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1.
Embase; 22.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-346575

ABSTRACT

Viral infections can have profound and durable functional impacts on the immune system. There is an urgent need to characterize the long-term immune effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection given the persistence of symptoms in some individuals and the continued threat of novel variants. Here we use systems immunology, including longitudinal multimodal single cell analysis (surface proteins, transcriptome, and V(D)J sequences) from 33 previously healthy individuals after recovery from mild, non-hospitalized COVID-19 and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy controls with no history of COVID-19 to comparatively assess the post-infection immune status (mean: 151 days after diagnosis) and subsequent innate and adaptive responses to seasonal influenza vaccination. Identification of both sex-specific and -independent temporally stable changes, including signatures of T-cell activation and repression of innate defense/immune receptor genes (e.g., Toll-like receptors) in monocytes, suggest that mild COVID-19 can establish new post-recovery immunological set-points. COVID-19-recovered males had higher innate, influenza-specific plasmablast, and antibody responses after vaccination compared to healthy males and COVID-19-recovered females, partly attributable to elevated pre-vaccination frequencies of a GPR56 expressing CD8+ T-cell subset in male recoverees that are "poised" to produce higher levels of IFNg upon inflammatory stimulation. Intriguingly, by day 1 post-vaccination in COVID-19-recovered subjects, the expression of the repressed genes in monocytes increased and moved towards the pre-vaccination baseline of healthy controls, suggesting that the acute inflammation induced by vaccination could partly reset the immune states established by mild COVID-19. Our study reveals sex-dimorphic immune imprints and in vivo functional impacts of mild COVID-19 in humans, suggesting that prior COVID-19, and possibly respiratory viral infections in general, could change future responses to vaccination and in turn, vaccines could help reset the immune system after COVID-19, both in an antigen-agnostic manner. Copyright The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder, who has granted medRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. This article is a US Government work. It is not subject to copyright under 17 USC 105 and is also made available for use under a CC0 license.

2.
Anti-Infective Agents ; 20(4):24-35, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2065293

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection, while influenza viruses cause the flu. SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus co-infection seems to be a real and serious concern. Objective(s): This study aims to evaluate the clinical features, laboratory investigations, computed tomography scans, and interventions of Covid-19 patients during seasonal influenza. Method(s): This was a multi-center prospective cohort study that collected data from hospitals, clinics, and laboratories on measurements, treatments, and outcomes from Covid-19 patients admitted to temporary Covid-19 care centers. Result(s): A total of 480 individuals (female, 231 [48.12%];male, 249 [51.88%]) were recruited from March 31st to May 14th, 2021 at five hospitals/clinics in Uttar Pradesh, North India. The patients were divided into six groups based on their age (65+ years [25.41% of cases] being the most affected age) and five groups based on their conditions (asymptomatic 65 [13.54%], mild 94 [19.58%], moderate 206 [42.91%], severe 84 [17.50%] and critical 31 [6.45%]). Patients' outcomes were documented as death (19 [3.95%]), recovery (421 [87.71%]) and under-treatment (40 [8.34%]). Conclusion(s): The most common clinical symptoms reported were fever, sore throat, and dyspnea. The severity was linked to hypoxemia, lymphocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and high blood urea nitrogen (BUN). The vast majority of patients were given symptomatic treatment. Any onset of fever should be suspected and examined for the viral strain to distinguish between Covid-19 and the seasonal flu. Copyright © 2022 Bentham Science Publishers.

3.
Pharmaceutical Journal ; 307(7953), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2065000
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 539, 2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064747

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial injury is associated with poor prognosis in respiratory tract infections. We aimed to highlight the differences in prevalence of myocardial injury and its impact on prognosis in patients with COVID-19 compared to those with seasonal influenza. METHODS: This was a single-center prospective cohort study with a historical control group. 300 age-/sex-matched SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal influenza positive patients were enrolled. Myocardial injury was assessed by electrocardiogram (ECG), transthoracic echocardiography and biomarkers including high-sensitivity troponin-I. All patients were followed-up for 30 days after enrollment for all-cause mortalitiy, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: Right ventricular distress was more common in COVID-19 whereas pathological ECG findings and impaired left ventricular function were more prevalent among influenza patients. COVID-19 patients suffered from a higher percentage of hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Contrary to COVID-19, pericardial effusion at admission was associated with poor outcome in the influenza group. Severe course of disease and respiratory failure resulted in significantly higher rates of ICU treatment and mechanical ventilation in COVID-19 patients. Although distribution of myocardial injury was similar, significantly fewer cardiac catheterizations were performed in COVID-19 patients. However, number of cardiac catheterizations was low in both groups. Finally, 30-day mortality was significantly higher in COVID-19 compared to influenza patients. CONCLUSIONS: In adults requiring hospitalization due to COVID-19 or seasonal influenza, cardiovascular risk factors and signs of myocardial distress differ significantly. Furthermore, cardiovascular comorbidities may impair prognosis in COVID-19 patients to a higher degree than in their influenza counterparts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Adult , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
5.
Pharmaceutical Journal ; 307(7952), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064989
6.
Chest ; 162(4):A1821, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060870

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Outcomes Across COVID-19 SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Original Inv PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 11:15 am - 12:15 pm PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and influenza infections are associated with systemic inflammatory reactions that predispose to Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTS). Studies have investigated the epidemiology and clinical features of TTS in COVID-19 and influenza infection, however, there are limited data comparing TTS between patients with COVID-19 and influenza. METHODS: We searched PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, SCOPUS, EMBASE, and Google Scholar until November 1st, 2021, for case reports, case series, and observational cohort studies using these keywords: takotsubo syndrome/takotsubo cardiomyopathy, stress-induced cardiomyopathy, and broken heart syndrome combined with the terms COVID-19 and/or SARS-CoV-2, flu and/or influenza. All the published case reports included in the final analysis were in English and were categorized into patients with ‘COVID-19 + TTS’ and ‘Flu + TTS’. RESULTS: We identified 37 studies describing 64 patients with COVID-19+TTS and 10 case reports describing 10 patients with Flu + TTS. The mean age of patients in the COVID-19 + TTS was similar to the influenza group (69 years). Although women were more disproportionately affected by TTS in both groups, COVID-19 + TTS patients had a higher proportion of men than the Flu + TTS group (44% vs 30%) and previously reported incidence of TTS in men in the general population. Compared to patients with Flu + TTS, COVID-19 + TTS had a longer mean time from testing positive to developing TTS (7.3 days vs. 3.1 days), higher incidence rates of acute respiratory distress syndrome (77% vs. 40%), hypoxemic respiratory failure (86% vs. 60%), more likely to require invasive mechanical ventilation (63% vs. 40%) and higher in-hospital mortality rates (36%, n=23 vs 10%, n=1) CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic review highlights some important differences in the presentation and outcomes of TTS in patients with COVID-19 compared to seasonal influenza. Patients with COVID-19 + TTS had higher rates of respiratory complications and excess all-cause mortality compared to Flu + TTS. In contrast to the general population and patients infected with influenza, TTS tends to affect more men with COVID-19 infection. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who develop TTS appear to have a more severe disease course and poorer outcome compared to hospitalized patients with Flu+TTS. The study findings provide additional knowledge comparing complications between COVID-19 and influenza infections and may contribute to the continued efforts to manage the COVID-19 pandemic. DISCLOSURES: no disclosure on file for Temidayo Abe;No relevant relationships by Thomas Allingham No relevant relationships by Omovefe Edika No relevant relationships by Hammad Khalid No relevant relationships by Ifeoma Ogbuka No relevant relationships by Titilope Olanipekun No relevant relationships by Richard Snyder No relevant relationships by Abhinav Vedire No relevant relationships by Nicholas Wilson

8.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(9)2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010334

ABSTRACT

A significant decline in pediatric vaccination uptake due to the COVID-19 pandemic has been documented. Little is known about the parental willingness and associated factors of pediatric vaccination during the COVID-19 pandemic. An extensive literature search in the databases of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and EBSCOhost were conducted. A total of 20 eligible studies published from 2020-2022 were included for systematic summary by a thematic analysis, among which 12 studies were included in a meta-analysis conducted with R-4.2.1. The prevalence of parental willingness to childhood/routine vaccination and seasonal influenza vaccination was 58.6% (95%CI 2.8-98.6%) and 47.3% (95%CI 25.3-70.5%). Moreover, there is no sufficient evidence of significant change in parental willingness to childhood/routine vaccination, human papillomavirus vaccination, or pneumococcal conjugate vaccination during the pandemic. However, a significant increase in parental willingness to vaccinate their children against seasonal influenza was found. In addition to the factors of parental vaccination willingness/hesitancy that are well-studied in literature, children/parents' history of COVID-19 and children's perceived vulnerability to COVID-19 were associated with parental willingness. Developing synergetic strategies to promote COVID-19 vaccination together with other pediatric vaccination is warranted during the pandemic. This may help to improve and/or catch up the vaccine uptake of children during and/or after the COVID-19 pandemic.

9.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:1674-1675, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2008947

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients (pts.) with chronic infammatory rheumatic diseases (CIRD) are often not adequately protected against infectious diseases. As shown in an earlier study, less than 50% of CIRD pts. were vaccinated against pneumo-cocci and infuenza before the SARS-CoV2 pandemic started 1. High vaccination rates are critical to achieve herd immunity. Knowledge on barriers and facilitators of vaccine uptake in CIRD pts. is limited. Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterize barriers and facilitators towards vaccines in general and specifcally against pneumococci, infuenza and SARS-CoV-2 in adult CIRD pts. Methods: In early 2021, consecutive CIRD pts. completed a structured questionnaire including knowledge on vaccination, attitudes, and perceived barriers and facilitators towards vaccination. A total of 12 facilitators and 11 barriers towards vaccination was assessed in general, and specifcally for vaccination against pneumococci, infuenza and SARS-CoV2. The Likert scales had 4 response options, ranging from 1 (completely disagree) to 4 (completely agree). Patient and disease characteristics, their vaccination history and attitudes towards vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 were assessed. Results: Of 514 prospectively recruited pts., 441 responded (85.8%) to the questionnaire (table 1). Self-reported vaccine uptake was 48.8% against pneumococci and 66.2% against seasonal influenza. The majority (82.2%) was willing to be vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. The majority (≥70%) had decent knowledge about vaccination, and only <10% doubted its effectiveness. The level of knowledge did not differ between the studied 3 vaccinations. Pts. were more likely to rate statements about facilitators favorably compared to statements about barriers. Facilitators for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination did not different from vaccination in general (Figure 1). Societal and organizational facilitators such as public vaccine campaigns or protection for high-risk pts. were more commonly named compared to inter-or intrapersonal facilitators. Protection of high-risk pts. was by far the most frequently cited facilitator. Most pts. indicated that they were likely to receive a vaccine if their health care professional would recommend it-without preference for GP or rheumatologist. The frequency of barriers was much lower compared to facilitators and more barriers towards SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were reported in comparison to vaccination in general or pneumococci and influenza, respectively. However, pts. frequently cited intrapersonal issues as barriers against vaccination. Importantly, the major barrier was an inadequate risk perception between the severity of COVID-19 and the potential adverse events of the vaccine. Conclusion: A relatively high number of pts. was vaccinated against pneumo-cocci and infuenza,-a probable campaign success during the last years. In addition, more than 80% of pts. were willing to be vaccinated against SARS-CoV2. Facilitators were of greater signifcance than barriers in this scenario. The high number of societal and organizational facilitators enables the implementation of effective strategies to increase future vaccination rates.

10.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997860

ABSTRACT

Vaccination to prevent influenza virus infection and to lessen its severity is recommended among healthcare workers (HCWs). Health professionals have a higher risk of exposure to viruses and could transmit the influenza virus to vulnerable patients who are prone to severe disease and mortality. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the levels of influenza vaccine acceptance and uptake as well as its determinants, among Jordanian HCWs over the last influenza season of 2021/2022. This study was based on a self-administered electronic survey that was distributed in March 2022. Psychological determinants of influenza vaccine acceptance and vaccine conspiracy beliefs were assessed using the previously validated 5C scale questionnaire (confidence, complacency, constraints, calculation and collective responsibility) and the vaccine conspiracy beliefs scale. The study sample comprised a total of 1218 HCWs: nurses (n = 412, 33.8%), physicians (n = 367, 30.1%), medical technicians (n = 182, 14.9%), pharmacists (n = 161, 13.2%) and dentists (n = 87, 7.1%), among others. About two-thirds of the study sample expressed willingness to receive influenza vaccination if provided free of charge (n = 807, 66.3%), whereas less than one-third were willing to pay for the vaccine (n = 388, 31.9%). The self-reported uptake of the influenza vaccine in the last influenza season was 62.8%. The following factors were significantly associated with higher acceptance of influenza vaccination if provided freely, as opposed to vaccine hesitancy/rejection: male sex; physicians and dentists among HCW categories; higher confidence and collective responsibility; and lower complacency, constraints and calculation. Higher influenza vaccine uptake was significantly correlated with nurses and physicians among HCW categories, older age, a higher monthly income, higher confidence and collective responsibility, lower complacency and constraints and lower embrace of general vaccine conspiracy beliefs. The results of the current study can provide helpful clues to improve influenza vaccine coverage among HCWs in Jordan. Consequently, this can help to protect vulnerable patient groups and reserve valuable resources in healthcare settings. Psychological determinants appeared to be the most significant factors for vaccine acceptance and uptake, whereas the embrace of general vaccine conspiracy beliefs was associated with lower rates of influenza vaccine uptake, which should be considered in educational and interventional measures aiming to promote influenza vaccination.

12.
General Medicine ; 24(3):41-45, 2022.
Article in Bulgarian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1976074

ABSTRACT

The registered incidence of influenza and acute respiratory diseases (ARD) in Bulgaria remains low in the epidemic period of time during 2020-2021, in the absence of a clear epidemic curve. For the first year during the winter season, influenza viruses were not detected. Continuation of restrictive and preventive measures related to the COVID-19 pandemic and the increase in influenza vaccination coverage enable maintaining the influenza activity at low levels during the winter season. It is required to perform a thorough assessment of the effectiveness of preventive and anti-epidemic measures and the possibilities for their implementation in the following seasons to limiting the spread of influenza and ARD.

13.
Sleep Medicine ; 100:S290-S291, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967130

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Pathophysiologic responses to viral infections affect sleep duration, quality, and concomitant cardiorespiratory function. Real-world, longitudinal monitoring of sleep metrics using a Smart Bed could prove to be invaluable for infectious disease detection. Previously we leveraged sleep metrics from a smart bed to build a COVID-19 symptom detection model. Analysis of pre-pandemic data with this model indicated that our results may generalize to detecting symptoms of other influenza-like illnesses (ILI). Here we investigated whether seasonal ILI trends reported by US Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) can be approximated from aggregation of individual ILI symptom predictions. Materials and Methods: An IRB approved survey with COVID-19-specific questions was presented to opting-in Sleep Number customers from August to November 2020 in the USA. COVID-19 test results were reported by 3546/9370 respondents (249 positive;3297 negative). Sleep duration, sleep quality, duration of restful sleep, time to fall asleep, respiration rate, heart rate, and motion level were obtained using ballistocardiography signals from the smart bed. Longitudinal seep data from January 2020 to December 2020 from 122 of the positive and 1603 of the negative respondents were used to develop an individual-level COVID-19 symptom detection model. The model produces a probability of experiencing COVID-19 symptoms for each sleep session. Pre-pandemic sleep data from January 2017 to December 2019 from 4187 responders (1820 sleep sessions per night on average) were used to assess the ability of the developed model to generalize to ILI symptom detection. Weekly rates of high-scoring sleep sessions between January 2017 and June 2018 were fitted to the weekly ILI rates as reported by CDC using a negative binomial model. Subsequently, Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated for the predicted and reported rates between July 2018 and December 2019. Results: Correlation between the predicted and CDC reference was 0.91 (+0.04 compared to the baseline model). Correlation restricted to the influenza season (week 40 of 2018 to week 20 of 2019) was 0.87 (+0.13 compared to the baseline model). Conclusions: The sleep metrics measured with a smart bed platform are a unique source of longitudinal data, collected in a real-world, unobtrusive manner. This system may serve as a valuable asset in predicting and tracking the development of symptoms associated with a wide variety of respiratory illnesses, including influenza and COVID-19. Acknowledgements: This study was funded by Sleep Number Corporation.

14.
Actualites Pharmaceutiques ; 61(616):46-48, 2022.
Article in English, French | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1926139

ABSTRACT

From the age of 50, the immune system loses its effectiveness, making people more vulnerable to infections and limiting the effectiveness of vaccinations. Although most seniors get vaccinated against seasonal flu every year, they often neglect other vaccinations.

15.
J Rural Med ; 17(3): 158-165, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917111

ABSTRACT

Objective: The differences in clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with hematological disorders (HD) who developed either coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or seasonal influenza (SI) are not fully understood. To examine these differences, we retrospectively analyzed the baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes of hospitalized patients with HD admitted from 2016 to 2021. Patients and Methods: Patients with HD who developed COVID-19 (in the past 1 year) (n=21) or SI (in the past 5 years) (n=23) in the Department of Hematology/Oncology, Asahikawa Kosei General Hospital were evaluated. Results: The median ages of the patients with HD with either COVID-19 or SI were 80 and 68 years, respectively (P=0.03). The groups showed no significant differences in sex ratio, body mass index, or Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status. In the COVID-19 and SI groups, the most common primary diseases were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (43%) and multiple myeloma (39%), respectively. The median numbers of days of oxygen administration (8 vs. 0 days), quarantine (25 vs. 6 days), and hospitalization (72 vs. 21 days) were significantly higher in HD patients with COVID-19 than those in HD patients with SI (all P<0.001). The overall 90-day survival of patients with HD and COVID-19 was significantly shorter than that of patients with HD and SI (P=0.019). Moreover, patients with HD and COVID-19 had a higher risk of in-hospital mortality (43% vs. 9%; odds ratio, 7.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-82.4; P=0.01) compared to patients with HD and SI. Conclusion: Patients with HD and COVID-19 required longer periods of in-hospital medical and showed poorer survival than those with SI. During the COVID-19 pandemic, hematologists should closely monitor the condition of patients with COVID-19 to closely monitor their condition to prevent deaths.

16.
Vox Sanguinis ; 117(SUPPL 1):156, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1916307

ABSTRACT

Background: All donations at Canadian Blood Services (CBS) are screened for syphilis using a serology screening and confirmation test algorithm. Currently, syphilis repeat-reactive (RR) results lead to the indefinite deferral of CBS donors regardless of supplementary test results. We have previously described a temporal association of RR results with seasonal public health influenza vaccination campaigns that generally start in September and continue through winter. As of December 2020, there has also been an intensive COVID-19 public health vaccination campaign in Canada. Aims: To track temporal associations between RR, unconfirmed syphilis results among CBS blood donors and Canadian influenza and COVID-19 vaccination campaigns. Methods: All donations were tested on the PK 7300 instrument (Beckman Coulter;Brea, CA, USA) with the PK TP system test kit. Confirmatory laboratory testing was undertaken at reference laboratories using the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TP-PA) test. Syphilis RR results that did not confirm were obtained for CBS donations between September 2017 to January 2022. Data on donor influenza and COVID-19 vaccination histories, within 3 months of donation, were extracted. The temporal periodicity of unconfirmed syphilis RR results was graphed against vaccination data. Respiratory virus data were acquired from the Public Health Agency of Canada Respiratory Virus Detection Surveillance System. Results: Periodicity of RR, unconfirmed syphilis rates: September 2017-January 2022. Summary/Conclusions: We have previously noted a cyclical temporal trend in the number of RR, unconfirmed syphilis specimens with peaks corresponding to influenza vaccine campaigns or widespread community circulation of respiratory viruses. Although insufficient to establish a causal association, this analysis suggests that incidence of RR, unconfirmed syphilis results in Canadian blood donors may be variably influenced at different times of year by one or more of at least three factors: (1) influenza vaccination campaigns, (2) the COVID-19 vaccination campaign, and (3) circulation of respiratory viruses in the presence or absence of circulating seasonal influenza. Moreover, other mechanisms may affect these trends. For example, syphilis assays such as the PK TP test kit that detect IgM may be prone to false positive results that do not confirm either after influenza vaccine, COVID- 19 vaccination or during a respiratory virus season. (Table Presented).

17.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911665

ABSTRACT

We quantified the effects of adherence to various non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) on the seasonal influenza epidemic dynamics in Japan during 2020. The total monthly number of seasonal influenza cases per sentinel site (seasonal influenza activity) reported to the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases and alternative NPI indicators (retail sales of hand hygiene products and number of airline passenger arrivals) from 2014-2020 were collected. The average number of monthly seasonal influenza cases in 2020 had decreased by approximately 66.0% (p < 0.001) compared to those in the preceding six years. An increase in retail sales of hand hygiene products of ¥1 billion over a 3-month period led to a 15.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.9-20.0%; p < 0.001) reduction in seasonal influenza activity. An increase in the average of one million domestic and international airline passenger arrivals had a significant association with seasonal influenza activity by 11.6% at lag 0-2 months (95% CI: 6.70-16.5%; p < 0.001) and 30.9% at lag 0-2 months (95% CI: 20.9-40.9%; p < 0.001). NPI adherence was associated with decreased seasonal influenza activity during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan, which has crucial implications for planning public health interventions to minimize the health consequences of adverse seasonal influenza epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Seasons
18.
IJID Reg ; 2: 154-157, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899812

ABSTRACT

Objectives: There is no consensus regarding the impact of population density on the transmission of respiratory viral infections such as COVID-19 and seasonal influenza. Our study aimed to determine the correlation between population density and the incidence and duration of COVID-19 transmission. Methods: Publicly available data for confirmed COVID-19 cases in Japan, from January 2020 through November 2021, were retrospectively collected. The average numbers of seasonal influenza cases reported in the national database from 2013-2014 through 2019-2020 were identified. Using data for COVID-19 and seasonal influenza population density and incidence rates (age-adjusted), the Pearson's correlation coefficient was determined. Results: A significant positive correlation between log population density and length of outbreak period was observed for COVID-19 (r = 0.734; p < 0.001) but not for seasonal influenza. Additionally, a significant linear correlation was observed between population density and age-adjusted incidence rate for COVID-19 (r = 0.692; p < 0.001) but not for seasonal influenza. Conclusions: In Japan, areas with high population density experienced a prolonged and more intense COVID-19 outbreak compared with areas with low population density. This was not observed with seasonal influenza, suggesting that public health measures against COVID-19 should be tailored according to population density.

19.
Respirology ; 27(10): 844-853, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891676

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Single-study evidence of separate and combined effectiveness of influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is limited. To fill this gap, we studied the effectiveness of trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23), separately and together, at preventing adverse COPD outcomes. METHODS: Our study used a self-controlled, before-and-after cohort design to assess the effectiveness of TIV and PPSV23 in COPD patients. Patients were recruited from hospitals in Tangshan City, Hebei Province, China. Subjects self-selected into one of the three vaccination schedules: TIV group, PPSV23 group and TIV&PPSV23 group. We used a physician-completed, medical record-verified questionnaire to obtain data on acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD), pneumonia and related hospitalization. Vaccine effectiveness was determined by comparing COPD outcomes before and after vaccination, controlling for potential confounding using Cox regression. RESULTS: We recruited 474 COPD patients, of whom 109 received TIV, 69 received PPSV23 and 296 received TIV and PPSV23. Overall effectiveness for preventing AECOPD, pneumonia and related hospitalization were respectively 70%, 59% and 58% in the TIV group; 54%, 53% and 46% in the PPSV23 group; and 72%, 73% and 69% in the TIV&PPSV23 group. The vaccine effectiveness without COVID-19 non-pharmaceutical intervention period were 84%, 77% and 88% in the TIV group; 63%, 74% and 66% in the PPSV23 group; and 82%, 83% and 91% in the TIV&PPSV23 group. CONCLUSION: Influenza vaccination and PPSV23 vaccination, separately and together, can effectively reduce the risk of AECOPD, pneumonia and related hospitalization. Effectiveness for preventing AECOPD was the greatest.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pneumococcal Infections , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal , Pneumonia , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Infections/chemically induced , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/chemically induced , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/prevention & control , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1887196

ABSTRACT

The health and economic consequences of seasonal influenza present great costs to communities. Promoting voluntary uptake of the seasonal influenza vaccine among university students, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic, can deliver protective effects for both individuals and the wider community. Vaccine uptake will be greatest when more of the social marketing benchmarks are applied. This systematic review summarizes evidence from programs aiming to increase seasonal influenza vaccination among university students. Six major electronic databases for health promotion studies (PubMed, EBSCO, ProQuest, Ovid, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect) were searched in November 2021 to capture peer-reviewed studies reporting field trials that have sought to increase seasonal influenza vaccination in university student populations, without any restrictions regarding the publication period. Following PRISMA guidelines, this paper identified 12 peer-reviewed studies that were conducted in the field in the United States, Australia, and Spain. Three studies were targeted at healthcare students and the rest focused on wider university student populations. Studies were narratively summarized, evidence of social marketing principles were identified, and quantitative outcomes were meta-analyzed. The findings indicate that none of the field studies, even a self-classified social marketing study, had adopted all eight of the social marketing benchmarks in program design and implementation. The two studies that only used promotion, but not other marketing-mix and social marketing principles, reported increases in students' intention to be vaccinated but not actual behavior. Given that change is more likely when more social benchmarks are applied, this paper identifies activities that can be included in flu vaccine programs to improve flu vaccine uptake rates. The analysis highlights a lack of field studies focusing on increasing rates of vaccination behavior as research outcomes in countries beyond the United States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Seasons , Social Marketing , Students , Universities , Vaccination
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