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1.
Biomedicines ; 10(11)2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109932

ABSTRACT

Throughout the pandemic, serological assays have been revealed as crucial for detecting previous exposures to the virus and determining the timing of antibody maintenance after vaccination or natural infection. This study aimed to develop an optimized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based serology, which could be used in case of reagent shortages, such as that occurred in the beginning of this health emergency. As a result, we present a high-sensitive immunoassay for the determination of IgG levels in venous serum samples, using 2 µg/mL antigen (receptor-binding domain of the spike protein S1) for coating the plate and utilizing human samples at a dilution 1:1000. This method showed non-inferiority features versus a commercial kit, is less expensive, and has a higher spectrophotometric range that allows for a better quantification of the antibody titers. The optical density values before and after heating venous serum samples at 56 °C during 30 min was quite similar, showing that heat inactivation can be used to reduce the biohazardous risks while handling samples. Furthermore, we show that finger-stick capillary blood samples can also serve as a suitable source for IgG detection, bypassing the need for serum isolation and being suitable for point-of-care application (Pearson's coefficient correlation with capillary serum was 0.95, being statistically significant).

2.
J Proteome Res ; 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106307

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) and its subvariants are currently the most common variants of concern worldwide, featuring numerous mutations in the spike protein and elsewhere that collectively make Omicron variants more transmissible and more resistant to antibody-mediated neutralization provided by vaccination, previous infections, and monoclonal antibody therapies than their predecessors. We recently reported the creation and characterization of Ig-MS, a new mass spectrometry-based serology platform that can define the repertoire of antibodies against an antigen of interest at single proteoform resolution. Here, we applied Ig-MS to investigate the evolution of plasma antibody repertoires against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 in response to the booster shot and natural viral infection. We also assessed the capacity for antibody repertoires generated in response to vaccination and/or infection with the Omicron variant to bind to both Wuhan- and Omicron-RBDs. Our results show that (1) the booster increases antibody titers against both Wuhan- and Omicron- RBDs and elicits an Omicron-specific response and (2) vaccination and infection act synergistically in generating anti-RBD antibody repertoires able to bind both Wuhan- and Omicron-RBDs with variant-specific antibodies.

4.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103859

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has shown the importance of rapid and comprehensive diagnostic tools. While there are numerous rapid antigen tests available, rapid serological assays for the detection of neutralizing antibodies are and will be needed to determine not only the amount of antibodies formed after infection or vaccination but also their neutralizing potential, preventing the cell entry of SARS-CoV-2. Current active-virus neutralization assays require biosafety level 3 facilities, while virus-free surrogate assays are more versatile in applications, but still take typically several hours until results are available. To overcome these disadvantages, we developed a competitive chemiluminescence immunoassay that enables the detection of neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 antibodies within 7 min. The neutralizing antibodies bind to the viral receptor binding domain (RBD) and inhibit the binding to the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. This competitive binding inhibition test was characterized with a set of 80 samples, which could all be classified correctly. The assay results favorably compare to those obtained with a more time-intensive ELISA-based neutralization test and a commercial surrogate neutralization assay. Our test could further be used to detect individuals with a high total IgG antibody titer, but only a low neutralizing titer, as well as for monitoring neutralizing antibodies after vaccinations. This effective performance in SARS-CoV-2 seromonitoring delineates the potential for the test to be adapted to other diseases in the future.

5.
Viral Infections and Antiviral Therapies ; : 99-120, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2104201

ABSTRACT

Viral diagnostics was previously confined to research purposes, but with the advent of modern modalities it has transcended the limits and forayed into main stream diagnostics. It is now a significant contributor towards prognosis, management and prevention strategies. Since the onslaught of the COVID-19 pandemic, it has become more important to accurately diagnose and differentiate various viral infections as the clinical features can be overlapping and confusing many a times. A misdiagnosed viral infection can play havoc on a patient’s health, as the severity of the infection and its clinical features may not always be in sync. So, it is of utmost importance to diagnose a viral infection using either point of care tests or advanced expert systems based on the available resources rather than going with the instincts, in this era of diagnostic revolution. This chapter aims to provide an overview of the various diagnostic modalities and developments in the field of virology that may augment our decision-making capacity for the best possible patient outcome.

6.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098865

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Anti-nucleocapsid (NC) antibodies are produced in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, they are well suited for the detection of a previous infection. Especially in the case of seroprevalence studies or during the evaluation of a novel in-vitro diagnostic test, samples have been stored at <-70 °C (short- and long-term) or 2-10 °C (short-term) before analysis. This study aimed to assess the impact of different storage conditions relevant to routine biobanking on anti-NC antibodies. METHODS: The preanalytical impact of short-term storage (84 [58-98] days) on <-70 °C and for 14 days at 2-10 °C was evaluated using samples from 111 donors of the MedUni Vienna Biobank. Long-term effects (443 [409-468] days) were assessed using 208 samples from Biobank Graz and 49 samples from Biobank Vienna. Anti-Nucleocapsid antibodies were measured employing electrochemiluminescence assays (Roche Anti-SARS-CoV-2). RESULTS: After short-term storage, the observed changes did not exceed the extent that could be explained by analytical variability. In contrast, results after long-term storage were approximately 20% higher and seemed to increase with storage duration. This effect was independent of the biobank from which the samples were obtained. Accordingly, the sensitivity increased from 92.6 to 95.3% (p=0.008). However, comparisons with data from Anti-Spike protein assays, where these deviations were not apparent, suggest that this deviation could also be explained by the analytical variability of the qualitative Anti-NC assay. CONCLUSIONS: Results from anti-NC antibodies are stable during short-term storage at <-70 °C and 2-10 °C. After long-term storage, a slight increase in sensitivity could not be ruled out.

7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 810, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098319

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited information to compare the qualitative and semi-quantitative performance of rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) and serology for the assessment of antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Therefore, the objective of the study was (a) to compare the efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection between RDT and laboratory serology, trying to identify appropriate semi-quantitative cut-offs for RDT in relation with quantitative serology values and to (b) evaluate diagnostic accuracy of RDT compared to the NAAT gold standard in an unselected adult population. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were simultaneously measured with lateral flow immunochromatographic assays (LFA), the Cellex qSARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM Rapid Test (by capillary blood), the iFlash-SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) (by venous blood) and the nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) in samples from in- and out-patients with confirmed, suspected and negative diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) attending Udine Hospital (Italy) (March-May 2020). Interpretation of RDT was qualitative (positive/negative) and semi-quantitative based on a chromatographic intensity scale (negative, weak positive, positive). RESULTS: Overall, 720 paired antibody measures were performed on 858 patients. The qualitative and semiquantitative agreement analysis performed in the whole sample between LFA and CLIA provided a Kendall's tau of 0.578 (p < 0.001) and of 0.623 (p < 0.001), respectively, for IgM and IgG. In patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19, accordance between LFA and CLIA was maintained as a function of time from the onset of COVID-19 disease and the severity of disease both for qualitative and semi-quantitative assessments. RDT compared to the NAAT gold standard in 858 patients showed 78.5% sensitivity (95% CI 75.1%-81.7%) and 94.1% specificity (95% CI 90.4%-96.8%), with variable accordance depending on the timing from symptom onset. CONCLUSION: The RDT used in our study can be a non-invasive and reliable alternative to serological tests and facilitate both qualitative and a semi-quantitative antibody detection in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , Immunoglobulin M , Sensitivity and Specificity , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoassay/methods
8.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(12): 1427-1435, 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impacts of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and vaccine boosters on the transmission of the largest outbreak of COVID-19 (the fifth wave) in Hong Kong have not been reported. The outbreak, dominated by the Omicron BA.2 subvariant, began to spread substantially after the Spring Festival in February, 2022, when the temperature varied greatly (e.g. a cold surge event). Tightening social distancing measures did not succeed in containing the outbreak until later with the use of rapid antigen tests (RAT) and increased vaccination rates. Temperature has been previously found to have significant impact on the transmissibility. Understanding how the public health interventions influence the number of infections in this outbreak provide important insights on prevention and control of COVID-19 during different seasons. METHODS: We developed a transmission model incorporating stratified immunity with vaccine-induced antibody responses and the daily changes in population mobility, vaccination and weather factors (i.e. temperature and relative humidity). We fitted the model to the daily reported cases detected by either PCR or RAT between 1 February and 31 March using Bayesian statistics, and quantified the effects of individual NPIs, vaccination and weather factors on transmission dynamics. RESULTS: Model predicted that, with the vaccine uptake, social distancing reduced the cumulative incidence (CI) from 58.2% to 44.5% on average. The use of RAT further reduced the CI to 39.0%. Without vaccine boosters in these two months, the CI increased to 49.1%. While public health interventions are important in reducing the total infections, the outbreak was temporarily driven by the cold surge. If the coldest two days (8.5 °C and 8.8 °C) in February were replaced by the average temperature in that month (15.2 °C), the CI would reduce from 39.0% to 28.2%. CONCLUSION: Preventing and preparing for the transmission of COVID-19 considering the change in temperature appears to be a cost-effective preventive strategy to lead people to return to normal life.

9.
Euro Surveill ; 27(42)2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089697

ABSTRACT

BackgroundCountries worldwide are focusing to mitigate the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic by employing public health measures. Laboratories have a key role in the control of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Serology for SARS-CoV-2 is of critical importance to support diagnosis, define the epidemiological framework and evaluate immune responses to natural infection and vaccine administration.AimThe aim of this study was the assessment of the actual capability among laboratories involved in sero-epidemiological studies on COVID-19 in EU/EEA and EU enlargement countries to detect SARS-CoV-2 antibodies through an external quality assessment (EQA) based on proficiency testing.MethodsThe EQA panels were composed of eight different, pooled human serum samples (all collected in 2020 before the vaccine roll-out), addressing sensitivity and specificity of detection. The panels and two EU human SARS-CoV-2 serological standards were sent to 56 laboratories in 30 countries.ResultsThe overall performance of laboratories within this EQA indicated a robust ability to establish past SARS-CoV-2 infections via detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, with 53 of 55 laboratories using at least one test that characterised all EQA samples correctly. IgM-specific test methods provided most incorrect sample characterisations (24/208), while test methods detecting total immunoglobulin (0/119) and neutralising antibodies (2/230) performed the best. The semiquantitative assays used by the EQA participants also showed a robust performance in relation to the standards.ConclusionOur EQA showed a high capability across European reference laboratories for reliable diagnostics for SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses. Serological tests that provide robust and reliable detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Laboratories , Antibodies, Viral , Sensitivity and Specificity , Immunoglobulin M , Antibodies, Neutralizing
10.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(11): 100811, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082685

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent plasma (CCP), a passive polyclonal antibody therapeutic agent, has had mixed clinical results. Although antibody neutralization is the predominant approach to benchmarking CCP efficacy, CCP may also influence the evolution of the endogenous antibody response. Using systems serology to comprehensively profile severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) functional antibodies of hospitalized people with COVID-19 enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of CCP (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04397757), we find that the clinical benefits of CCP are associated with a shift toward reduced inflammatory Spike (S) responses and enhanced nucleocapsid (N) humoral responses. We find that CCP has the greatest clinical benefit in participants with low pre-existing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody function and that CCP-induced immunomodulatory Fc glycan profiles and N immunodominant profiles persist for at least 2 months. We highlight a potential mechanism of action of CCP associated with durable immunomodulation, outline optimal patient characteristics for CCP treatment, and provide guidance for development of a different class of COVID-19 hyperinflammation-targeting antibody therapeutic agents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunization, Passive/methods , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Nucleocapsid
11.
Biotechniques ; 73(4): 193-203, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079900

ABSTRACT

Dried blood spots (DBSs) provide an alternative sample input for serologic testing. We evaluated DBSs for the ARCHITECT® hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) NEXT, hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg), anti-hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc II), HIV antigen/antibody (Ag/Ab) Combo and AdviseDx SARS-CoV-2 IgG II assays. Assay performance with DBSs was assessed with or without assay modification and compared with on-market assay with plasma samples. DBS stability was also determined. HBsAg NEXT and HIV Ag/Ab Combo assays using DBSs showed sensitivity and specificity comparable to that of on-market assays. Modified HBeAg, anti-HBc II and SARS-CoV-2 IgG II DBS assays achieved performance comparable to on-market assays. Use of DBSs as input for high-throughput serologic assays is expected to have significant implications for improving population surveillance and increasing access to diagnostic testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Sensitivity and Specificity , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G
12.
Smart Health (Amst) ; 26: 100331, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076724

ABSTRACT

Serology and molecular tests are the two most commonly used methods for rapid COVID-19 infection testing. The two types of tests have different mechanisms to detect infection, by measuring the presence of viral SARS-CoV-2 RNA (molecular test) or detecting the presence of antibodies triggered by the SARS-CoV-2 virus (serology test). A handful of studies have shown that symptoms, combined with demographic and/or diagnosis features, can be helpful for the prediction of COVID-19 test outcomes. However, due to nature of the test, serology and molecular tests vary significantly. There is no existing study on the correlation between serology and molecular tests, and what type of symptoms are the key factors indicating the COVID-19 positive tests. In this study, we propose a machine learning based approach to study serology and molecular tests, and use features to predict test outcomes. A total of 2,467 donors, each tested using one or multiple types of COVID-19 tests, are collected as our testbed. By cross checking test types and results, we study correlation between serology and molecular tests. For test outcome prediction, we label 2,467 donors as positive or negative, by using their serology or molecular test results, and create symptom features to represent each donor for learning. Because COVID-19 produces a wide range of symptoms and the data collection process is essentially error prone, we group similar symptoms into bins. This decreases the feature space and sparsity. Using binned symptoms, combined with demographic features, we train five classification algorithms to predict COVID-19 test results. Experiments show that XGBoost achieves the best performance with 76.85% accuracy and 81.4% AUC scores, demonstrating that symptoms are indeed helpful for predicting COVID-19 test outcomes. Our study investigates the relationship between serology and molecular tests, identifies meaningful symptom features associated with COVID-19 infection, and also provides a way for rapid screening and cost effective detection of COVID-19 infection.

13.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075074

ABSTRACT

A multitude of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) has been developed to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies since the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic started in late 2019. Assessing the reliability of these assays in diverse global populations is critical. This study compares the use of the commercially available Platelia Total Ab Assay (Bio-Rad) nucleocapsid ELISA to the widely used Mount Sinai spike IgG ELISA in a Kenyan population seroprevalence study. Using longitudinal plasma specimens collected from a mother-infant cohort living in Nairobi, Kenya between May 2019 and December 2020, this study demonstrates that the two assays have a high qualitative agreement (92.7%) and strong correlation of antibody levels (R2 = 0.973) in repeated measures. Within this cohort, seroprevalence detected by either ELISA closely resembled previously published seroprevalence estimates for Kenya during the sampling period and no significant difference in the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection by either assay was observed. Assay comparability was not affected by HIV exposure status. These data support the use of the Platelia SARS-CoV-2 Total Ab ELISA as a suitable high-throughput method for seroprevalence studies in Kenya.

14.
JHEP Reports ; : 100605, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2069328

ABSTRACT

Background & Aims Liver injury with autoimmune features after vaccination against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is increasingly reported. We investigated a large international cohort of patients with acute hepatitis arising after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, focusing on histological and serological features. Approach & Results Patients without known pre-existing liver diseases and transaminase levels ≥5x the upper limit of normal within 3 months after any anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and available liver biopsy are included. Fifty-nine patients were recruited;35 females;median age 54 years;they were exposed to various combinations of mRNA, vectorial, inactivated and protein-based vaccines. Liver histology showed predominantly lobular hepatitis in 45 (76%) cases, predominantly portal hepatitis in 10 (17%), and other patterns in four (7%);seven had fibrosis Ishak stage ≥3, associated with more severe interface hepatitis. Autoimmune serology, centrally tested in 31 cases, showed anti-antinuclear antibody in 23 (74%), anti-smooth muscle antibody in 19 (61%), anti-gastric parietal cells in 8 (26%), anti-liver kidney microsomal in 4 (13%), anti-mitochondrial antibody in 4 (13%). Ninety-one percent were treated with steroids, ± azathioprine. Serum transaminase levels improved in all cases, and were normal in 24/58 (41%) after three months, and in 30/46 (65%) after six months. One patient required liver transplantation. Re-exposure to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines of 15 patients resulted in three relapses. Conclusion Acute liver injury arising after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is frequently associated with lobular hepatitis and positive autoantibodies. Whether there is a causal relationship between liver damage and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines remains to be established. A close follow-up is warranted to assess the long-term outcome of this condition. Lay summary Cases of liver injury after vaccination against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been published. We investigated a large international cohort of patients with acute hepatitis after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, focusing on liver biopsy findings and autoantibodies: liver biopsy frequently shows inflammation of the lobule, which is typical of recent injury, and autoantibodies are frequently positive. Whether there is a causal relationship between liver damage and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines remains to be established. Close follow-up is warranted to assess the long-term outcome of this condition.

15.
Euro Surveill ; 27(40)2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065383

ABSTRACT

BackgroundData regarding the long-term protection afforded by vaccination for the SARS-CoV-2 infection are essential for allocation of scarce vaccination resources worldwide.MethodsWe conducted a retrospective cohort study aimed at studying the kinetics of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19-naïve patients fully vaccinated with two doses of Comirnaty mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of antibody levels were reported. Linear models were used to assess antibody levels after full vaccination and their decline over time.ResultsThe study included 4,740 patients and 5,719 serological tests. Unadjusted GMCs peaked 28-41 days after the first dose at 10,174 AU/mL (95% CI: 9,211-11,237) and gradually decreased but remained well above the positivity cut-off. After adjusting for baseline characteristics and repeated measurements, the antibodies half-life time was 34.1 days (95% CI: 33.1-35.2), and females aged 16-39 years with no comorbidities had antibody levels of 20,613 AU/mL (95% CI: 18,526-22,934) on day 28 post-first-dose. Antibody levels were lower among males (0.736 of the level measured in females; 95% CI: 0.672-0.806), people aged 40-59 (0.729; 95% CI: 0.649-0.818) and ≥ 60 years (0.452; 95% CI: 0.398-0.513), and patients having haematological (0.241; 95% CI: 0.190-0.306) or solid malignancies (0.757; 95% CI: 0.650-0.881), chronic kidney disease with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ≥ 30 (0.434; 95% CI: 0.354-0.532) or with GFR < 30 mL/min (0.176; 95% CI: 0.109-0.287), and immunosuppression (0.273; 95% CI: 0.235-0.317). Body mass index, cardiovascular disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes and inflammatory bowel diseases were not associated with antibody levels.ConclusionsVaccination with two doses resulted in persistently high levels of antibodies (≥ cut-off of 50 AU/mL) up to 137 days post-first-dose. Risk factors for lower antibody levels were identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Israel/epidemiology , Male , RNA, Messenger , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
16.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1907, 2022 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064768

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 is largely driven by pre-symptomatic or mildly symptomatic individuals transmitting the virus. Serological tests to identify antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 are important tools to characterize subclinical infection exposure.During the summer of 2020, a mail-based serological survey with self-collected dried blood spot (DBS) samples was implemented among university affiliates and their household members in Massachusetts, USA. Described are challenges faced and novel procedures used during the implementation of this study to assess the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies amid the pandemic.Important challenges included user-friendly remote and contact-minimized participant recruitment, limited availability of some commodities and laboratory capacity, a potentially biased sample population, and policy changes impacting the distribution of clinical results to study participants. Methods and lessons learned to surmount these challenges are presented to inform design and implementation of similar sero-studies.This study design highlights the feasibility and acceptability of self-collected bio-samples and has broad applicability for other serological surveys for a range of pathogens. Key lessons relate to DBS sampling, supply requirements, the logistics of packing and shipping packages, data linkages to enrolled household members, and the utility of having an on-call nurse available for participant concerns during sample collection. Future research might consider additional recruitment techniques such as conducting studies during academic semesters when recruiting in a university setting, partnerships with supply and shipping specialists, and using a stratified sampling approach to minimize potential biases in recruitment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Postal Service , Universities
17.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(11): e0099522, 2022 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063974

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic resulted in a demand for highly specific and sensitive serological testing to evaluate seroprevalence and antiviral immune responses to infection and vaccines. Hence, there was an urgent need for a serology standard to harmonize results across different natural history and vaccine studies. The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) generated a U.S. serology standard for SARS-CoV-2 serology assays and subsequently calibrated it to the WHO international standard (National Institute for Biological Standards and Control [NIBSC] code 20/136) (WHO IS). The development included a collaborative study to evaluate the suitability of the U.S. serology standard as a calibrator for SARS-CoV-2 serology assays. The eight laboratories participating in the study tested a total of 17 assays, which included commercial and in-house-derived binding antibody assays, as well as neutralization assays. Notably, the use of the U.S. serology standard to normalize results led to a reduction in the inter-assay coefficient of variation (CV) for IgM levels (pre-normalization range, 370.6% to 1,026.7%, and post-normalization range, 52.8% to 242.3%) and a reduction in the inter-assay CV for IgG levels (pre-normalization range, 3,416.3% to 6,160.8%, and post-normalization range, 41.6% to 134.6%). The following results were assigned to the U.S. serology standard following calibration against the WHO IS: 246 binding antibody units (BAU)/mL for Spike IgM, 764 BAU/mL for Spike IgG, 1,037 BAU/mL for Nucleocapsid IgM, 681 BAU/mL for Nucleocapsid IgG assays, and 813 neutralizing international units (IU)/mL for neutralization assays. The U.S. serology standard has been made publicly available as a resource to the scientific community around the globe to help harmonize results between laboratories.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Calibration , COVID-19/diagnosis , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin M , Immunoglobulin G , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
18.
J Intern Med ; 2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063842

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and recovery of olfactory dysfunction (OD) in COVID-19 patients 24 months after the infection. METHODS: From 22 March 2020 to 5 June 2022, 251 COVID-19 patients were followed in three European medical centres. Olfactory function was assessed with subjective patient-reported outcome questionnaires and odour identification tests at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months postinfection. The predictive values of epidemiological and clinical data were investigated with multivariate analysis. RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-one patients completed the evaluations. The odour identification test revealed that 123 patients (50.8%) had OD at baseline. The prevalence of persistent psychophysical abnormalities at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months post-COVID-19 was 24.2%, 17.9%, 5.8% and 2.9%, respectively (p = 0.001). Parosmia occurred in 40 patients (23.4%) and lasted 60 ± 119 days. At 2 years, 51 patients (29.8%) self reported that their olfaction was unnormalised. Older patients had better odour identification evaluations at baseline (p < 0.001) but those with OD reported lower odour identification test scores at the end of the follow-up. Parosmia occurred more frequently in young patients. The olfactory training was significantly associated with higher values of Sniffin' Sticks tests at 18 months postinfection (rs = 0.678; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Two years post-COVID-19, 29.8% of patients reported persistent OD, but only 2.9% had abnormal identification psychophysical evaluations.

19.
BMJ Open ; 12(9), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064156

ABSTRACT

Purpose To investigate the robustness and longevity of SARS-CoV-2 immune responses conferred by natural infection and vaccination among priority populations such as immunocompromised individuals and people with post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 in a prospective cohort study (Stop the Spread Ottawa - SSO) in adults living in the Ottawa region. In this paper, we describe the study design, ongoing data collection and baseline characteristics of participants. Participants Since October 2020, participants who tested positive for COVID-19 (convalescents) or at high risk of exposure to the virus (under surveillance) have provided monthly blood and saliva samples over a 10-month period. As of 2 November 2021, 1026 adults had completed the baseline survey and 976 had attended baseline bloodwork. 300 participants will continue to provide bimonthly blood samples for 24 additional months (ie, total follow-up of 34 months). Findings to date The median age of the baseline sample was 44 (IQR 23, range: 18-79) and just over two-thirds (n=688;67.1%) were female. 255 participants (24.9%) had a history of COVID-19 infection confirmed by PCR and/or serology. Over 600 participants (60.0%) work in high-risk occupations (eg, healthcare, teaching and transportation). 108 participants (10.5%) reported immunocompromising conditions or treatments at baseline (eg, cancer, HIV, other immune deficiency, and/or use of immunosuppressants). Future plans SSO continues to yield rich research potential, given the collection of pre-vaccine baseline data and samples from the majority of participants, recruitment of diverse subgroups of interest, and a high level of participant retention and compliance with monthly sampling. The 24-month study extension will maximise opportunities to track SARS-CoV-2 immunity and vaccine efficacy, detect and characterise emerging variants, and compare subgroup humoral and cellular response robustness and persistence.

20.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):919, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063543

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) created a research variance allowing for transplantation of HIV+ donor kidneys and livers into HIV+ recipients after passage of the HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) Act legislation in 2013 and subsequent published research criteria in November 2015. In May 2020 the OPTN modified the variance to include all solid organs. Method(s): The OPTN database was used to analyze temporal trends in waiting list registrations, HIV+ donors, HOPE transplant recipients, and program participation in the OPTN HOPE Act variance. HIV+ donors were identified through HIV serology/ NAT fields collected by the OPTN;recipients of these organs are HOPE recipients. Result(s): Transplant program participation saw consistent growth but has remained stable for the two years (Fig A). Despite this, patient demand for HOPE kidneys has been simultaneously declining, perhaps driven by a decline in listings related to Hypertensive Nephrosclerosis and DM Type II (listings for HIV Nephropathy remained stable), while liver demand remains low but stable (Fig B). Concurrently, there has been a consistent volume of recovered HIV+ donors and organs transplanted (Fig C, D). Transplant volume recently exceeded 300 organs transplanted (300 deceased donor, 3 living donor), largely driven by kidney (236 kidney, 67 liver;11 SLK) from 187 recovered HIV+ donors. Living donation of HIV+ organs remains limited to kidney. Among HIV+ deceased donors, the kidney discard rate was 32% while the liver discard rate was 4%. Twenty-nine recovered deceased donors had no organs transplanted, and associated common discard reasons for these donors were exhausted match runs and biopsy findings. Conclusion(s): The OPTN database does not include HIV status at listing;therefore, the decline in demand cannot be attributed to potential access changes for HIV+ patients, but may be related to the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have not noticeably affected HOPE Act transplant volumes, highlighting the resiliency of the US transplant system. Based on consistent activity and positive data and safety analyses through five years, the OPTN recommended removal of the research criteria as a potential barrier to expanded utilization of the HOPE Act to HHS, in turn making HIV-to-HIV transplantation standard of care;the result of that recommendation is pending. (Figure Presented).

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