves developed small circular colonies of the virus, which became self-limited at several millimeters in diameter. All of the plants were clear of these lesions before the COVID-19 Pandemic. The plants 'immune' system produced antiviral agents, including lectins which limited the growth of the colonies and prevent death of the leaf and whole plant. The fungal cultures of the 'spots' were negative. The rPCR of all spots tested in the present series was positive for SARS-CoV-2. Hypothesis, that self-augmentation of the virus occurred by the natural culturing in plant leaves that produce antiviral agents as part of their 'immune system.' Hypothesis, a symbiotic type relationship developed between the plant using its chemical immune system, and the virus allowed to replicate in an augmented fashion to allow both the virus and the host to survive and grow. As the top candidates for the oral vaccine are nontoxic, hypothesis involves the maceration of the infected leaves, mixing with a nontoxic adjuvant and flavoring to promote assimilation and palatability, with the proposed route of entry being mastication, thus exposing the oral-nasal mucosa to the vaccine, with the probable best of immunity to usual exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, that is the oral-nasal mucosal and upper airway route. As many types of animals are now infected with SARS-CoV-2, it is further hypothesized that this oral vaccine could also be mass produced to add to various animals by feedstock and oral route. Methods used Hypotheses formed through observations. Testing of observations by pPCR, viral cell culture, fungal culture, light and electron microscopy. Summary of results pPCR SARS-CoV-2 positive, cell culture 'lysis experiment' positive, EM and light microscopy positive, fungal culture negative. Conclusions TABLE OF HYPOTHESES AND STUDY RESULTS (HYPOTHETICAL, OBSERVED, PROVEN) 1. The first hypothesis that the virus is attenuated by the plant, using its innate chemical immune system. Similarly, Pasteur used chemical such as phenol to attenuate viruses for wome of the first successful vaccines. Observed. 2. Hypothesis, the plants 'immune' system produced antiviral agents, including lectins, flavonoids, and others, which limited the growth of the colonies and prevent death of the leaf and whole plant. Proven. 3. Hypothesis is that the nontoxic plants, such as Vine Maple sp.(Acer cincinatum), could be used to produce and oral plant attenuated vaccine. Hypothesis. 4. Hypothesis involves the maceration of the infected leaves, mixing with a nontoxic adjuvant and flavoring to promote assimilation and palatability, with the proposed route of entry being mastication, thus exposing the oral-nasal mucosa to the vaccine, with the probable best of immunity to usual exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, that is the oral-nasal mucosa, upper airway. (Figure Presented).

12.
Gates Open Research ; 6 (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2315691

ABSTRACT

Background: In many countries, non-pharmaceutical interventions to limit severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission resulted in significant reductions in other respiratory viruses. However, similar data from Africa are limited. We explored the extent to which viruses such as influenza and rhinovirus co-circulated with SARS-CoV-2 in The Gambia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Between April 2020 and March 2022, respiratory viruses were detected using RT-PCR in nasopharyngeal swabs from 1397 participants with influenza-like illness. An assay to detect SARS-CoV-2 and a viral multiplex RT-PCR assay was used as previously described to detect influenza A and B, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) A and B, parainfluenza viruses 1-4, human metapneumovirus (HMPV), adenovirus, seasonal coronaviruses (229E, OC43, NL63) and human rhinovirus. Result(s): Overall virus positivity was 44.2%, with prevalence higher in children <5 years (80%) compared to children aged 5-17 years (53.1%), adults aged 18-50 (39.5%) and >50 years (39.9%), p<0.0001. After SARS-CoV-2 (18.3%), rhinoviruses (10.5%) and influenza viruses (5.5%) were the most prevalent. SARS-CoV-2 positivity was lower in children <5 (4.3%) and 5-17 years (12.7%) than in adults aged 18-50 (19.3%) and >50 years (24.3%), p<0.0001. In contrast, rhinoviruses were most prevalent in children <5 years (28.7%), followed by children aged 5-17 (15.8%), adults aged 18-50 (8.3%) and >50 years (6.3%), p<0.0001. Four SARS-CoV-2 waves occurred, with 36.1%-52.4% SARS-CoV-2 positivity during peak months. Influenza infections were observed in both 2020 and 2021 during the rainy season as expected (peak positivity 16.4%-23.5%). Peaks of rhinovirus were asynchronous to the months when SARS-CoV-2 and influenza peaked. Conclusion(s): Our data show that many respiratory viruses continued to circulate during the COVID-19 pandemic in The Gambia, including human rhinoviruses, despite the presence of NPIs during the early stages of the pandemic, and influenza peaks during expected months.Copyright: © 2023 Jarju S et al.

13.
Eastern Journal of Medicine ; 28(2):325-333, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2315295

ABSTRACT

Home accidents can cause serious injuries, disabilities, and deaths. Approximately 40 million people were treated in hospitals annually because of injuries occurring in homes, and these injuries were responsible for approximately 76% of preventable deaths. The aims of this study are to compare the home accidents in the one-year period during the pandemic and the home accidents in the one-year period before the pandemic, and to reveal how the home accidents are affected in which part of the home and in which types of injuries. A retrospective study was made of the records of patients injured in home accidents between pre-pandemic and pandemic one-year periods. The patients were classified according to age groups, gender, season, day and time of the home accident, accident type, part of the home, trauma localization and type, and severity of injuries. While 46.5% of the 581 injured patients were before the pandemic, 53.5% were in the pandemic period. The injuries increased as the number of households staying at home increased compared to the pre-pandemic period. Likewise, there was a significant increase in the number of falls from balconies and windows during the pandemic period. It is still not possible to make a definite prediction about the course of the pandemic. In this context, it is of great importance to provide information on prevention from home accidents, especially in television programs and distance education activities.Copyright © 2023, Yuzuncu Yil Universitesi Tip Fakultesi. All rights reserved.

14.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 31(2):403-404, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2313527

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccine uptake has been notably lower in minoritized populations in the United States. The impact of previous infection with SARSCoV- 2, disease severity, and persistent symptoms on the uptake of COVID-19 vaccines and boosters in predominantly Black and Latinx communities has not been examined. We aimed to describe correlates of vaccine uptake in a minoritized cohort hospitalized for COVID-19 during the first pandemic wave in New York City, and investigate whether those with more severe initial COVID-19 and persistent symptoms would be less likely to get vaccinated. Method(s): This retrospective cohort study included the electronic medical records of the first 894 consecutive adult patients who survived hospitalization for COVID-19 at a large quaternary care medical center in Northern Manhattan between 1 March and 8 April 2020. We ed data regarding demographics, comorbidities, oxygen requirements during hospitalization, persistence of symptoms at 3- and 6-months after admission, COVID-19 vaccinations through November 2022, and influenza vaccination during the 2018-2019 through 2021-2022 seasons. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses were conducted to describe the predictors of COVID-19 vaccination, delayed vaccination (first dose after 6 May 2021), and receipt of a booster vaccine. Statistical analyses were performed using R V.4.2.1. Result(s): The cohort of 894 patients was predominantly Latinx (54%) and Non- Hispanic Black (15%). 41% received at least one influenza vaccine pre-COVID, and 67% had at least one comorbidity. 22% (199/894) remained COVID-19 unvaccinated. Of the individuals who received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine, 57% (397/695) received at least one booster. Exactly 31% (212/695) delayed vaccination. 25% (27/106) of unvaccinated individuals reported persistent generalized symptoms compared to 18% (78/436) of vaccinated individuals. Multiple logistic regression showed that Hispanic/Latinx ethnicity, age 35-64, and concurrent influenza vaccination were associated with increased COVID-19 vaccine uptake. No association was found between vaccine uptake and disease severity or persistence of symptoms. Conclusion(s): Achieving a deeper understanding of the factors driving vaccine hesitancy is critical to increasing and sustaining acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination especially in communities with historically low uptake of annual vaccines.

15.
Lecture Notes on Data Engineering and Communications Technologies ; 157:273-280, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2290543

ABSTRACT

In the paper, there are presented digitalization development results for Arctic port activity management in ice season within Industry 4.0 period under climate change and COVID-19 pandemic. In study, there are used situational analysis, web technologies and building database methods in distributed networks. As the research result, to increase the efficiency and reliability of port activity management in ice season within environmental economics, it is proposed the using of geodata from remote sensing and modelling. As the digital managerial support instrument, it is proposed to use aggregate modular managerial decision support system, which integrate the heterogeneous hardware and the software resources in distributed networks. As the research results, there are demonstrated examples for arctic ports in the area of the Ob and Yenisei rivers. The research results presented in this article has significant scientific novelty and can be useful to different players within Arctic port activity management in ice season, including insurance business. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

16.
Alergologia Polska - Polish Journal of Allergology ; 10(1):32-40, 2023.
Article in Polish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2302545

ABSTRACT

The article demonstrates estimated data of influenza and COVID-19 morbidity and infection fatality rate (IFR) mortality in the context of restrictions and vaccination (years 2020-2021 mostly developed countries). A division into two age groups was included: Up to 65 years of age and over 65 years of age. Influenza mortality (IFR) did not change between 2020 and 2021 and was about 0.05% among all, and 0.005 among those under 65 years of age. IFR COVID-19 was on average approx. 0.5% overall, and in groups under 65 years of age a minimum of 0.07%. COVID-19 morbidity varied greatly from about 50/100,000 in Japan to 600/100,000 in Peru during 2020 plus 2021. In the United States and Poland, about 250 per 100 thousand in 2 years. The morbidity rate of COVID-19 in lower risk groups was 70/100 thousand in the United States. The pre-2020 flu morbidity rate in the United States ranged from 1-10 per 100,000 per season. In the 2020/21 season, it decreased to 1/100 thousand. In groups 65 age old and younger, influenza morbidity in the United States was about 0.3 per 100,000 in the 2020/2021 season, and in typical seasons 0.3 to 3/100,000. Examples of absolute numbers. In the United States, in 2021, COVID-19 471,000 victims (a year of available vaccinations). Influenza season 2021 max. 4,500 victims. The average flu season in unrestricted seasons, was about 25,000 victims. Predictions of the consequenc-es of the lack of restrictions and vaccinations are theoretical, because the preliminary ones talk about 2-3 million COVID-19 victims and even more than ten million additional hospitalizations in the United States, which may mean the collapse of the health system, and thus in practice a greater number of victims. The data presented did not result from diagnostic errors. A proper epidemic assessment confirms the effectiveness of vaccination and targeted therapy. COVID-19 vaccination reduced IFR mortality by about 10-fold.Copyright © 2023, Termedia Publishing House Ltd.. All rights reserved.

17.
The International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences ; XLVIII-M-1-2023:211-216, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2300422

ABSTRACT

The role of animal movement in spreading infectious diseases is highly recognized by various legislations and institutions such as the World Organisation for Animal Health and the International Animal Health Code. The increased interactions at the nexus of human-animal-ecosystem interface have seen an unprecedented introduction and reintroduction of new zoonotic diseases with high socio-economic impacts such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic disease that affects both humans and animals and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes or through contact with the body fluids of infected animals. This study seeks to characterize movement patterns of pastoralist and how this movement behaviour increases their susceptibility to RVF virus exposure. We levarage on a rapidly growing field of movement ecology to monitor five herds collared from 2013 – 2015 in an RVF endemic semi-arid region in Kenya. The herds were also sampled for RVF antibodies to assess their exposure to RVF virus during the rainy seasons. adehabitatLT package in R was used to analyze the trajectory data whereas the first passage time (FPT) analysis was used to measure the area utilized in grazing. Sedentary herds grazed within 15km radius while migrating herds presented restricted space use patterns during the dry seasons and transient movement during the start and end of the rainy season. Furthermore, RVF virus antibodies were generally low for sedentary herds whereas the migrating herds recorded high levels during their transition periods. This study can be used to identify RVF risk zones for timely and targeted management strategies.

18.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology ; 143(5 Supplement):S38, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2299014

ABSTRACT

Background: The sudden COVID-19 has changed people's living habits, and skin diseases closely related to lifestyle have also changed quietly. We aimed to analyze the changing of pediatric dermatological disorders spectrum before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Method(s): This retrospective study encompasses consecutive patients attending a number of dermatological outpatient clinics in National Center for Children's Health from 1 January 2019 and 31 December 2021. The information about the season, age, number, disease type and origin of the patients was filled in for all the patients. The diseases were sub-classified on etiological basis. Result(s): The total number of patients was 449032, including 323142 newly diagnosed patients, with a male/female ratio of 1.15:1. The patients were mainly school-age children. 91.3% of the patients suffered from a single skin disease. During the epidemic of COVID-19-epidemic, Atopic Dermatitis (AD )and other types of dermatitis constituted the main diseases, followed by infectious skin diseases, urticaria, erythema and drug responsive skin diseases, and finally parasites and bite responsive skin diseases. The top three skin diseases ranked in descending order of incidence from 2019 to 2021 were the same, followed by AD, urticaria and papular urticaria. During the epidemic period, the proportion of patients with molluscum contagiosum, verruca vulgaris and vitiligo increased. Because of wearing masks, the proportion of infectious skin diseases transmitted by respiratory tract has decreased significantly. In addition, pediatric telemedicine can be used to increase timely access and improve practical efficiency during the epidemic. Conclusion(s): The pediatric dermatological disorders spectrum has changed during the epidemic of COVID-19. AD is the most common skin disease, and the proportion of infectious skin diseases has decreased significantly. During the epidemic, pediatric internet medical services were fully used to promote the sustainable development of children's skin health.Copyright © 2023

19.
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice ; 172, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2298780

ABSTRACT

Tourism decisions are interdependent of one another. This study aims to explore the interrelations among three pertinent tourism choices, i.e., travel season, transport mode and length of stay, from a data-driven perspective. To achieve a joint model of three travel behavioural decisions, this paper adopts a Frank-type fully nested Archimedean copula function, which is capable of efficiently incorporating a logistic regression model, a multinomial logit model and a lognormal accelerated failure time model. Then, we empirically evaluate the proposed model framework using single-destination Sydney-based trip-level data collected in 2017–2018. Gumbel, Clayton and Frank copula results are compared. To illustrate its application, the modelling results are used to build a simulated COVID-19 pandemic scenario according to the social distancing restrictions within New South Wales, Australia, and a three-dimensional elasticity analysis for trip destinations is performed. The findings suggest the model provides nuanced insights into simulating tourist behaviours and transport policy appraisal aimed at tourism recovery or/and development. © 2023 The Author(s)

20.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; : 99228221124677, 2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291106

ABSTRACT

This study describes the clinical features, severity, and outcomes in children <5 years of age with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection during an atypical summer surge during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Although timing was uncharacteristic, clinical features and illness severity were representative of a typical RSV season. Co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 was low.

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