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1.
Front Psychol ; 13: 961092, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022888

ABSTRACT

Poor eating habits often lead to health concerns. While mental health conditions such as stress and anxiety have been linked as predictors for eating behaviors, cognitive factors may also contribute to eating practices during the early stages of the mandatory COVID-19 lockdown. In the current study, participants responded to a survey that asked them to judge the passing of time (PoTJ) and to produce short intervals (via a time production task) as an index of the internal clock speed. Additionally, they responded to questions about snacking frequency and the tendency to overeat during lockdown. We observed that those who judged time to pass slowly also reported a greater tendency to snack and overeat during the pandemic. Additional analysis also revealed that the effect of PoTJ on snacking is moderated by the internal clock speed such that those who felt time was passing by slowly, and in combination with a faster internal clock (as indexed by shorter duration production), had a greater tendency to snack. The results suggest that different aspects of temporal cognition play potential roles in influencing different types of eating behaviors. Our findings therefore have implications for eating disorders, along with the potential of time-based intervention or behavioral modification approaches.

2.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964641

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the effect of a 3-month calorie restriction (CR) without snacking on the anthropometric parameters, Homeostatic Model Assesment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), and lipid profiles of female office workers with overweight or obesity, whose physical activity was limited during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-eight women aged 20-38 years (28.9±5.24) with low physical activity levels were divided into a non-snacking (NS) group (N = 21) and a snacking (S) group (N = 27) prior to the dietary intervention. Their daily energy intake during the intervention was lowered by 30% compared with the baseline level, and the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids and fiber in their diet was increased (to >30 g/day). The proportion of saturated fatty acids and simple carbohydrates was also reduced. The study participants were assessed at the baseline and post-intervention for anthropometric variables (body weight, body fat percentage BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio) and the concentrations of insulin, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Moreover, the values for HOMA-IR, the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), and the ratios of TC/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C were calculated. RESULTS: All anthropometric parameter values obtained post-intervention were lower than the baseline in both groups. The serum insulin concentration and HOMA-IR decreased respectively by an average of 6% and 25% in the NS group and 37% and 45% in the S group. The lipid profiles of all participants improved significantly, with the LDL-C concentration showing a more promising trend in the S group (decrease by 27%) than in the NS group (17%). CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that CR improved the anthropometric parameters, HOMA-IR index, and lipid profiles of all participants.

3.
Nutrients ; 14(14)2022 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938923

ABSTRACT

Limited social contacts, lack of professional activities, economic insecurity, and a sense of threat, as well as boredom during the COVID-19 pandemic, contributed to tension and stress. All of these increase the risk of an inappropriate diet. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mood and nutrition of patients undergoing bariatric surgery. A group of 312 patients (both before and after bariatric surgery) completed a questionnaire about their diet and mood during COVID-19 lockdown. About 70% of all respondents reacted to the epidemiological situation: irritability, anxiety about their own health, and eating without being hungry. A total of 74% of all of the subjects snacked between meals (especially sweets). The respondents who believed that obesity and its complications had a negative impact on the prognosis of the coronavirus infection had a statistically significant higher prevalence of health anxiety, feeling that important life issues were out of control, irritability, need for psychological support, and need for dietary consultation. Patients after bariatric surgery had e.g., a statistically significant lower incidence of feeling hungry, eating after meals, and eating fatty foods. The COVID-19 pandemic has been shown to negatively affect the mood and diet of bariatric patients, which may affect their health status and worsen the prognosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , COVID-19 , Bariatric Surgery/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Humans , Pandemics
4.
Appetite ; 169: 105806, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814111

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic brought about many changes that potentially altered the home food environment, which has been associated with child eating patterns and dietary intake. There is also some evidence that changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic are associated with health behaviors in children, such as an increased intake of high-calorie snack food. The current study aimed to more deeply understand how the COVID-19 pandemic affected the home food environment of meal and snack time routines and parent feeding practices within families of young children. Data for this study are taken from the Kids EAT! Study, a racially/ethnically diverse cohort of families with 2-5 year old children. Qualitative interviews were conducted by phone and video conference with mothers (n = 25) during August/September 2020 and were coded using a hybrid deductive/inductive analysis approach. This allowed coders to identify themes using the interview questions as an organizational template (deductive) while also allowing unique themes to emerge from the qualitative data (inductive). Three overarching themes emerged with multiple sub-themes: 1) Mothers were more directive in the types of food and amounts of food eaten by children; 2) Mothers had less rules around mealtimes; 3) Mothers had increased meal responsibilities. When faced with a change in a structured schedule and increased stress-such as occurred with the COVID-19 pandemic, parents may benefit from advice on how to manage parent feeding practices, including tips on appropriate limit setting, establishing a schedule and routines, and improving accessibility of healthful snacks. Lessons learned during the COVID-19 pandemic may have relevance to other time periods when families face disruptions to routine and during other times of transition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child, Preschool , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Parents , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Front Nutr ; 8: 788043, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662602

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic restrictions impacted dietary habits during the initial months of the pandemic, but long-term effects are unclear. In this longitudinal study, self-selected UK adults (n = 1,733, 71.1% female, 95.7% white ethnicity) completed three online surveys (May-June, August-September, and November-December 2020, with a retrospective pre-pandemic component in the baseline survey), self-reporting sociodemographics, lifestyle, and behaviours, including high fat, salt, and sugar (HFSS) snacks, HFSS meals, and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake. Data were analysed using generalised estimating equations. Monthly HFSS snacks portion intake increased from pre-pandemic levels (48.3) in May-June (57.6, p < 0.001), decreased in August-September (43.7, p < 0.001), before increasing back to pre-pandemic levels in November-December (49.2, p < 0.001). A total of 48.5% self-reported increased [25.9 (95% confidence interval: 24.1, 27.8)] and 47.7% self-reported decreased [24.1 (22.4, 26.0)] monthly HFSS snacks portion intakes in November-December compared with pre-pandemic levels. Monthly HFSS meals portion intake decreased from pre-pandemic levels (7.1) in May-June (5.9, p < 0.001), was maintained in August-September (5.9, p = 0.897), and then increased again in November-December (6.6, p < 0.001) to intakes that remained lower than pre-pandemic levels (p = 0.007). A total of 35.2% self-reported increased [4.8 (4.3, 5.3)] and 44.5% self-reported decreased [5.1 (4.6, 5.6)] monthly HFSS meals portion intakes in November-December compared with pre-pandemic levels. The proportion meeting FV intake recommendations was stable from pre-pandemic through to August-September (70%), but decreased in November-December 2020 (67%, p = 0.034). Increased monthly HFSS snacks intake was associated with female gender, lower quality of life, and - in a time - varying manner - older age and higher HFSS meals intake. Increased monthly HFSS meals intake was associated with female gender, living with adults only, and higher HFSS snacks intake. Reduced FV intake was associated with higher body mass index (BMI) and lower physical activity. These results suggest large interindividual variability in dietary change during the first year of the pandemic, with important public health implications in individuals experiencing persistent increases in unhealthy diet choices, associated with BMI, gender, quality of life, living conditions, physical activity, and other dietary behaviours.

6.
Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science ; 9(3):970-979, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1614311

ABSTRACT

Mumbai was one of the 1st cities in India to go into total lockdown in March 2020. The lockdown was expected to have an influence on eating habits specially the snacking patterns. The main objective of this study was to access the change in snacking patterns of participants living in Mumbai city, India during lockdown. Data was collected in 256 Mumbai residents (60 males, 196 females) using Google forms. Information regarding number of meals consumed, meals at which snacks were consumed, change in snacking pattern, reasons for increase or decrease in snacking, and type of snacks consumed during lockdown as compared to before lock was collected. Around 20% reported a decrease, 31% reported no change and 49% reported an increase in snack consumption during lockdown. Participants consumed higher number of meals during lockdown (p<0.05). Significantly higher percentage of participants did not consume store brought snacks during lockdown (30.9% vs 13.7%) (p<0.05). Significantly higher percentage of participants consumed snacks at mid-evening (50.4% vs 33.6%), late evening (48% vs 32%) and late night (32% vs 16.8%) during lockdown as compared to before lockdown (p<0.05). Significantly change in lemon-water (57.8% vs 43.4%), coffee (47.3% vs 40.6%) and carbonated beverages (14.8% vs 23.4%) was observed during lockdown as compared to before lockdown (p<0.05). Significant increase in nuts (74.2% vs 65.6%), instant noodles (69.5% vs 60.9%) and biscuits (78.5% vs 68%) was observed during lockdown as compared to before lockdown (p<0.05). Significant decrease in South Indian (61.75 vs 69.1%), Frankie (32.8% vs 51.6%), bhel (50.4% vs 69.1%), Chinese bhel (21.5% vs 35.5%) and usal (32% vs 40.2%) was observed during lockdown as compared to before lockdown (p<0.05). To conclude, snacks were consumed at more number of meals during lockdown in comparison to before lockdown. A change in type of snacks consumed was observed during lockdown. Ready and easy to eat snacks such as nuts, instant noodles and biscuits showed an increase whereas snacks that require elaborate cooking procedure showed a decrease in consumption. With partial lockdown still persisting in many parts of the country and many still working from home it is imperative to circulate more accurate information on appropriate snacking habits.

7.
Appetite ; 171: 105885, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) led many countries to implement lockdown measures, which resulted in changes in dietary behaviours that could persist over the long term and have associated health consequences. Psychological traits may impact these changes given their known association with dietary behaviours. We aimed to investigate in a population-based study, whether positive psychological traits were associated with changes of snacking behaviour and food consumption observed during the first COVID-19 lockdown period. DESIGN: In 2016, levels of optimism, resilience, self-esteem, satisfaction with life, mindfulness and mastery were assessed in 33,766 adults of the French NutriNet-Santé cohort. Snacking and food group consumption were assessed in April-May 2020. Association between psychological traits and changes (no change, increase, decrease) in snacking and food group consumption were assessed using logistic regressions. Multiple correspondence analysis followed by ascending hierarchical classification were used to derive clusters of dietary behaviours. Covariance analyses were used to compare mean scores of psychological traits between clusters. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, anxiety and depressive symptomatology. RESULTS: Participants with higher levels of optimism, resilience, self-esteem, satisfaction with life, mindfulness or mastery were less likely to change their snacking behaviour and food group consumption of various food groups. Individuals with lower levels were more likely to make changes, with either unhealthy (e.g., less fruits and vegetables, more processed meat) or healthy (e.g., more pasta/rice (whole-grain)) changes. Overall, individuals showed higher levels of positive psychological traits in the "no change" cluster, followed by the "healthy" and the "unhealthy" cluster (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with higher levels of optimism, resilience, self-esteem, satisfaction with life, mindfulness or mastery were less impacted by the lockdown in terms of dietary behaviours.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Diet , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Snacks
8.
Foods ; 10(11)2021 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480686

ABSTRACT

Ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption poses a potential risk to public health and may be related to shelter-in-place orders. This study utilized the level of food processing as a lens by which to examine the relationships between diet, weight change, and lifestyle changes (including cooking, snacking, and sedentary activity) that occurred during regional shelter-in-place orders. This study used a cross-sectional, retrospective survey (n = 589) to assess baseline demographics, changes in lifestyle behaviors using a Likert scale, and changes in dietary behaviors using a modified food frequency questionnaire from mid-March to May 2020; data were collected in the California Bay Area from August to October 2020. Foods were categorized by level of processing (minimally processed, processed, and ultra-processed) using the NOVA scale. Stepwise multiple linear regression and univariate linear regression models were used to determine the associations between these factors. Increased snacking was positively associated with a change in the percent of the calories derived from UPF and weight gain (ß = 1.0, p < 0.001; ß = 0.8 kg, p < 0.001) and negatively associated with the share of MPF calories consumed (ß = -0.9, p < 0.001). These relationships have public health implications as interventions designed around decreased snacking may positively impact diet and weight management and thereby mitigate negative health outcomes.

9.
Soc Sci Med ; 287: 114333, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364479

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand the mental health response to repeated and prolonged stress during the COVID-19 related lockdown and the role of specific health behaviors to buffer against this stress. METHODS: In a longitudinal study with several measurement points covering three months during the COVID-19 pandemic, about 3500 randomly selected participants representative of the German population reported on their mental health (anxiety, depression, loneliness) and health behaviors (screen time, snack consumption, physical activity). RESULTS: Symptoms of anxiety, depression, and loneliness were highest shortly after the lockdown came into effect. Over time, the symptoms were stable or went down slightly, corresponding to patterns of habituation. Among people with higher vulnerability to poor mental health during the lockdown (e.g., women), the proportion with high levels of anxiety, depression, and loneliness was considerably larger. These groups also reported fewer health-promoting behaviors. More screen time, more snacking, and less physical activity were related to higher symptoms of anxiety, depression, and loneliness across all time points. Changes in health behaviors over time mostly did not predict changes in mental health symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Mental health and engagement in protective health behaviors was lowest at the start of the lockdown. Health behaviors mostly returned to pre-lockdown levels within three months. Engaging in healthier behaviors was associated with better mental health. Policy implications of these findings are discussed. This study provides important insights into (unintended) side effects of an international crisis and can contribute to a better understanding of how to preserve mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 53(8): 706-711, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275507

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine how changes in feeling bored and eating because of boredom during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic relate to intuitive eating, diet quality, and snacking. METHODS: A representative sample of 360 US adults completed an online survey including changes in feeling bored and eating because of boredom since the COVID-19 pandemic. An ANCOVA and multivariate analysis of covariance were used to examine relationships between intuitive eating, diet quality, and snacking in individuals who experienced: (1) increases in feeling bored and eating because of boredom, (2) eating because of boredom only, (3) increases in feeling bored only, and (4) no change/decreases in feeling bored and eating because of boredom. RESULTS: Individuals who increased feeling bored and eating because of boredom and increased eating because of boredom only snacked more and scored lower in intuitive eating. Diet quality did not differ across groups. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Although diet quality did not differ, eating because of boredom is potentially a negative impact on diet quality. Programs enhancing intuitive eating may be helpful.


Subject(s)
Boredom , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Snacks , United States/epidemiology
11.
Appetite ; 165: 105323, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230353

ABSTRACT

It is plausible that the coronavirus disease pandemic and related changes in work and life patterns affected dietary patterns, but existing studies have limitations owing to a cross-sectional design. Using longitudinal data, we examined dietary changes in people due to the pandemic and work and life patterns. We conducted an online survey on changes in work and life patterns during the pandemic from April 30, 2020, to May 8, 2020, among users of a health app called CALO mama provided in Japan. We retrieved and linked the dietary data for 5929 participants from January 1, 2020, to May 13, 2020. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate the frequencies of food intake associated with the pandemic and work and life patterns. During the state of emergency, the frequency of intake of vegetables, beans, seaweeds, fish, meats, dairy products, and snacks increased, whereas alcohol intake decreased. Working from home was associated with increased intake of vegetables, fruits, dairy products, and snacks but decreased intake of seaweeds, meats, and alcohol. Time spent on childcare was associated with decreased intake of vegetables and fruits but increased intake of meats. Probable depressive symptoms were negatively associated with the frequency of food intake other than snacks and alcohol. We conclude that diet quality improved during the pandemic in general, but attention must be paid to overconsumption of snacks and negative factors such as increased burden of childcare and depression for healthy eating.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Feeding Behavior , Fruit , Humans , Japan , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vegetables
12.
Appetite ; 161: 105132, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163361

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused France to impose a strict lockdown, affecting families' habits in many domains. This study evaluated possible changes in child eating behaviors, parental feeding practices, and parental motivations when buying food during the lockdown, compared to the period before the lockdown. Parents of 498 children aged 3-12 years (238 boys; M = 7.32; SD = 2.27) completed an online survey with items from validated questionnaires (e.g., CEDQ, CEBQ, HomeSTEAD). They reported on their (child's) current situation during the lockdown, and retrospectively on the period before the lockdown. Many parents reported changes in child eating behaviors, feeding practices, and food shopping motivations. When changes occurred, child appetite, food enjoyment, food responsiveness and emotional overeating significantly increased during the lockdown. Increased child boredom significantly predicted increased food responsiveness, emotional overeating and snack frequency in between meals. When parents changed their practices, they generally became more permissive: less rules, more soothing with food, more child autonomy. They bought pleasurable and sustainable foods more frequently, prepared more home-cooked meals and cooked more with the child. Level of education and increased stress level predicted changes in parental practices and motivations. This study provides insights in factors that can induce positive and negative changes in families' eating, feeding and cooking behaviors. This can stimulate future studies and interventions.


Subject(s)
Child Behavior , Consumer Behavior , Feeding Behavior , Pandemics , Parenting , Adult , Appetite , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Emotions , Female , France , Humans , Hyperphagia , Male , Meals , Middle Aged , Motivation , Parent-Child Relations , Snacks , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592393

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dietary behaviours of the Spanish adult population were changed during the COVID-19 outbreak confinement. For that purpose, an online questionnaire, based on 44 items including socio-demographic data, Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) Adherence Screener (MEDAS) as a reference of a healthy diet, processed foods intake, changes in their usual food choices and weight gain was distributed using social media and snowball sampling. A total of 7514 participants (37% aged below 35 years, 70.6% female, 77.9% university-level education or higher) from all the Spanish territory completed the questionnaire. Results outlined healthier dietary behaviours during the confinement when compared to previous habits. Overall, the MEDAS score (ranging from 0 to 14, whereby higher a scoring reflects greater adherence to the MedDiet) increased significantly from 6.53 ± 2 to 7.34 ± 1.93 during the confinement. Multivariate logistic regression models, adjusted for age, gender, region and other variables, showed a statistically significant higher likelihood of changing the adherence to the MedDiet (towards an increase in adherence) in those persons who decreased the intake of fried foods, snacks, fast foods, red meat, pastries or sweet beverages, but increased MedDiet-related foods such as olive oil, vegetables, fruits or legumes during the confinement. COVID-19 confinement in Spain has led to the adoption of healthier dietary habits/behaviours in the studied population, as reflected by a higher adherence to the MedDiet. This improvement, if sustained in the long-term, could have a positive impact on the prevention of chronic diseases and COVID-19-related complications.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Diet, Mediterranean/psychology , Diet, Mediterranean/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diet Surveys , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
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