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1.
Biomedicines ; 10(10)2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071219

ABSTRACT

Pain after an acute Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) condition (post-COVID pain) is becoming a new healthcare emergency. Precision medicine refers to an evidence-based method of grouping patients based on their diagnostic/symptom presentation and then tailoring specific treatments accordingly. Evidence suggests that post-COVID pain can be categorized as nociceptive (i.e., pain attributable to the activation of the peripheral receptive terminals of primary afferent neurons in response to noxious chemical, mechanical, or thermal stimuli), neuropathic (i.e., pain associated with a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system and limited to a "neuroanatomically plausible" distribution of the system), nociplastic (i.e., pain arising from altered nociception despite no clear evidence of actual or threatened tissue damage causing the activation of peripheral nociceptors or evidence for disease or lesion of the somatosensory system causing the pain), or mixed type (when two pain phenotypes co-exist). Each of these pain phenotypes may require a different treatment approach to maximize treatment effectiveness. Accordingly, the ability to classify post-COVID pain patients into one of these phenotypes would likely be critical for producing successful treatment outcomes. The 2021 International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) clinical criteria and grading system provide a framework for classifying pain within a precision pain medicine approach. Here we present data supporting the possibility of grouping patients with post-COVID pain into pain phenotypes, using the 2021 IASP classification criteria, with a specific focus on nociplastic pain, which is probably the primary mechanism involved in post-COVID pain. Nociplastic pain, which is usually associated with comorbid symptomology (e.g., poor sleep quality, fatigue, cognitive-emotional disturbances, etc.) and is considered to be more difficult to treat than other pain types, may require a more nuanced multimodal treatment approach to achieve better treatment outcomes.

2.
Brain Sci ; 12(10)2022 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065706

ABSTRACT

A better understanding of biological and emotional variables associated with health-related quality of life in people with long-COVID is needed. Our aim was to identify potential direct and indirect effects on the relationships between sensitization-associated symptoms, mood disorders such as anxiety/depressive levels, and sleep quality on health-related quality of life in people suffering from post-COVID-19 pain. One hundred and forty-six individuals who were hospitalized due to COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic and suffering from long-term post-COVID-19 pain completed different patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), including clinical features, symptoms associated with sensitization of the central nervous system (Central Sensitization Inventory), mood disorders (Hospital Anxiety and Depressive Scale), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and health-related quality of life (paper-based five-level version of EuroQol-5D) in a face-to-face interview conducted at 18.8 (SD 1.8) months after hospitalization. Different mediation models were conducted to assess the direct and indirect effects of the associations among the different variables. The mediation models revealed that sensitization-associated symptoms and depressive levels directly affected health-related quality of life; however, these effects were not statistically significant when sleep quality was included. In fact, the effect of sensitization-associated symptomatology on quality of life (ß = -0.10, 95% CI -0.1736, -0.0373), the effect of depressive levels on quality of life (ß= -0.09, 95% CI -0.1789, -0.0314), and the effect of anxiety levels on quality of life (ß = -0.09, 95% CI -0.1648, -0.0337) were all indirectly mediated by sleep quality. This study revealed that sleep quality mediates the relationship between sensitization-associated symptoms and mood disorders (depressive/anxiety levels) with health-related quality of life in individuals who were hospitalized with COVID-19 at the first wave of the pandemic and reporting post-COVID-19 pain. Longitudinal studies will help to determine the clinical implications of these findings.

3.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):877, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063474

ABSTRACT

Purpose: SARS-CoV-2 infection in kidney transplant recipients is associated with an increased risk of severe disease and mortality relative to other patient populations, with mortality reported to be as high as 30% early in the pandemic. It has been demonstrated that vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 after transplantation is less effective as when administered prior to immunosuppression administration. To reduce the risk of poorer outcomes associated with immunosuppression, it is advisable that transplant candidates complete a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine series prior to transplantation. SARS-CoV-2 vaccine hesitancy contributes to under-vaccination in the transplant candidate population. We describe candidate perspectives associated with vaccine hesitancy in kidney transplant candidates. Method(s): Vaccination status of actively listed kidney transplant candidates at our center was reviewed in January 2022. The infectious disease nurse practitioner performed counseling telephone visits with all available candidates not vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 to uncover their perspectives around vaccination and determine reasons for vaccine refusal/hesitancy. Result(s): Of the 233 candidates actively listed for kidney transplant, 23 (9.8%) were found to be unvaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. Of the 23 patients, 20 (87%) were successfully contacted for telephone interview. Thirteen (65%) candidates described safety concerns as their primary reason for vaccine hesitancy. The most common concerns shared by unvaccinated candidates were a lack of trust in the development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, speed of development and general lack of safety data. Five (38%) of the 13 candidates expressed additional concern about the effect of vaccines could have on their native kidney function. One candidate expressed fear that vaccine will increase HLA sensitization, making it more difficult for organ matching. Three candidates stated they did not need the vaccine, citing isolation, healthy diet and prior infection as protective factors. Three candidates cited medical reasons. These included recent monoclonal antibody treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection (2) and lymphadenopathy (1). Conclusion(s): For patients awaiting kidney transplant, the primary reason contributing to vaccine hesitancy is concern regarding vaccine safety. For some, concerns are specific to diagnosis and status as a transplant candidate. Transplant centers should continue to address vaccine hesitancy in order to provide accurate information and targeted patient education around vaccine safety and benefit to aid patients in making decisions based on available scientific data.

4.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):702, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063424

ABSTRACT

Purpose: In contrast to high morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 infection (COVIDi) in adult kidney transplant (KT) recipients, these sequelae appear to be muted in the pediatric KT population. Long-term effects of COVIDi in pediatric KT recipients (pKTR), specifically those with absent or mild symptoms, have not been characterized. Thus, we aimed to investigate the impact of subclinical COVIDi on allograft outcomes, specifically allosensitization, and viremias in pKTR. Method(s): This retrospective 1:1 case-control study investigated COVIDi in pKTR transplanted between January 2016 to November 2021 at our center. Each pKTR with COVIDi, was matched with a control patient (by time of KT). Using laboratory values between March 1, 2020 and December 1, 2021, data was collected following COVIDi to baseline include donor specific antibodies (DSA), panel reactive antibodies (PRA), allograft rejection, and development or intensification of viremias. Descriptive statistics were utilized as well as two-sample t-tests, chi square, and logistic regression for tests of significance. Result(s): 22 patients in our cohort of 135 pKTR experienced subclinical COVIDi. 4 patients (18%) had an increase in BK viremia after COVIDi. Of these cases, 75% resulted in a >100-fold increase in BK viral load, compared to controls experiencing no more than a 5-fold increase. Following COVIDi, the proportion of pKTR with PRA>0 significantly increased compared to controls (p=0.03). Additionally, 2 patients with COVIDi developed de novo DSA versus none in the controls (p=0.078). Conclusion(s): Fortunately, acute morbidity and mortality associated with COVIDi in pKTR is muted compared to adults. However, COVIDi has long-term consequences for the pKTR with marked BK viremia and sensitization, potentially compromising allograft function. Pronounced BK viremia combined with increased risk for sensitization requires delicate adjustments of immunosuppression and anti-viral therapies to optimize patient and graft outcomes. The importance of avoiding these complications of COVIDi could lend additional support to vaccination before and after transplant in the pKTR population. (Table Presented).

5.
Chest ; 162(4):A2006-A2007, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060886

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Occupational and Environmental Lung Disease Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: We describe a case of acute progression of chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in an adult, previously misdiagnosed as COPD for 13 years due to severe emphysematous changes seen on imaging. He was also found to have acutely worsened disease as a result of Covid-19. CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old male presented to the pulmonary clinic with dyspnea on minimal exertion. He reported respiratory complaints for 13 years, treated with 2 L/min of oxygen overnight, and budesonide-formoterol and tiotropium inhalers. These complaints were previously associated with brief occupational mold exposure and possible COPD. His respiratory distress worsened one year ago when he was hospitalized for Covid-19. On discharge, his oxygen requirement had increased to 6 L/min. CT chest showed air-trapping in the mid-zones bilaterally, mosaic attenuation, and peri-bronchial thickening. PFTs showed an FEV1 33% and FVC 55% of predicted, consistent with severe obstruction and reduction in lung volume. As the patient was a lifetime non-smoker, alternative diagnoses were pursued. Alpha-1 antitrypsin levels and immunologic testing, including scleroderma and myositis panels, were within normal limits. Positive findings included CCP IgG/IgA antibodies at 96 units and HP panel positive for pigeon serum antibodies. Prompted by this testing, the patient revealed that he had parakeets in his home for the past 15 years. He also reported significant symptom improvement on occasions that he took a course of steroids. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of chronic fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis with bronchiolitis obliterans was considered. The patient's severe airflow obstruction and respiratory failure precluded surgical lung biopsy. Empiric management was initiated with 30 mg of prednisone daily with a slow taper and instruction to eliminate exposure to exotic birds. DISCUSSION: HP is commonly caused by inhalation of and sensitization to an aerosolized environmental antigen;a common subtype is bird fancier's lung due to repetitive exposure of avian antigen. Continuous antigen exposure increases the risk for development of fibrosis, which was also seen in our patient. The most commonly described radiologic findings in HP are ground-glass opacities, ill-defined centrilobular nodules, and focal areas of air trapping resulting in mosaic attenuation and fibrosis. More than 20% lymphocytosis on bronchoalveolar lavage is also a sensitive tool in detecting alveolitis. The relationship between Covid-19 and disease progression in HP is not well studied. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis from avian antigens, or Bird fancier's lung, can present with severe emphysematous changes on CT imaging, along with obstructive pattern of PFTs. This should be an important differential, especially in patients who are non-smokers. Covid-19 causes disease progression in HP, this relationship needs to be further explored. Reference #1: Funke M., Fellrath J.-M. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis secondary to lovebirds: a new cause of bird fancier's disease. Eur. Respir. J. 2008;32:517–521. DOI: 10.1183/09031936.00108507 Reference #2: Pereira C., Gimenez A., Kuranishi L., Storrer K. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis. J. Asthma Allergy. 2016;9:171–181. DOI: 10.2147/JAA.S81540 Reference #3: C.S. Glazer, C.S. Rose, D.A. Lynch Clinical and radiologic manifestations of hypersensitivity pneumonitis J. Thorac. Imag., 17 (4) (2002), pp. 261-272. DOI: 10.1097/00005382-200210000-00003 Morell F, Roger A, Reyes L, Cruz MJ, Murio C, Muñoz X Bird fancier's lung: a series of 86 patients. Medicine (Baltimore). 2008;87(2):110-130. DOI: 10.1097/MD.0b013e31816d1dda DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Momina Amjad No relevant relationships by Amit Chopra No relevant relationships by Rafeh Safdar

6.
Chinese Journal of Biologicals ; 35(3):344-350, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2056451
7.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(6):734-739, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2055478

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study conducted bibliometric analysis of COVID-19 related literature, to understand the research status of COVID-19, explore the latest progress and research trends in the field of COVID-19 research, and provide data support for the construction of a comprehensive and detail system based on COVID-19 literature.

8.
Weekly Epidemiological Record ; 97(6):33-40, 2022.
Article in English, French | GIM | ID: covidwho-2047164

ABSTRACT

Progress towards rubella elimination has accelerated since 2012, and, in 2020, rubella elimination had been verified in approximately one half the countries of the world. Progress is reflected in increased numbers of countries introducing RCV into national childhood immunization schedules and the coverage achieved. Between 2012 and 2020, the number of countries that introduced RCV increased from 132 to 173, and global coverage increased from 40% to 70%. Although the availability of vaccine increased and more LICs and LMICs have introduced RCV, estimates of coverage continue to reflect barriers to access in lower-income countries. Nevertheless, coverage decreased by only 1 percentage point between 2019 and 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. Progress is also reflected in the decrease in the number of reported cases, including a 48% decrease during 2012- 2019 and a further decrease in 2020.

9.
Journal of Experimental Zoology, India ; 25(2):1537-1546, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2046492

ABSTRACT

The infections by viruses are a great threat to our immunity but an array of powerful vaccines have successfully protected mankind from the attack of many of them. HIV is a tough enemy of the human body as it eludes the immune system by various mechanisms. It attacks immune cells causing a disease that gradually progresses to AIDS in some infections. Despite the success of ART, which has converted its infection into a manageable chronic condition, it is a major global health problem as 37.7 million people worldwide are HIV infected. ART is a lifelong treatment where a variety of drug options are designed to replace its resistant forms. Vaccines can protect from the stigmatized disease of HIV and control it in the absence of ART. In stark contrast with the speed with which the Covid-19 vaccines were developed in two years of the pandemic, an effective vaccine for HIV is still a challenge after decades of ongoing research. Coincidentally, both HIV and SARS-CoV-2 are pandemic causing mRNA viruses, which have spilled from animal sources. They mutate and attach to their host cells with their surface spikes. The paper is a review of the status of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, the unique challenges of the complex structure of the virus for the development of vaccines and a hope from the novel game-changing mRNA vaccine. After the recent success of the mRNA vaccine for Covid-19, it may become a promising tool to defeat HIV also by providing RNA-based HIV immunogens to trigger the body's immune response.

10.
Journal of the Association of Physicians of India ; 70(February):20-22, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2046405

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines have been rolled out recently in several parts of the world. Little is known about the post-vaccination experience outside of clinical trial conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the adverse effects and infection rate of vaccinated people in a community scenario. It will help to educate the public, dispel misinformation and reduce vaccine hesitancy. Aim and Objectives: Assessing total beneficiaries of COVID-19 vaccination and finding among them COVID-19 infection and AEFI after vaccination. Subject and Methods: Cross sectional Study at COVID-19 Vaccination centre at DCH in Mumbai, since 1st February2021-31st July 2021, Data was collected by calling telephonically the registered beneficiaries in Vaccination Centre, data was collected and analysed in MS-excel sheet and SPSS using CHI-square test.

11.
Africa Health ; 43(3):29-31, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2046333

ABSTRACT

It is not possible to attribute the low rate of COVID-19 in African nations to insufficient data, hence it is important to investigate the causes of this. This article examines a few of the hypothesised explanations for the low incidence and mortality rates in African nations. African nations' success may have been influenced by cultural traits including collectivism, short-termism, and aversion to ambiguity. Having a younger population also appears to have had a significant role in the disease's reduced spread and mortality. Further research is required to determine how much the high illness burden from infectious diseases may have contributed to reducing the symptoms, dissemination, and mortality. For instance, it's likely that Africans have been exposed to a coronavirus strain that confers some level of protection against the COVID-19 virus. Early in the pandemic, lockdowns and competent leadership were important in averting broad community transmission. However, despite increased vaccination, observation and monitoring must continue.

12.
Forced Migration Review ; 67:33-35, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046152

ABSTRACT

Significant variations in access to fundamental public health services during the COVID-19 epidemic have been revealed by recent study conducted in a number of different nations. States have an obligation to apply what they have learned from the present pandemic to remove existing obstacles. In many aspects, the COVID-19 pandemic fostered cooperation across nations and within communities in an effort to address dangers to the public's health and lessen the socioeconomic effects of the virus. Some good practices have emerged as a result of extensive advocacy and engagement with governments by a variety of actors. These include expanding free access to COVID-19 testing, treatment, and vaccines for all migrants, regardless of status, and allowing stranded migrants and those without visas to access basic services. They must consider the impact of this extraordinary situation and global public health emergency on those who continue to face barriers to accessing basic services, such as COVID-19 vaccines, as well as how this intersects with both individual and public health, even though these policy developments are to be welcomed, championed, and replicated. Public health initiatives could be jeopardized by enduring access impediments as well as fresh difficulties brought on by movement restrictions and lockdowns. National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies conducted the study in eight nations: Australia, Colombia, Egypt, Ethiopia, the Philippines, Sudan, Sweden, and the UK (and data from the Sahel region was also taken into consideration). The findings suggest that, in order to end the pandemic and guarantee that everyone has the chance to receive assistance in a respectful and supportive manner, inclusive approaches for connecting with and supporting migrants and refugees must be incorporated into national and local pandemic preparedness, response, and recovery plans. Public health hazards will persist if inclusive policies are not accompanied by operational guidelines to overcome barriers in practice.

13.
Africa Health ; 43(4):31-34, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046086

ABSTRACT

This paper presents myths and misconceptions regarding COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccines in Africa. Vaccine related myths are a leading cause of suboptimal vaccine uptake in the African region. In areas with a highly conservative and low-literacy population, leadership and governance are largely hierarchical, with traditional, religious and political leaders being seen as the unquestionable custodians of decision-making in the society. The myths related to COVID-19 differ in content largely depending on four interconnected factors: socioeconomic status, literacy levels and religious therapies.

14.
Africa Health ; 43(4):19-20, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2045879

ABSTRACT

This paper expounds on how COVID-19 has affected some of the other disease patterns in Africa. The paper highlights the effect of COVID-19 on HIV, AIDS and TB as well as the access to vaccines in controlling the pandemic.

15.
Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine ; 257(1):57-64, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2045708

ABSTRACT

This study sought to evaluate the effects of two vaccine doses and the extent of SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers. We measured immunoglobulin G antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid and spike protein among healthcare workers at Gunma University Hospital. In March 2021, prior to BNT-162b2 vaccination, two of 771 participants were seropositive for nucleocapsid and spike protein, whereas 768 were seronegative. The remaining one participant was seropositive for nucleocapsid protein but seronegative for spike protein. A total of 769 participants were seropositive for spike protein after two vaccination doses. The two seropositive participants prior to vaccination showed the highest antibody titers after the second vaccination. They were probably infected with SARS-CoV-2 without clinical symptoms before March 2021. Four weeks after the second vaccination, a younger age was associated with higher antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Thirty-two weeks after the second vaccination, blood samples were collected from 342 of 769 participants. Antibody titers at 32 weeks after the second vaccination significantly decreased compared with those at 4 weeks after the second vaccination among all age groups. The rate of decrease in antibody titers between 4 and 32 weeks after the second vaccination was greater in the female participants. No sex differences were observed in the antibody titers within each age group. BNT-162b2 vaccination thus induced seroconversion in an age-dependent manner. Serological screening could further establish the likelihood of subclinical SARS-CoV-2 infection.

16.
Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research ; 13(3):709-719, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2045618

ABSTRACT

Background: World health organization declared covid-19 pandemic worldwide. Efforts are being made to increase the awareness about covid-19 in the general public and as well as in patients through various health education programs. Material and Methods: The study included 1000 individuals and was conducted by The Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Government Medical College, Patiala during the 6-month period from January 2021 to June 2021. Patient intentions, apprehensions, and reasons for not getting vaccinated were be assessed by questionnaire. All walk-in patients above 18yr of age were included. To assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of the participants, 18 questions (including for knowledge, attitude, for practice) were included. The questions were directly asked from patients in their vernacular language along with demographic details and responses noted. Need of study: To spread the Knowledge about vaccination and the need for getting vaccinated so that hesitancy for covid-19 vaccination can be decreased and the severity of infection can be controlled. Awareness about vaccination is vitally important for developing effective control measures in a public health crisis.

17.
International Hatchery Practice ; 35(4):27-28, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2045268
18.
HPS Weekly Report ; 56:1, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2044758

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization European Region (WHO Europe) has seen a wide spectrum of efforts and accomplishments in 2021, with COVID-19 touching almost all of the WHO's work. The Regional Office has started to advance in other areas of health through the European Programme of Work, most notably by establishing the Pan-European Mental Health Coalition and the Immunization Agenda 2030. The WHO has released a timeline infographic that recaps some significant events from the previous year, showcasing regional accomplishments as well as certain national projects.

19.
HPS Weekly Report ; 56:11, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2044719

ABSTRACT

In recent weeks, many Ukrainian refugees have crossed into Hungary, Poland, Moldova, and Romania. The WHO works with these and other nations to increase disease surveillance and provide immunization programs according to their schedules and policies. This article provides a summary of the recommendations provided by WHO to all countries in the region. According to the guidelines, countries must continue to make efforts to ensure that their resident populations, including refugee populations, are fully vaccinated against polio, measles, rubella, COVID-19, and other vaccine-preventable diseases. Vaccination against polio, measles, and rubella must be offered as a priority to incoming refugee children under the age of six who have missed any routine vaccinations Vaccine doses must be recorded and made available to vaccinated individuals.

20.
Internist ; 63(5):465-492, 2022.
Article in German | GIM | ID: covidwho-2044679

ABSTRACT

This issue contains 10 articles that discuss: immune system and allergies;vaccinations;prophylactic and therapeutic management in immunodeficiency;immunology;therapy planning;sarcoidosis and berylliosis;innovations in drug therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus;and antibody therapy in patients with COVID-19.

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