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1.
Indian J Med Res ; 155(1): 123-128, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201754

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: The safety of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine is a cause of concern for many who have been vaccinated. The people have multiple concerns and fear regarding the adverse events of the vaccine. Thus, this study was undertaken to establish the safety profile of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Corona Virus Vaccine (Recombinant) among the healthcare professionals. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional survey. After taking clearance from the institutional ethics committee 1500 healthcare professionals, who had their vaccination in the past two weeks were selected. They were provided with an online survey proforma regarding adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) of COVID-19 vaccine developed using google forms with an informed consent form affixed to it. Results: A total of 1036 individuals participated in the study. The mean and median (inter quartile range) age of the participants was 37.7 ±11.25 and 35 (29-46) yr, respectively. Of these, 52.1 per cent were female, 29.3 per cent were doctors, 33.4 per cent were nurses and 9.5 per cent were paramedical staff. Forty six per cent participants experienced one or more minor AEFIs such as pain, tenderness, redness, etc. at the injection site. Fatigue (31.75%), generalized feeling of unwell (28.57%), muscle pain (23.16%) and fever (21.71%) were the most commonly reported systemic AEFIs followed by headache (20.07%), dizziness (10.03%) and joint pains (15.25%). Most of them experienced these AEFIs within 24 h of the first dose of administration. About 42 per cent of the participants took oral antipyretics/analgesics for managing the AEFIs. Interpretation & conclusions: ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Corona Virus Vaccine was found to be associated with mild local and systemic AEFIs that were more common after the first dose as compared to the second dose. There adverse events could be dealt with oral over-the-counter medications, with no requirement of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Male
2.
Curr Drug Saf ; 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197814

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Remarkable and groundbreaking performances of scientists all over the globe reverberation into the evolution of COVID-19 vaccines, extensively viewed as evaluative to control the epidemic. The primary determination of this research work was to discover the major side effects of the vaccines mainly in Homo sapiens. METHODS: An online survey was conducted in various cities of Haryana, India implemented a trial version of QualtricsCoreXM software to prototype 20 questionnaires. RESULT: In the survey, 200 candidates have participated among which 83.5% had received Covishield and 16.5% had vaccinated Covaxin. Overall 65% of respondents have been reported side effects. The major side effects were Fever, tiredness, myalgia, diarrhea headache, etc. Conclusion: Succeeding the survey concerning the Covid-19 vaccine on non-identical Homo sapiens, generally on account of their perspective regarding the symptoms of vaccine we approach that both the vaccines have barely the mild side effects and that can be manageable.

3.
Frontiers in Psychiatry ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199435

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSchizophrenia is considered one of the major risk factors for mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Early antiviral treatment is important to decrease the risk of mortality. Currently, Paxlovid (nirmatrelvir-ritonavir) has been widely used in SARS-CoV-2 patients with risk factors. However, drug-drug interactions with anti-psychotics are prominent and complicated. Case presentationWe report a clozapine-treated patient with SARS-CoV-2 infection who developed neutropenia after coadministration with Paxlovid. In this case, clozapine was used for over 15 years, without neutropenia development. However, severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count = 523/mu l) developed 3 days after the coadministration of Paxlovid 2 doses per day, valproic acid 1,000 mg per day and clozapine 100 mg per day. The development of neutropenia may be attributed to the complicated interaction among Paxlovid, SARS-CoV-2 infection, valproic acid, fluvoxamine and clozapine. ConclusionsNeutropenia is a rare but life-threatening event if a concomitant infection occurs. The risk may increase during SARS-CoV-2 infection and the coadministration of clozapine and Paxlovid. Although the exact causes of neutropenia in this patient are not fully clear, the white blood cell count and absolute neutrophil count should be closely monitored during the administration of Paxlovid in clozapine-treated patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

4.
Environmental Policy and Law ; 52(5/6):413-427, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2198480

ABSTRACT

. There is a reality of creeping adverse effects of climate change. The human imprint on it has been affirmed by various global processes including 21 May 2019 recognition by the Anthropocene Working Group. It has emerged as a planetary crisis. By 2050 climate change could see 4% of global annual economic output lost to the tune of $23 trillion and may hit many poorer parts of the world disproportionately. Though entire populations are affected by climate change, women and girls suffer the most. Due to their traditional roles, women are heavily dependent on natural resources. As a consequence of natural disasters and during Covid-19 pandemic in 2020-22, women have faced heightened risks to different forms of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). They suffer from a lack of protection, privacy, and mental trauma. Effects of climate change results in the feminization and intensification of vulnerability of women and girls. As there is double victimization of women both as human beings and because of their gender. Growing evidence suggests role of climate change heightened violence against women and girls. There is no specific international legal instrument dealing with SGBV against women during and after the climate change induced disasters. The texts of the three specific climate change treaties (1992 UNFCCC, 1997 Kyoto Protocol and 2015 Paris Agreement) do not address this crucial aspect. It has been given attention only through the recent decisions of the Conference of the Parties (COP). Due to serious psychological and bodily harm SGBV causes to women, it needs to be explicitly factored in respective international legal instruments on climate change and disasters. There are ignorance, denials and lack of adequate attention by scholars and decision-makers in the field to address adverse effects of climate change in causing heightened violence against women and girls. Hence, this study makes a modest effort to deduce and analyze - from scattered initiatives, scholarly literature in different areas, existing international legal instruments and intergovernmental processes - the growing causal relationship between climate change and SGBV especially against women and girls as well as the phenomenal cost so as to suggest a way out for our better common future. It is a new challenge for international law that needs to be duly addressed in a timely manner.

5.
Bulletin of the National Research Centre ; 47(1):5, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2196545

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has been leading to dramatic health, social and economic problems around the world. It was necessary to introduce worldwide vaccination program against SARS-CoV-2 virus. Vaccination of billions of people around the world leads to many questions about risk of vaccines and possible side effects. It is well known that acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare, but possible complication of vaccines. Previously, cases of ADEM following various COVID-19 vaccines, including the vaccines from AstraZenica, Pfizer, Sputnik V, SinoVac, Moderna, Sinopharm, have been described. In this case report, we present the first documented case of ADEM following the COVID-19 vaccine Ad26.COV2.S from Johnson & Johnson.Case presentationWe present the case of a 31-year-old female with gradually progression of right-sided weakness and numbness during a three-week period. Four weeks prior to symptom onset, the patient received the single-dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccine Ad26.COV2.S. Neuroimaging revealed five large juxtacortical T2 FLAIR hyperintense lesions with incomplete contrast enhancement on post-contrast T1 images located supratentorial: one in the right cerebral hemisphere and four in left cerebral hemisphere. The patient was followed up for four months. Symptom debut, clinical picture and MRI were typical for ADEM and the patient completely recovered after high dose intravenous methylprednisolone treatment.ConclusionsThis is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case report of ADEM following the COVID-19 vaccine Ad26.COV2.S. This case illustrates, although ADEM is a rare complication following SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, the necessity of maintaining a vaccine safety monitoring system to identify patients at high risk from developing severe complications from the vaccines.

6.
International Journal of Immunopathology & Pharmacology ; 36:3946320221148999, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2194940

ABSTRACT

Background: An adverse effect of COVID-19 vaccine is possible and it is necessary to monitor it. Methods and results: This is a correspondence on the published article on multiple sites of thrombosis without thrombocytopenia and COVID-19 vaccine. Conclusion: Confounding factors regarding thrombosis without thrombocytopenia and COVID-19 vaccine are discussed.

7.
Eur J Hosp Pharm ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2193854

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir may cause a clinically relevant drug-drug interaction (DDI) with immunosuppressive drugs, such as tacrolimus, which may condition the use of this antiviral in transplant patients. We aimed to describe the management of this interaction. METHODS: Descriptive study in which renal transplant patients in treatment with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir and tacrolimus were included. They suspended tacrolimus the day before starting the antiviral treatment, and the decision to restart it was made based on their tacrolimus blood levels. Main variables studied to measure this DDI were tacrolimus blood concentration, dose adjustment and serum creatinine. RESULTS: Three patients were included. During the study, tacrolimus levels elevation did not have repercussion in the serum creatinine, that remained stable in all patients. No patient required hospitalisation or showed signs of rejection. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience provides further evidence that this interaction should not be a contraindication to treatment with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, and can be managed with close monitoring of tacrolimus levels.

8.
Nutrition & Food Science ; 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2191596

ABSTRACT

PurposeThe nutritional and anthropometric status can be essential in determining their immune response to vaccines. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the association between diet quality and anthropometric indices with the side effects of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine and the SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G titer among Kurdish adults. Design/methodology/approachThis cross-sectional survey-based study was conducted between December 2021 and February 2022. This paper included data on 115 adults, 20-89 years old, from the Kurdistan region. Dietary information was collected using a short food frequency questionnaire, and diet quality was assessed using a plant-based healthy diet score. A blood test was performed to measure the SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobin G (IgG) titer after the vaccination's first and second doses. FindingsOverweight and obese subjects reported more local pain, myalgia, headache, local bruising and local reactions after receiving the first dose of the vaccine (p = 0.04). People on a less healthy diet reported more local pain, myalgia and headache (p = 0.04) and more local bruising and reactions (p = 0.01) after receiving the second dose of the vaccine. On the other hand, the authors observed that those with healthy dietary habits had more IgG titer after the first and second doses of vaccination than those with less healthy dietary habits (p = 0.001). Originality/valueThe results showed that participants with a healthy diet and normal weight status had fewer side effects of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine than obese people and those with a less healthy diet.

9.
Nursing ; 53(1):10-11, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2190719
10.
Critical Care Medicine ; 51(1 Supplement):45, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2190470

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Communication with ventilated patients in the Intensive care unit (ICU) is challenging. This may lead to anxiety and frustration, potentially contributing to the development of delirium. Various technologies, such as eye-tracking devices, have been employed to facilitate communication with varying grades of success. The EyeControl-Med device is a novel technology that delivers audio content and allows patients to interact by eye movements and could potentially allow for better communication in this setting. METHOD(S): A single-arm pilot study of patients in a mixed ICU. Patients underwent at least 3 sessions with the EyeControl-Med device administered by a speech-language pathologist. Communication and consciousness were assessed using the Lowenstein communication scale (LCS) and delirium was assessed by a computerized version of the CAM-ICU during the first and last device usage sessions. RESULT(S): 15 patients were included, 40% of whom were diagnosed with COVID-19. All patients completed three to seven usage sessions. The mean LCS score improved by 19.3 points (p < 0.0001), with each of its five components showing significant improvements as well. The mean number of errors on the CAM-ICU tool decreased from 6.5 to 2.5 (p=0.0006), indicating lower rates of delirium. No adverse effects were observed. CONCLUSION(S): The EyeControl-Med device may help enhance communication and re-orientation in this patient population while reducing the helplessness and anxiety associated with lack of communication. It may reduce the manifestations and duration of delirium in ventilated critically ill patients. Controlled studies are required to establish this effect.

11.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 9(Supplement 2):S754, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2189922

ABSTRACT

Background. Nasal and oral application of topical antiseptics such as povidone iodine could potentially reduce the risk for transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, limited information is available on the efficacy of such agents in reducing the burden of SARS-CoV-2. Methods. We conducted a pilot non-blinded, randomized trial to compare the effectiveness of 3 doses of povidone iodine (each dose with 10% intranasal and 1% gargle) administered every 8 hours versus the control with phosphate-buffered saline in reducing the burden of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the nares and oropharynx of patients with COVID-19. Swabs were used to collect anterior nares and oropharynx samples before the first and second doses and 8 hours after the final dose (24 hours after the initial dose). Real-time polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to assess the burden of viral RNA. Analysis of variance was used to compare cycle threshold values for povidone iodine versus control patients. Subjects were surveyed about adverse reactions to treatment. Results. As shown in the figure, SARS-CoV-2 cycle thresholds were similar in the povidone iodine (N=10 subjects) and control (N=8 subjects) groups prior to treatment. After initiation of treatment, there was no significant difference in cycle thresholds for the povidone iodine versus control subjects (P >0.05). No adverse effects of treatment were reported. Effect of intranasal and oral application of povidone iodine versus phosphate-buffered saline on nasal and oropharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Error bars show standard error. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that that nasal and oral application of povidone iodine have limited effectiveness in reducing the burden of SARS-CoV-2. Future studies are needed to assess for effectiveness of more frequent dosing intervals and to determine if povidone iodine reduces recovery of viable virus by culture.

12.
Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health ; 20:101217, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2177103

ABSTRACT

Introduction The newly developed and marketed vaccines along with concerns about vaccine safety and long-term side effects has been raised an alarming in the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the rate of acceptance, perceptions and concerns towards receiving COVID-19 vaccines and to explore the incidence of vaccines' side effects among Iraqi population in Baghdad province, Iraq. Method This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted via direct interviews among a convenient sample size of Iraqi population using a structured validated questionnaire consisting of using 24-item questionnaire to assess acceptance, concerns and the incidence of vaccines' side effects towards receiving COVID-19 vaccines. Results A total of 500 participants with an average age of 27.8 ± 3.7 years were included. Majority were females (70.6%). 43.4% had a history of COVID-19, and 46% received the Pfizer BioNTech vaccine. 73.4% (P < 0.0001) agreed about the importance of receiving the vaccination to protect the community against the COVID-19.46.8% (P < 0.0001) were unsure about the adverse effects and long-term vaccine safety. 72.8% reported that transmission of COVID-19 infection to family members is the main concern for accepting vaccination. Fatigue (60%), injection site reactions (55.8%) were the most common vaccine's side effects. Young age (P = 0.001), females (P < 0.0001), and university educational (P < 0.0001) were the most significant determents for accepting vaccination. Conclusion This study highlights that the Iraqi population showed a considerable acceptance rate for the COVID-19 vaccines. However, vaccine safety is considered a high priority concern associated with the willingness of the population to vaccinate.

13.
7th International Conference on Emerging Research in Computing, Information, Communication and Applications, ERCICA 2022 ; 928:283-290, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2173908

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 claimed 5 million lives worldwide so far, and the count is continuing. It also affected socio-economic life of almost everybody in the world. Due to COVID-19, mortality and morbidity are continuing, and it is necessary to find new methods and techniques to contain the infection. Every government is trying hard to implement a new strategy to minimize the spread of the virus. COVID-19 infection occurs due to the virus strain SARS-COV-2. Generally, death occurs due to COVID-19 because of suppurative pulmonary infection and subsequent septic shock or multiorgan failure. In the literature, there are some computational techniques which use deep learning models and reported fairly good performance. This paper proposes a new deep learning architecture inception v4 to automatically detect COVID-19 using the chart X-ray images. The proposed methodology provided improved performance of 98.7 and 94.8% of training and validation accuracy. The developed technology can be used to detect COVID-19 with a high performance;the same may be deployed by the various governments in the detection and the management of COVID-19 in an efficient manner. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

14.
7th International Conference on Emerging Research in Computing, Information, Communication and Applications, ERCICA 2022 ; 928:275-281, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2173907

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused more than 5 million deaths in the world. After lot of efforts and hard work of many scientists, few vaccines are discovered and are approved for use. It is necessary to understand and to evaluate systematically with the potential side effects due to the vaccine itself. This work proposed a sequence-to-sequence learning (Seq2Seq) model to predict the adverse effects due to COVID-19 vaccine. Seq2Seq model is used to convert sequences of one domain to another domain. In this work, a structured data such as Vaccine Adverse Event Reposting System (VAERS) data are used to predict the adverse side effects of COVID-19 vaccination. The data formulated for Seq2Seq model architecture and trying to predict the adverse side effects of vaccination with age and gender attribute as input and obtained the result of 88% as average accuracy using long short-term memory-based (LSTM) deep learning model in adverse effect prediction. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

15.
Rawal Medical Journal ; 47(4):788-791, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2169185

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To identify the demographic characteristics and determine the link between vaccine effects and variables of age and gender among those who have been immunized. Methodology: This cross-sectional study included 660 residents of Mosul who had received Covid-19 vaccinations. This research was carried out from 24th April 2022, until 10th May 2022. SPSS version 26 was used for data analysis. Result(s): Majority of participants (71.7%) were female, and half of them were not infected previously with Covid. In this study, 57.1% participants had two doses, most of them with Pfizer vaccine (90.3%). Chills and shiver, dizziness, swelling at the injection site, heat and bruise at the injection were noted, mostly in females. Conclusion(s): The study concluded the majority of participants completed two doses of vaccine. Side effects were minor and tolerable. Copyright © 2022, Pakistan Medical Association. All rights reserved.

16.
Journal of Current Pharma Research ; 12(2):1-18, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2168840

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic might impact consumer demand for food Service industries. These impacts relate to the structure of preferences in the context of a pandemic, income and time constraints, and price effects. Discussion includes accounting for differential impacts of COVID-19 on demand for foodservice across socio-demographic characteristics in India, and several high-level issues and observations related to where and how to impact home consumption. My thinking leads me to conclude that demand-side factors will account for most of the changes, we see in Out home consumption. These demand-side effects will be dominated by income effects, the opportunity cost of time, and longer planning horizons on the part of the Food Service Business. In the present time only the foodservice Industry not doing well in the post COVID scenario. Let's be honest, even if tomorrow, the coronavirus moved out, people will still be avoiding ordering food or visiting restaurants or hotels for dining out -for a longer time to come. Small voting on Twitter that was reacted to by 10346 respondents showed more than half (53%) people saying no to ordering food while 13 % said that they may order and the rest 34% said they will continue to order food. This was before the Pizza delivery boy news came. The same goes for any service industry like movie halls/ malls. It is not just the food service industry but as a matter of fact whole of travel and tourism is going to suffer the hostile response of corona. From Movie halls to malls wherever there was interaction, people confined in close spaces, things will have to be reinvented, with newer techniques to minimize human interaction. In this paper, we shall have look at the problems that the foodservice industry will face and maybe suggest a way out It's been difficult for many operators and the only experience that for best understanding, how to come out of this situation is the learning's from past recessions or economic struggles while Pandemic time. And common sense will teach industries that starting a business in hard economic times is a bad idea and shows challenges to commercial viability, in the current situation has caused businesses to close and now needing to re-open, this is no different from starting a new business during hard times. Something one would normally advise against Overcoming this challenge will truly define the entrepreneurs amongst them.

17.
Research Journal of Science and Technology ; 14(4):253-260, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2207059

ABSTRACT

Favipiravir is an antiviral drug that has been shown to treat a variety of life-threatening infections, including Ebola, Lassa, and the COVID-19 virus. It's a pyrazine carboxamide derivative with antiviral action that targets RNAdependent RNA polymerase enzymes, which are required for viral genome transcription and replication. Favipiravir is an antiviral previously indicated for influenza and Ebola, which has shown some promise in early trials for treatment of COVID-19. The nucleoside analogue favipiravir is rapidly metabolized in host cells which disrupts viral synthesis and leads to mutagenesis The mechanism of action of the Favipiravir and Side effects like QTc prolongation or teratogenicity pose risk to extensive community application discusses in this review. In this article, we have tried to provide a comprehensive, evidence-based review of this drug about synthesis, Pharmacology, Mechanism of Action, Antiviral activity, Consequences.

18.
Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal ; 72(6):1994-1997, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2206939

ABSTRACT

Objective: to determine the frequency of the possible side effects of the COVID-19 inactivated vaccine. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: Pakistan Naval Ship Shifa Hospital, Karachi Pakistan from Jan to Apr 2021. Methodology: A total of 305 recipients of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine were asked to fill out a questionnaire themselves or by the health care worker via telephonic conversation. The questionnaire comprised queries regarding general and local side effects that the participants experienced after getting vaccinated for COVID-19. Results: Out of 305 recipients, 270(88.5%) were men, and 35(11.5%) were women. Participants' age ranged from 18-60 years. After the first dose, 83(27.2%) cases [male 63(23.3%) vs. female 20(57.1%)], were reported with side effects, while 75(24.5%) recipients, [male: 54(19.9%) vs. female: 21(58.8%)], had side effects after the second dose. Generalized symptoms were fever, headache, dizziness, and body aches, while local side effects were pain, itching, swelling and rash at the injection site. 259(84.9%) recipients reported spontaneous recovery after the first dose. After the second dose, 286(93.8%) recipients recovered spontaneously. The remaining 44(13%) of the recipients' required symptomatic treatment. After the second dose, only 19(6%) recipients needed symptomatic treatment. Conclusion: It is important to document the possible side effects of COVID vaccine so that public awareness and education can be made to minimize public fear of vaccine side effects. Inactivated vaccine for COVID-19 has minimal reported side effects and hence has a good safety profile. © 2022, Army Medical College. All rights reserved.

19.
Bratislava Law Review ; 6(1):87-105, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2206499

ABSTRACT

The article analyses legal mechanisms of compensation for damages caused by side effects of COVID-19 vaccines in Lithuania. In particular, draft amendments to the Law on the Rights of Patients and Compensation of the Damage to their Health registered by the Parliament of the Republic of Lithuania in 2021 are evaluated and arguments for the need for further improvement are provided herein. In order to comprehensively assess the nature of the side effects that may be a substantiated cause for damages, pharmaceutical analysis and evaluation of COVID-19 vaccines eligible in Lithuania are analysed. Analysis of the legal framework and proposals are construed mainly in light of the assessment of global examples. Following thorough evaluation of the question at hand, it is the opinion of the authors that the product liability mechanism is not appropriate in the context of the vaccination program applied in Lithuania and "a no-fault compensation model" shall be adopted instead, which would be funded by a separate (non) State institute/fund in Lithuania.

20.
Global Media Journal ; 20(57):1-3, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2206341

ABSTRACT

[...]this manuscript takes a global approach and highlights strategies countries such as Amsterdam, Spain, and the Europe Union have implemented to combat the spread of false information. According to Mello (2022), in 2012 the Supreme Court heard a case, "invalidating a law that criminalized lying about receiving military medals, the Supreme Court refused to hold that false statements lie wholly outside First Amendment protection" (p. 1). Furthermore, in the first quarter of 2020, Fox News averaged 3.4 million total primetime viewers, compared to 1.9 million for MSNBC and 1.4 million for CNN. Because the average age for a Fox News viewer is over 65, and the network averages the largest viewership of all news outlets, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) believed that Fox News' messaging may have left its audience at a higher risk of contracting Covid-19. [...]of the circulation of fake news (FN), the most frequent complaint about getting vaccinated against Covid-19 was the fear of experiencing side effects;this led people to question the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine.

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