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1.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 842466, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822406

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted psychosocial well-being and mental health of students across the world. Although students are vulnerable to depression and suicidal ideation, few studies have been conducted in Uganda. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression and suicidal ideation, and associated factors among undergraduate university students in Uganda. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduates [N = 540; 363 males; mean age = 23.3 (± 2.64) years] recruited from four universities using an online questionnaire that explored sociodemographic factors, depression, and other associated factors. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess depression, and Item 9 was used to assess suicidal ideation in the past 2 weeks. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the factors associated with depression and suicidal ideation. Results: The prevalence of moderate to severe depression was 20% (n = 108) (cut-off: 10/27 based on the PHQ-9), and the prevalence of past-2-week suicidal ideation was 13.89% (n = 75) (cut-off: 1/3 based on the PHQ-9 Item 9). About half of the individuals who screened positive for depression had suicidal ideation. Factors associated with depression were: having relationship issues [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13-2.81, p = 0.012], and having a history of sexual abuse (aOR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.10-3.84, p = 0.023). Factors associated with reducing the risk of depression were: satisfaction with current academic performance (aOR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.32-0.79, p = 0.003), and being in the fifth year of academic study (aOR = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.03-0.73, p = 0.018). Factors associated with suicidal ideation were: smoking cigarettes and/or marijuana (aOR = 4.83, 95% CI = 1.10-21.12, p = 0.037), and having financial tuition constraints (aOR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.08-3.16, p = 0.024), However, satisfaction with current academic performance reduced the likelihood of suicidal ideation (aOR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.23-0.70, p = 0.001). Conclusion: Approximately one-fifth of undergraduate university students were moderately to severely depressed, especially those who had relationship issues and those with a history of sexual abuse. Suicidal ideation was common among smokers and those having financial tuition constraints. Therefore, it is recommended that the university authorities implement measures to provide psychological support for the students with problems concerning financial tuition constraints, relationships, and sexual abuse. Also, all students with depression should be screened for suicidality.

2.
Anti - Trafficking Review ; - (16):150-155, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1811423

ABSTRACT

OCSE refers to situations where a child 'takes part in a sexual activity in exchange for something (... or ... the promise of such), from a third party, the perpetrator, or by the child him/herself' and where the sexually exploitative images and materials at some stage involve the online environment, whether being 'produced, bought, sold, possessed, distributed, or transmitted.'1 OCSE is highly interconnected with other forms of child sexual exploitation, including sexual exploitation that occurs whilst the victim is online or the grooming of children online for either online or offline sexual exploitation.2 The Philippines is often referred to as a 'hot spot' for OCSE. Since the first convictions involving OCSE in 2011,3 the number of reported cases has been rising each year, with more than 800,000 tips of possible OCSE from the Philippines in 2019.4 During the COVID-19 pandemic, tips are reported to have increased by 264 per cent.5 Widespread access to low-cost internet and mobile devices together with high levels of English proficiency and an established commercial sex industry are the most immediate explanations for the prevalence of OCSE in the country.6 Whilst the relevant stakeholders concur that more action is needed to tackle the issue, there is disagreement regarding how the problem is represented and addressed. High profile awareness and online safety campaigns portray OCSE as being perpetrated against young children by adults, usually within the same household.7 However, existing research and the experience of many community-based practitioners suggest that self-generated sexual content/material by children is more common and becoming normalised in many communities with friends and young relatives 'coaching' their peers in how to produce sellable images and access paying customers via anonymous payment systems without an adult 'facilitator'.8 Research suggests a range of motivations for children to engage in this behaviour, including to meet their families' financial needs;to have their own money to purchase clothes, gadgets, or drugs and alcohol;or in the hope of forming relationships with foreign men online.9 The sole study on the impact of OCSE in the Philippines suggests higher levels of post-traumatic stress, lower self-esteem, severe educational delays, and an increased risk of entering prostitution among victims.10 However, the long-term effects of OCSE, whether facilitated by an adult or involving self-generated material, on the mental, physical, sexual, and social wellbeing of children is unknown and research is greatly needed to address this gap. Whilst national legislation in theory supports this approach, multiple factors such as fragmentation of services, lack of sustained funding, and poor cooperation at the local government level limit programme reach and implementation.18 Progress is also disrupted by incongruous government policies and laws, including those that require a guardian's consent for children and youths under 18 years to access SRH services, but hold that children as young 12 can provide sexual consent and be held criminally liable at the age of 15.19 A large body of evidence confirms that comprehensive SRH education can have a significant impact on SRH outcomes.20 Nascent research also suggests that this impact can be extended to related issues and, thus, experts recommend the inclusion of topics such as internet sexuality and gender-based violence.21 However, to be effective, SRH programmes must be holistic and intensive, using activity-based and learner-centred educational methodologies. Working together to end the sexual exploitation of children online, 2018, pp. 5-9 and 14, https://wwwweprotect.org/wp-content/ uploads/Global-Threat-Assessment-2018-EN.pdf. 7 M Abad, 'PH Government, Private Sector Launch Joint Campaign Against Online Child Sexual Abuse', Rappler, 22 October 2019, https://wwwrappler.com/moveph/ saferkidsph-campaign-against-online-child-sexual-abuse;No Author, 'New Campaign SaferKidsPH to Raise Awareness on Online Sexual Exploitation of Children', UNICEF, 22 October 2019, https://wwwunicef.org/philippines/press-releases/ new-campaign-saferkidsph-raise-awareness-online-sexual-exploitation-children. 8 Plan International, Children and the Sex Trade in the Digital Age: A study on the commercial sexual exploitation of children in Metro Manila, The Girls Advocacy Alliance, 2018, p. 29, https://plan-international.org/publications/children-and-sex-trade-digital-age;Internet Watch Foundation, Trends in Online Child Sexual Exploitation: Examining the distribution of captures of live-streamed child sexual abuse, IWF, Cambridge, 2018, p. 11, https: //wwwiwf.org.uk/sites/default/files/inline-files/Distribution%20of%20 Captures%20of%20Live-streamed%20Child%20Sexual%20Abuse%20FINAL.pdf;National Center for Missing and Exploitation Children (NCMEC), The Online Enticement of Children: An in-depth analysis of CyberTipline reports, 2017, retrieved 24 November 2020, https://wwwmissingkids.org/content/dam/missingkids/pdfs/ncmec-analysis/ Online%20Enticement%20Pre-Travel.pdf;Terre Des Hommes Netherlands, p. 23.

3.
Pulse International ; 23(10):1-18, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1801149

ABSTRACT

One of the scientific sessions during the SOGP 18th International Hybrid Conference 2022 held at Karachi from February 25th to February 27th 2022 was devoted to management of Covid during pregnancy. SGOP andamp;FIGO Plenary session Dr. Jeane Conry President of FIGO was the guest speaker in this virtual session who talked about Covid 19 Challenges and Opportunities: The FIGO strategic Plan. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Pulse International is the property of Knowledge Bylanes and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

4.
Euromentor Journal ; 13(1):66-89, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1777116

ABSTRACT

Pornography has become a major problem of today cyberspace, extended through the Internet at the planetary scale. The phenomenon has deep social and economic implications affecting a huge number of children under the age of eighteen who are subjects of sexual abuse and exploitation. Child pornography generally refers to images or films depicting sexually explicit activities involving a child. Because child pornography involves children, the test of acceptability is much stricter than for regular pornography, as consent cannot be given either by the child or guardian. Child welfare professionals are worried that paedophiles will use the third-generation mobile technology to access child sex sites, take pictures of sex with children and trade in images of abuse.

5.
Notiziario dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanit ; 35(2):18-21, 2022.
Article in Italian | GIM | ID: covidwho-1777101

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization estimates that globally, even before the start of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, 1 in 3 women suffer some form of physical or sexual violence by a partner and/or stranger. The pandemic and social distancing and isolation measures have exposed women and children to further violence, mistreatment, abuse and even murder. Forms of psycho-physical stress have increased especially among women and children.

6.
Child Youth Serv Rev ; 138: 106492, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773173

ABSTRACT

As cases of child maltreatment become an increasing concern during the COVID-19 pandemic, the perspectives of those charged with protecting and supporting children and families is an important area of inquiry. We sought to examine the experiences of child maltreatment workers during the first wave of the pandemic (i.e., May-July 2020). We specifically aimed to examine child maltreatment experiences related to the following: (1) their work practices during the pandemic, (2) their perceived safety during the pandemic, and (3) their perceptions on the safety of the children and families with whom they work. A total of 106 child maltreatment investigators and forensic interviewers provided responses to a national survey disseminated across Canada. Using a cross-sectional design, data were collected through a survey management program. The survey combined both open-ended and forced choice questions to gather perspectives on respondents' experiences. More than half (67%) reported a reduction in their caseloads during the pandemic (May-July 2020) and continued in-person interviews, with the use of preventative health measures (i.e., PPE, physical distancing, gloves). Most respondents reported elevated stress levels and similarly high stress levels amongst the children and families to whom they provide services. Overall, our findings highlight both how child maltreatment investigators have adapted to preventative measures and the continuing areas of weakness where further supports are required.

7.
J Fam Ther ; 2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769671

ABSTRACT

This study aims to contribute to the evaluation of online therapy during Covid-19 pandemic lockdowns, by exploring family therapists' experiences of therapy for twelve Sibling Sexual Abuse (SSA) families in the Netherlands. Seven transcripts of interviews with highly specialised Dutch family therapists were analysed using thematic analysis (TA). Two main findings emerged from this study. First, the Dutch therapists reported no acute worries about their clients' sexual safety during the pandemic lockdowns. Nonetheless, the switch to online therapy for the SSA families created concern regarding victim safety in speaking out freely at home. Second, while the sudden switch to online therapy enabled SSA therapists to stay connected with their SSA families, therapists experienced a decline in therapy quality and in their own well-being. In the therapists' experience, it was almost impossible to conduct their most fundamental interventions online, such as intervening in family relationships.

8.
J Fam Ther ; 2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769670

ABSTRACT

This study aims to contribute to the evaluation of online therapy during Covid-19 pandemic lockdowns, by exploring family therapists' experiences of therapy for twelve Sibling Sexual Abuse (SSA) families in the Netherlands. Seven transcripts of interviews with highly specialised Dutch family therapists were analysed using thematic analysis (TA). Two main findings emerged from this study. First, the Dutch therapists reported no acute worries about their clients' sexual safety during the pandemic lockdowns. Nonetheless, the switch to online therapy for the SSA families created concern regarding victim safety in speaking out freely at home. Second, while the sudden switch to online therapy enabled SSA therapists to stay connected with their SSA families, therapists experienced a decline in therapy quality and in their own well-being. In the therapists' experience, it was almost impossible to conduct their most fundamental interventions online, such as intervening in family relationships.

9.
Sleep Med ; 94: 70-75, 2022 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768546

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Survivors of childhood abuse are prone to adult insomnia, but the mechanisms for this development are poorly understood. Abuse that occurs during sensitive developmental periods might affect risk for insomnia by impacting emerging stress regulatory processes. Sleep reactivity refers to the sensitivity of the sleep system to stress and is a robust risk factor for insomnia. Recent evidence shows stress exposure itself worsens sleep reactivity, thereby increasing insomnia vulnerability. In this preliminary study, we hypothesized the association between childhood abuse experiences and adult insomnia would be mediated through greater sleep reactivity. METHODS: Community adults were recruited from the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic between June 2020 and June 2021 (N = 241, 88% female, Mage = 39, SD = 13.40). Participants completed a cross-sectional survey that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test, Insomnia Severity Index, and a measure of general COVID-19 stress. RESULTS: Reporting more frequent childhood emotional, physical, or sexual abuse was associated with more severe insomnia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Only childhood emotional and physical (but not sexual) abuse histories were associated with greater sleep reactivity, which exerted an indirect effect on the relationships between these two abuse types and insomnia symptoms. These findings were robust to the effects of gender, age, and stress about the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study suggests recurrent emotional and physical abuse in childhood might promote later insomnia through heightened sleep reactivity. Stress management interventions could be important to prevent insomnia for abuse survivors by bolstering resilience of the sleep system.

10.
Journal of Family Strengths ; 21(2):2, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1766506

ABSTRACT

Surviving COVID19 (Increased Domestic Violence, Marginalized Communities, and Innovative Solutions) Domestic violence generally refers to violence occurring between residences within one single location. Intimate partner violence is domestic violence by a current or former spouse or partner in an intimate relationship against the other spouse or partner. IPV can take several forms, including physical, verbal, emotional, economic, and sexual abuse. According to the Center for Disease Control, 1 in 4 women and 1 in 9 men experience severe intimate partner physical violence, intimate partner contact sexual violence, and/or intimate partner stalking with impacts such as injury, fearfulness, post-traumatic stress disorder, use of victim services, contraction of sexually transmitted diseases, etc.2 DV/IPV disproportionate affect communities of color and other marginalized groups. According to a report from the Violence Policy Center (Langley & Sugarmann, 2014:1), in 2011, the homicide rate for Black female victims (4.54 per 100,000) was more than three times higher than the homicide rate for White female victims. (1.45 per 100,000). Additionally, a study revealed high rates of intimate partner violence among the LGBTQ community. Bisexual women in particular reported experiencing sexual violence at rates twice that of their heterosexual counterparts. Lesbians and gay men also reported starkly higher incidents of violence than straight people (CDC, 2013). This is important because as COVID19 cases begin to rise the government put in to stay-at-home orders leaving victims of domestic violence vulnerable and trapped with their preparators. This limited their access to technology, medical care, family, and friends. Marginalized communities face higher forms of oppression and experience greater difficulties gaining access to resources in comparison to their white counterparts when reporting IPV. Black women’s mistrust of the police causes them to turn to sisterhood, family, and often the Black church when reporting IPV. Whereas, the LGBTQA populations are less likely to report abuse because of fear of discrimination or being outed to their friends (CDC, 2013). The purpose of this article is to explore: In what ways have COVID19 impacted victims of DV/IPV due to the stay-at-home orders? How does intersectional oppression further exacerbated victims of IPV receiving access to social services during COVID19? What innovative practices and solutions should family members, community leaders, and stakeholders implement for victims of IPV during the COVID19 pandemic? This study uses a systematic review of articles and is based on the conventional scientific standards of preferred reporting procedures for systematic reviews. Findings indicate that DV/IPV victims have experienced increased rates of violence since the onset of the stay-at-home orders. Also, marginalized groups have been more negatively impacted by COVID19 when compared to their counterparts. The data also reveals that other countries have successfully identified solutions for DV/IPV victims to help these vulnerable populations gain access to victims' services that can be replicated here in America. This article clearly identifies barriers that exist for DV/IPV victims of color and provides innovative solutions for these populations to be able to better access social services. The COVID19 pandemic has shown the world that it’s imperative to adapt and implement innovative practices and policies that are designed to save lives and decrease the overall rates of DV/IPV globally.

11.
J Interpers Violence ; : 8862605221080936, 2022 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765323

ABSTRACT

With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and the implementation of stay-at-home orders in March 2020, experts warned of the possible threat of increased interpersonal violence among individuals isolated with abusers. Researchers have sought to understand how the pandemic impacted victims primarily through the analysis of administrative data sources, such as hospital and police records. However, the preponderance of this data shows a decrease in formal help-seeking among victims during the pandemic, speaking to an impaired access to services but limiting our understanding of other ways in which the pandemic has affected survivors. To overcome these limitations, we examined data collected about users of the National Sexual Assault Online Hotline (NSAOH). Information was collected through staff based on retrospective recall following one-on-one chat sessions with 470 victims of sexual violence who contacted the NSAOH in the first six months of the pandemic and discussed COVID-19-related concerns. We qualitatively examined open-ended descriptions of COVID-19-related concerns and identified the four most common: (1) mental health concerns, (2) creation or exacerbation of an unsafe living situation, (3) not being able to access services, and (4) not having access to a mandatory reporter or trusted adult. These findings demonstrate the myriad ways in which the pandemic affected the lives of victims of sexual violence and can inform practices for services and practitioners to best meet the needs of survivors moving forward. Specifically, these findings highlight the need for more accessible mental health services and funding for sexual assault service providers, as well as the importance of safety planning, particularly in times of crisis.

12.
Child Abuse Negl ; 128: 105619, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763626

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies of national emergency department (ED) data demonstrate a decrease in visits coded for physical abuse during the pandemic period. However, no study to date has examined the incidence of multiple child maltreatment types (physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect), within a single state while considering state-specific closure policies. Furthermore, no similar study has utilized detailed chart review to identify cases, nor compared hospital data to Child Protective Services (CPS) reports. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of child maltreatment-related ED visits before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, including characterizing the type of maltreatment, severity, and CPS reporting. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Children younger than 18 years old at two tertiary-care, academic children's hospitals in X state. METHODS: Maltreatment-related ED visits were identified by ICD-10-CM codes and keywords in chief concerns and provider notes. We conducted a cross-sectional retrospective review of ED visits and child abuse consultations during the pre-COVID (1/1/2019-3/15/2020) and COVID (3/16/2020-8/31/2020) periods, as well as state-level CPS reports for suspected maltreatment. RESULTS: Maltreatment-related ED visits decreased from 15.7/week in the matched pre-COVID period (n = 380 total) to 12.3/week (n = 296 total) in the COVID period (P < .01). However, ED visits (P < .05) and CPS reports (P < .001) for child neglect increased during this period. Provider notes identified 62.4% of child maltreatment ED visits, while ICD-10 codes identified only-CM captured 46.8%. CONCLUSION: ED visits for physical and sexual abuse declined, but neglect cases increased during the COVID-19 pandemic in X state.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Abuse , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Connecticut/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Pandemics
13.
Journal of Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University ; 10(4):124-128, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1743714
14.
Orient Journal of Medicine ; 34(1/2):17-27, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1743551

ABSTRACT

Background: Information on the effects of the coronavirus pandemic on adolescents and young people, who are in a critical phase of transition to adulthood is sparse. We evaluated the effects of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) among adolescents and young people living in Southeast Nigeria.

15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought a new threat to child health and safety. Some studies suggest that social isolation and economic stress have exacerbated child abuse and neglect, whereas other studies argue that orders to stay at home are likely to promote parent-child relationships during this stressful time. Due to a lack of prospective studies including before-during-after lockdown assessments, the impacts of lockdown measures on child maltreatment are unclear. METHODS: This study retrospectively investigated child maltreatment of 2821 Chinese children and adolescents from 12 to 18 (female, 59%) before, during and after lockdown, and identified risk factors. Potential predictors including socio-economic and individual mental health status were collected. RESULTS: During Chinese lockdown, children and adolescents reported that the proportions of decrease (range 18-47.5%) in emotional abuse and neglect, physical abuse and neglect, sexual abuse, and witnessing domestic violence were greater than that of increase (range 5.1-9.1%). Compared with before lockdown (1.6%), the prevalence of sexual abuse significantly increased 8 months (2.9%) after the lifting of lockdown (p = 0.002). Being male, suffering from depression, state anhedonia, and experiencing psychotic symptoms at baseline were associated with increased sexual abuse after lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of lockdown on child maltreatment was beneficial in the short-term but detrimental in the long-term in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Abuse , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child Abuse/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
16.
Current Women's Health Reviews ; 17(4):290-296, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1736621

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak was first reported in China in December 2019, and the World Health Organization declared the outbreak as a pandemic on March 11, 2020. The number of confirmed cases has risen alarmingly in most countries across all continents over the past few months. The current COVID-19 pandemic has had an immense impact on sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) with disruptions in the regular provision of Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) services such as maternal care, safe abortion services, contraception, prevention and the treatment of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. Other aspects that merit attention include a probable increase in domestic violence, sexual abuse, and the effects of the stigma associated with coronavirus infection on SRH clients and health care providers. Furthermore, as the coronavirus infection is relatively new, only minimal data is available to understand the impact of this disease on SRH, including coronavirus infection complicating pregnancies, and in people with STI/HIV-related immunosuppression. There is a serious necessity for the medical fraternity to generate psycho-social and clinico-epidemiological correlations between coronavirus disease and SRHR outcomes. The article reviews the hidden impact of coronavirus pandemic on sexual and reproductive health and rights of women, particularly in India.

17.
Children (Basel) ; 9(3)2022 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725527

ABSTRACT

Child maltreatment, especially during health crises, is a major public health issue transcending cultural, social, and racial contexts. We assessed the sociodemographic and related risk factors associated with the types and rates of child maltreatment. We also assessed the economic, social, and environmental characteristics of child maltreatment victims and their perpetrators, as they were reported to the Saudi National Family Safety Program (NFSP), with consideration of the COVID-19 pandemic's impact. A secondary data analysis of a retrospective review was conducted to compare types and rates before and during the COVID-19 outbreak, utilizing descriptive and multivariate analyses on anonymized data from the NFSP. According to a predetermined list of relevant risk factors for child maltreatment outlined by the NFSP, these anonymized data were obtained and analyzed with no exclusion criteria (n = 1304). The findings showed that a child's age correlated significantly and positively with their odds of being physically maltreated; as a child's age increased by one year, on average, their corresponding predicted odds of being physically maltreatment tended to rise by a factor equal to 7.6% (p < 0.001). Neglected children, compared to those who had not been previously neglected, were predicted to be almost twice (2.23 times more) as likely to be victims of physical maltreatment on average (p < 0.001). Children were notably more likely to experience sexual abuse during the COVID-19 pandemic than those exposed to abuse during the period before (1.69 times). The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with significantly lower odds of physical child maltreatment (47.7% less). This study found no statistically significant effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on children's odds of being emotionally maltreated (p = 0.169). These findings support the existence of specific risk factors for child maltreatment for both child victims and perpetrators. They also attest to the significant differences between different types of maltreatment. A systematic, proactive system is needed to screen and document child maltreatment with a higher degree of integration with community reporting systems.

18.
Krytyka Prawa ; 13(4):72-87, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1726728

ABSTRACT

Protection of children against sexual exploitation, particularly against exploitation in cyberspace, constitutes one of the most burning issues of the modern world. The Internet is frequently used as the beginning of the road to sexually exploiting a child, and as way of earning the child’s trust and gaining physical access to them. Unfortunately, the COVID-19 pandemic and isolation resulting from it brought with them substantial threats, also in this area, whose effects will be long-term. What was observed during the pandemic was not only an increase in online traffic related to the distribution of child pornography, but also a definite increase in behaviours that may be classified as grooming. It is sometimes considered that grooming is the basic method leading to child sexual exploitation, or even its immanent feature. Relatedly, what becomes an important issue is an analysis of legal regulations that concern grooming in cyberspace, and an attempt to answer the question whether the scope and level of protection provided to children by Polish criminal law are sufficient. © 2021 Author.

19.
Turkish Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health ; 28(Supplement 1):27-34, 2021.
Article in Turkish | GIM | ID: covidwho-1726484

ABSTRACT

Objectives: During Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, lockdown carried out all over the world has caused many health problems in children and adolescents. In addition to increased screen exposure, obesity and diabetes due to a sedentary lifestyle the risk of child abuse and neglect have also increased due to changing socioeconomic conditions. Childhood sexual abuse is a social problem with biopsychosocial consequences. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the characteristics of cases who applied to Izmir Child Advovacy Center (CAC) due to sexual abuse in the first 45 days of lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic in our country. Materials and Methods: In our study, the medical records of child sexual abuse cases who were admitted to Izmir CAC during the first 45 days of lockdown between March 25, 2020 and May 10, 2020 were evaluated retrospectively and descriptive analyses were performed.

20.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 32, 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702856

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emergency Departments play a pivotal role in detecting cases of child abuse. Despite the efforts made in the past decades on the need for a screening method for the early detection of abuse victims, a unique instrument shared by the international scientific community has not been made. These instruments should be able to help recognizing whether it is necessary to further investigate the child's condition. The aim of the study is to illustrate the screening indicators in use since 2010 in the Emergency Department of the Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital to early recognise the victims of abuse and the modifying process of the screening tool undertaken over the years. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the process that led to the editing of the indicators of child abuse in use nowadays at the Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital. We codified three clinical pathways to apply in case of suspected abuse. Furthermore, we investigated the medical records of screening-positive accesses in the Paediatric Emergency Department of the Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital from January 2008 to October 2020. RESULTS: An estimation of positive screening, regarding the type of abuse suspected, and the number of accessed in ED was made, resulting in a cohort of 956 patients. In 2010 we created a list of 14 items grouped in three clusters: anamnestic declarations or incongruences, carelessness/neglect and evident lesions at physical examination. Positivity to one of the items allows the actuation of the investigating protocol named as clinical pathway.In 2013, after three years of experience, the criteria were edited to increase specificity. The application of screening led to a median number of 82 suspected cases/year from 2013 to 2020. CONCLUSION: A screening tool is essential and productive for the early recognition of victims of abuse. An in-deep analysis of suspected cases through a standardized method, such as the clinical pathway, allowed reaching the diagnosis in a more accurate and precise manner.


Subject(s)
Child Abuse , Hospitals, Pediatric , Child , Child Abuse/diagnosis , Child Abuse/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Retrospective Studies
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