Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 6.907
Filter
1.
BJOG ; 129(2): 282-290, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831885

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess associations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and pregnancy outcomes considering testing policy and test-positivity-to-delivery interval. DESIGN: Nationwide cohort study. SETTING: Sweden. POPULATION: From the Pregnancy-Register we identified 88 593 singleton births, 11 March 2020-31 January 2021, linked to data on SARS-CoV-2-positivity from the Public Health Agency, and information on neonatal care admission from the Neonatal Quality Register. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were estimated stratified by testing-policy and test-positivity-to-delivery interval. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Five-minute Apgar score, neonatal care admission, stillbirth and preterm birth. RESULTS: During pregnancy, SARS-CoV-2 test-positivity was 5.4% (794/14 665) under universal testing and 1.9% (1402/73 928) under non-universal testing. There were generally lower risks associated with SARS-CoV-2 under universal than non-universal testing. In women testing positive >10 days from delivery, generally no significant differences in risk were observed under either testing policy. Neonatal care admission was more common (15.3% versus 8.0%; aOR 2.24, 95% CI 1.62-3.11) in women testing positive ≤10 days before delivery under universal testing. There was no significant association with 5-minute Apgar score below 7 (1.0% versus 1.7%; aOR 0.64, 95% CI 0.24-1.72) or stillbirth (0.3% versus 0.4%; aOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.10-5.20). Compared with term births (2.1%), test-positivity was higher in medically indicated preterm birth (5.7%; aOR 2.70, 95% CI 1.60-4.58) but not significantly increased in spontaneous preterm birth (2.3%; aOR 1.12, 95% CI 0.62-2.02). CONCLUSIONS: Testing policy and timing of test-positivity impact associations between SARS-CoV-2-positivity and pregnancy outcomes. Under non-universal testing, women with complications near delivery are more likely to be tested than women without complications, thereby inflating any association with adverse pregnancy outcomes compared with findings under universal testing. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Testing policy and time from SARS-CoV-2 infection to delivery influence the association with pregnancy outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Apgar Score , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Prenatal Care/methods , Prenatal Care/standards , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Stillbirth/epidemiology , Sweden/epidemiology
2.
Emerging Infectious Diseases ; 28(4), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834284

ABSTRACT

Patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 might have bacterial and fungal superinfections develop. We describe a clinical case of coronavirus disease with pulmonary aspergillosis associated with Bordetella hinzii pneumonia in an immunocompetent patient in France. B. hinzii infections are rare in humans and develop secondary to immunosuppression or debilitating diseases.

3.
Slovenian Journal of Public Health ; 61(2):124-132, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1834252

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has strongly affected global healthcare systems. Prior epidemiological studies on different infectious diseases have shown a strong correlation between serum vitamin D levels and the incidence of certain infectious diseases. Vitamin D has an important immunomodulatory effect on innate immunity and exhibits several other mechanisms in the pathogenesis of the cytokine storm, which is one of the main contributing factors to fatality in COVID-19 patients.

4.
Review of Artistic Education ; 23(1):9-16, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834245

ABSTRACT

In 2020 and 2021, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) played a crucial role during the lockdowns, giving people the chance to continue doing business, entertainment, and education. In the education sector, in response to the outbreak of COVID-19, many countries adopted ICT-enabled distance education, which shows both positive and problematic features. The most concerning aspects relate to the digital divide, the readers' ability to assess the trustworthiness of texts found on the Web, the educators' competence in using ICT by incorporating it in their pedagogical practice, and the applicability of distance education to the teaching of performing arts.

5.
JMIR Formative Research ; 6(4), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834143

ABSTRACT

Background: Depression and anxiety are growing issues for college students, with both aerobic resistance training and mindfulness yoga exercises known to be effective in reducing symptoms and severity. However, no known research is available comparing these 2 depression and anxiety interventions simultaneously and in a web-based environment. Objective: This study aims to determine the effects of a web-based aerobic resistance exercise intervention (WeActive) and a web-based yoga mindfulness exercise intervention (WeMindful) on depression and anxiety symptoms in college students. Methods: The participants were 77 college students who anonymously completed a Qualtrics survey, including the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale and the Major Depression Inventory at baseline and after the intervention. Participants were randomly assigned to either the WeActive or WeMindful group and underwent two 30-minute web-based aerobic resistance exercise lessons or yoga mindfulness lessons per week for 8 weeks. Results: The results of analysis of covariance with repeated measures indicated that although not statistically significant, both groups showed a notable decrease in anxiety with a marginally significant main effect of time (F1=3.485;P=.07;η2=0.047) but no significant main effect of group and no significant interaction effect of time with group. The 2 intervention groups experienced a significant decrease in depression with the main effect of time (F=3.892;P=.05;η2=0.052). There was no significant main effect of group or interaction effect of time with group for depression. Conclusions: College students in both WeActive and WeMindful groups experienced a significant decrease in depression symptoms and a decrease, although not significant, in anxiety as well. The study suggests that web-based WeActive and WeMindful interventions are effective approaches to managing US college students’ depression and anxiety during a pandemic.

6.
Open Medicine ; 17(1):841-846, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1833741

ABSTRACT

For the last 2 years, one of the most frequent causes of respiratory failure is coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The symptoms are not specific. Imaging diagnostics, especially high-resolution computed tomography, is a diagnostic method widely used in the diagnosis of this disease. It is important to emphasize that not only SARS-CoV-2 infection may manifest as interstitial pneumonia. Other diseases such as other viral, fungal, atypical bacterial pneumonia, autoimmune process, and even cancer can also manifest as ground-glass opacities or consolidations in the imaging of the lungs. In this case report, we described a patient who manifested many symptoms that seemed to be COVID-19. However, all performed antigen and polymerase chain reaction tests were negative. The diagnostics must have been extended. Microbiological and mycological blood cultures and sputum cultures were performed. Blood cultures were negative but in sputum, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata were identified. Targeted therapy with fluconazole was implemented with a satisfactory result. The patient was discharged from the hospital in a good general condition with no complaints.

7.
Intercultural Pragmatics ; 19(3):271-297, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1833725

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is the greatest global health threat in over 100 years. Its impact is seen in large numbers of premature deaths and the loss of economic stability for many millions of people. A significant number of people who contract the SARS-CoV-2 virus – the virus that causes COVID disease – experience symptoms many months after their acute illness. So-called Long COVID is now a recognized condition, with many affected individuals unable to return to work and engage in other daily activities. Among the complex symptoms of this condition is “brain fog”, a constellation of cognitive-linguistic problems that manifest as forgetfulness, word-finding difficulty, a lack of attention and concentration, and problems engaging in conversation. In this paper, I examine two women who had moderate COVID-19 infection during the first wave of the pandemic in Belgium and the UK. Both participants reported cognitive-linguistic difficulties several months after first becoming unwell. The UK participant is a native English speaker while the participant in Belgium speaks English as a second language. Case studies are used to examine their pre-morbid functioning and lifestyle, the onset and course of their COVID illness, and its impact on their language skills. It is argued that Long COVID has the potential to disrupt pragmatic and discourse skills even as structural language skills are intact. As such, this condition requires further systematic study by clinical linguists and speech-language pathologists.

8.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases ; 16(3), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1833509

ABSTRACT

Background: The year 2020 Lassa fever (LF) outbreak had the greatest disease burden and this can place an enormous strain on the already overstretched healthcare system and can potentially increase morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases. Therefore, having a knowledgeable healthcare workforce with appropriate skills and competencies to prevent and manage outbreaks of a neglected infectious disease such as LF in Nigeria will potentially enhance public health. Thus, this survey assessed the level of knowledge of LF and its prevention and control (PC) measures amongst the healthcare workers (HCWs) during a LF outbreak in Katsina state, Nigeria. Methodology/Principal findings: During this cross-sectional survey, HCWs complete a validated 29-item questionnaire comprising 18 items on the knowledge of LF and its PC measures and an item on global self-evaluation of their LF knowledge. Psychometric properties of the questionnaire were evaluated. Chi-square and binary logistic regression analyses were conducted. Out of 435 HCWs invited, a total of 400 participated in the study (92% response rate). The majority of participants (51.8%) demonstrated inadequate LF knowledge, with 62.9% of those scoring low having a high self-perception of their LF knowledge with the global scale. This LF knowledge over-estimation was predicted by LF training status (odds ratio (OR) 2.53;95% CI: 1.49-4.30;p = 0.001). The level of LF knowledge and its PC measures among the study participants was low (11.60+or-8.14, 64.4%) and predicted by participants' LF training status (OR 2.06;95% CI: 1.19-3.57;p = 0.009), place of work (OR 1.82;95% CI: 1.07-3.08;p = 0.03) and their designations (OR 2.40;95% CI: 1.10-5.22;p = 0.03).

9.
PLoS Medicine ; 19(3), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1833506

ABSTRACT

Background: Optimizing services to facilitate engagement and retention in care of people living with HIV (PLWH) on antiretroviral therapies (ARTs) is critical to decrease HIV-related morbidity and mortality and HIV transmission. We systematically reviewed the literature for the effectiveness of implementation strategies to reestablish and subsequently retain clinical contact, improve viral load suppression, and reduce mortality among patients who had been lost to follow-up (LTFU) from HIV services. Methods and findings: We searched 7 databases (PubMed, Cochrane, ERIC, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the WHO regional databases) and 3 conference archives (CROI, IAC, and IAS) to find randomized trials and observational studies published through 13 April 2020. Eligible studies included those involving children and adults who were diagnosed with HIV, had initiated ART, and were subsequently lost to care and that reported at least one review outcome (return to care, retention, viral suppression, or mortality). Data were extracted by 2 reviewers, with discrepancies resolved by a third. We characterized reengagement strategies according to how, where, and by whom tracing was conducted. We explored effects, first, among all categorized as LTFU from the HIV program (reengagement program effect) and second among those found to be alive and out of care (reengagement contact outcome). We used random-effect models for meta-analysis and conducted subgroup analyses to explore heterogeneity. Searches yielded 4,244 titles, resulting in 37 included studies (6 randomized trials and 31 observational studies). In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) (N= 16), tracing most frequently involved identification of LTFU from the electronic medical record (EMR) and paper records followed by a combination of telephone calls and field tracing (including home visits), by a team of outreach workers within 3 months of becoming LTFU (N= 7), with few incorporating additional strategies to support reengagement beyond contact (N= 2). In high-income countries (HICs) (N = 21 studies), LTFU were similarly identified through EMR systems, at times matched with other public health records (N= 4), followed by telephone calls and letters sent by mail or email and conducted by outreach specialist teams. Home visits were less common (N= 7) than in LMICs, and additional reengagement support was similarly infrequent (N = 5). Overall, reengagement programs were able to return 39% (95% CI: 31% to 47%) of all patients who were characterized as LTFU (n= 29). Reengagement contact resulted in 58% (95% CI: 51% to 65%) return among those found to be alive and out of care (N= 17). In 9 studies that had a control condition, the return was higher among those in the reengagement intervention group than the standard of care group (RR: 1.20 (95% CI: 1.08 to 1.32, P < 0.001)). There were insufficient data to generate pooled estimates of retention, viral suppression, or mortality after the return. Conclusions: While the types of interventions are markedly heterogeneity, reengagement interventions increase return to care. HIV programs should consider investing in systems to better characterize LTFU to identify those who are alive and out of care, and further research on the optimum time to initiate reengagement efforts after missed visits and how to best support sustained reengagement could improve efficiency and effectiveness.

10.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice ; 15(21), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1833359

ABSTRACT

Background: Community pharmacists (CPs) are one of the frontline healthcare workers (HCWs) working diligently to provide much-needed services during the COVID-19 pandemic. Burnout was one of the detrimental outcomes of the pandemic on the mental health of Lebanese CPs. To assess the extent of this syndrome among Lebanese CPs, a psychometrically reliable and valid tool is needed. Objectives This study aimed to validate the Arabic version of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI-A) for use in the assessment of burnout among CPs. Methods A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted among Lebanese CPs over February 2021. Data were collected using an anonymous Arabic self-administered questionnaire that includes information on socio-demographic characteristics, work-related variables, in addition to the measurements: the CBI which includes personal, work-related, and patient-related dimensions of burnout, and the hospital anxiety and depression scale. Data were analyzed using SPSS and Amos software. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were performed to explore the factorial structure and to measure model fit. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess internal consistency. The criterion validity of the CBI was assessed. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to explore the association between different aspects of burnout and mental health outcomes such as depression and anxiety. Results The CBI-A showed high internal consistency with Cronbach's alphas varied from 0.774 to 0.902 and a low floor and ceiling effect (1-9%). As for the CBI-A construct validity, the exploratory factor analysis showed three factors with good factor loadings and explained 72.17% of the variance. The confirmatory analysis supported the three-factorial structure of the CBI that presented a good overall fit based on the goodness-of-fit indices. Ad hoc modifications to the model were introduced based on the modification indices to achieve a satisfactory fit by allowing one covariate error between one pair of items within the personal burnout domain. All of the 19 items were kept in the construct since they showed a good factorial weight. The CBI-A is associated with burnout-related factors in expected directions, including extensive working hours, sleeping hours, and job satisfaction, indicating, therefore, the criterion validity of the tool. CBI subscales were also found positively associated with mental health outcomes such as depression and anxiety demonstrating, in turn, a predictive validity. Conclusion This study provides evidence for the validity and reliability of the Arabic version of CBI as an adequate tool for assessing burnout among CPs. Such an instrument could be useful for assessing such syndrome among other healthcare workers.

11.
Infectious Diseases of Poverty ; 11(32), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1833357

ABSTRACT

Background: Nucleic acid test (NAT) could effectively control the spread of COVID-19 caused by large-scale sports competitions. However, quantitative analysis on the appropriate frequency of NAT is scarce, and the cost-effectiveness and necessity of high-frequency NAT remain to be fully explored and validated. This study aims to optimize the COVID-19 surveillance strategies through cost-effectiveness analysis for the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games and the upcoming Beijing 2022 Olympic Winter Games.

12.
Archives of Public Health ; 80(10), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1833347

ABSTRACT

Background: Most epidemiologic reports focus on lower extremity amputation (LEA) caused specifically by diabetes mellitus. However, narrowing scope disregards the impact of other causes and types of limb amputation (LA) diminishing the true incidence and societal burden. We explored the rates of LEA and upper extremity amputation (UEA) by level of amputation, sex and age over 14 years in Saskatchewan, Canada.

13.
Lipids in Health and Disease ; 20(177), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1833317

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypertriglyceridemia can occur in lymphoproliferative disorders. Infectious mononucleosis is a self-limiting, benign lymphoproliferative disorder. This study aimed to investigate the serum triglyceride concentrations and their change over time in patients with infectious mononucleosis.

14.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine ; 22(56), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1833306

ABSTRACT

Background: Novel Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is closely associated with cytokines storms. The Chinese medicinal herb Artemisia annua L. (A. annua) has been traditionally used to control many inflammatory diseases, such as malaria and rheumatoid arthritis. We performed network analysis and employed molecular docking and network analysis to elucidate active components or targets and the underlying mechanisms of A. annua for the treatment of COVID-19.

15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1):448, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1833287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The etiopathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) stem partially from the abnormal activation of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Here in the current investigation, the mRNA expression levels of toll-like receptors (TLRs) were evaluated in the nasopharyngeal epithelial cells from COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Epithelial cells were obtained using nasopharyngeal swab samples from 90 COVID-19 patients and 50 controls. COVID-19 cases were classified into those without symptoms, with symptoms but not hospitalized, and with symptoms and hospitalized. To determine the mRNA expression levels of TLRs, first RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized, and finally Real-time PCR was exerted. RESULTS: It was seen that the transcript levels of TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 were overexpressed in the COVID-19 patients with clinical symptoms needing hospitalization as well as in those with clinical symptoms without needing for hospitalization compared to controls. Upregulation of TLRs was associated with clinical presentations of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Modulation of TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9 in the epithelial cells of COVID-19 cases may estimate the disease severity and requirement for hospitalization.

16.
BMC Infectious Diseases ; 22(319), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1833284

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the first official report of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Iran on 19 February 2020, our country has been one of the worst affected countries by the COVID-19 epidemic in the Middle East. In addition to demographic and clinical characteristics, the number of hospitalized cases and deaths is an important factor for evidence-based decision-making and disease control and preparing the healthcare system to face the future challenges of COVID-19. Therefore, this cohort study was conducted to determine the demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Kermanshah Province, west of Iran.

17.
International Journal of STD & AIDS ; 33(6):604-607, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1833020

ABSTRACT

Background: BASHH/MEDFASH (Medical Foundation for HIV and Sexual Health) Standards for the Management of Sexual Health Services 20141 set out a number of recommendations regarding time between contacting a service to being seen, time to receiving results, and time to treatment. This audit investigated if UK practice is compliant with BASHH standards of care in terms of: Time to patient being seen after contacting sexual health services, time to chlamydia (CT) NAAT (nucleic acid amplification test) results and time from positive CT result to treatment.

18.
Complexity ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1832689

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 epidemic, draconian countermeasures forbidding nonessential human activities have been adopted in several countries worldwide, providing an unprecedented setup for testing and quantifying the current impact of humankind on climate and for driving potential sustainability policies in the postpandemic era from a perspective of complex systems. In this study, we consider heterogeneous sources of environmental and human activity observables, considered as components of a complex socioenvironmental system, and apply information theory, network science, and Bayesian inference to analyze their structural relations and nonlinear dynamics between January 2019 and August 2020 in northern Italy, i.e., before, during, and after the national lockdown. The topological structure of a complex system strongly impacts its collective behavior;therefore, mapping this structure is essential to fully understand the functions of the system as a whole and its fragility to unexpected disruptions or shocks. To this aim, we unravel the causal relationships between the 16 environmental conditions and human activity variables, mapping the backbone of the complex interplay between intervening physical observables—such as NO2 emissions, energy consumption, intervening climate variables, and different flavors of human mobility flows—to a causal network model. To identify a tipping point during the period of observation, denoting the presence of a regime shift between distinct network states (i.e., before and during the shock), we introduce a novel information-theoretic method based on statistical divergence widely used in statistical physics. We find that despite a measurable decrease in NO2 concentration, due to an overall decrease in human activities, locking down a region as a climate change mitigation is an insufficient remedy to reduce emissions. Our results provide a functional characterization of socioenvironmental interdependent systems, and our analytical framework can be used, more generally, to characterize environmental changes and their interdependencies using statistical physics.

19.
Complexity ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1832678

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we study the dynamics of COVID-19 in the UAE with an extended SEIR epidemic model with vaccination, time-delays, and random noise. The stationary ergodic distribution of positive solutions is examined, in which the solution fluctuates around the equilibrium of the deterministic case, causing the disease to persist stochastically. It is possible to attain infection-free status (extinction) in some situations, in which diseases die out exponentially and with a probability of one. The numerical simulations and fit to real observations prove the effectiveness of the theoretical results. Combining stochastic perturbations with time-delays enhances the dynamics of the model, and white noise intensity is an important part of the treatment of infectious diseases.

20.
BMJ Global Health ; 7(3), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1832421

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The global COVID-19 pandemic has presented extraordinary disruption to healthcare services and exposed them to numerous challenges. Newborn screening (NBS) programmes were also affected;however, scarce data exist on the impact of COVID-19 on NBS.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL