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1.
J Funct Morphol Kinesiol ; 7(4)2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071553

ABSTRACT

(1) Background. The coronavirus pandemic had a serious impact on the everyday life of children and young people with sometimes drastic effects on daily physical activity time that could have led to posture imbalances. The aim of the study was to examine whether a six-week, feedback-supported online training programme could improve posture parameters in young soccer players. (2) Methods. Data of 170 adolescent soccer players (age 15.6 ± 1.6 years) were analyzed. A total of 86 soccer players of a youth academy participated in an online training program that included eight exercises twice per week for 45 min (Zoom group). The participants' exercise execution could be monitored and corrected via smartphone or laptop camera. Before and after the training intervention, participants' posture was assessed using photographic analysis. The changes of relevant posture parameters (perpendicular positions of ear, shoulder and hips, pelvic tilt, trunk tilt and sacral angle) were statistically tested by robust mixed ANOVA using trimmed means. Postural parameters were also assessed post hoc at 8-week intervals in a control group of 84 participants of the same age. (3) Results. We found a statistically significant interaction (p < 0.05) between time and group for trunk tilt, head and shoulder protrusion and for hip anteversion in the Zoom group. No changes were found for these parameters in the control group. For pelvic tilt no significant changes were found. (4) Conclusions. Feedback-based online training with two 45 min sessions per week can improve postural parameters in adolescent soccer players over a period of six weeks.

2.
Biol Sport ; 39(4): 1081-1086, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067009

ABSTRACT

The main objective of this study was to analyse the changes in external demand parameters (e.g., total distance, high-speed running distance, accelerations/decelerations) in Spanish professional soccer teams after the COVID-19 lockdown considering their on-field ranking (i.e., teams whose ranking worsened after the COVID-19 lockdown [WRS] vs. teams that improved their ranking after the COVID-19 lockdown [IMP]). A total of 23,527 individual match observations were collected on players competing during the 2019/20 season in the First Spanish Professional soccer League (LaLiga). Goalkeepers and players who participated for less than 10 minutes in each match were excluded. Relative total distance (TD/min), distance covered at 21-24 km · h-1 (HIRD/min) and > 24 km · h-1 per minute (VHIRD/min), high metabolic load distance (HMLD), and the number of accelerations (3 m/s2) and decelerations (< 3 m/s2) performed were analysed by the ChryonHego video-tracking system. These variables were analysed during two differentiated periods, before the COVID-19 lockdown (i.e., 27 matches) and after the COVID-19 lockdown (i.e., 11 matches), and teams were classified into two groups according to their ranking (i.e., WRS vs. IMP). R-Studio was employed for data analysis and a mixed linear model was conducted. A decrease in external demands in all teams after the COVID-19 lockdown was observed, and this decrease was greater in WRS. These results suggest that, after an inactive period (i.e., the COVID-19 lockdown), teams that return with better physical performance, mainly related to high-intensity actions, have more possibilities of improving their final qualifying position.

3.
Biol Sport ; 39(4): 1073-1080, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067008

ABSTRACT

Preparation for the FIFA World Cup 2022 (WC2022) comes in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims were to (i) provide a brief overview of the 2020 Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic games in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, and (ii) highlight the potential challenges and opportunities central to the hosting of the FIFA WC2022. The organisation, public health policies and prevention protocols of the postponed 2020 Olympic/Paralympic Games (Tokyo July-August 2021), the infection rates during the event, as well as the upcoming WC2022 and its related preparations and challenges, were analysed. An unparalleled International Olympic Committee (IOC) effort, together with the Japanese government and people's perseverance and drive, enabled the safe delivery of the Tokyo Olympic/Paralympic Games, which left a legacy beyond sport. This has been aided by the collection of critical data and lessons learnt throughout the games. The stringent public health policies and especially the tight bubble system for players and their respective delegations have certainly been the key components that ensured the successful containment of COVID-19 within the targeted population. One of the most significant lessons learned from the Tokyo 2020 Olympics is the improvement made in controlling COVID-19 in the context of mass gathering events. Strict infection control strategies to prevent future COVID-19 transmission during the FIFA World Cup 2022 are an immediate priority in Qatar and are constantly being prepared. The planned measures and health care strategies appear to be well adjusted to the risk, especially for the large anticipated number of visitors, and can provide sufficient guarantees to conduct relatively "safe" mega sports events.

4.
Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise ; 24(2):132-138, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040457

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study is to measure and construe the opinions of the parents of athletes who are actively participating in competitions in our country and who are licensed by the Turkish Fencing Federation for the 2019-2020 season, regarding the organizations to be planned and the issues to be paid attention, within the scope of the Covid-19 normalization steps. The study group comprises 410 parents in total who take place on the list of licensed athlete parents of the Turkish Fencing Federation in 2019-2020. An online data collection form was used as a data collection tool in this study, which was structured through the qualitative research method. The survey form, which was drawn up by the researcher by taking expert opinion, consisting of a total of nine questions, and devised to learn the opinions of the participants on the subject matter of the study, includes multiple-choice and open-ended question types. In this study conducted in collaboration with the Turkish Fencing Federation, the respondents answered the questionnaire online via the website of the respective federation and took part in the study voluntarily. Consent regarding the study was presented in the "Remarks'' section of the form to the participants for approval. In the analysis process of the data obtained, the data analysis program called MAXQDA Analytics Pro 2018 (Release 18.2.4) (Professional Data Analysis Software for Qualitative and Mixed Methods) was used. While closed-ended questions were summarized by indicating percentages, the content analysis method was used in the process of analyzing open-ended question and answer reports. The data obtained were visualized with the help of frequency tables and code maps. Finally, some of the opinions of the participants, which were coded, were directly conveyed by interpreting the findings obtained through the tables and code maps. For this study, an approval was received from the Ethics Committee for Non-Invasive Clinical Research of the School of Sport Sciences of Seljuk University. It was determined as a result of the study that the Covid-19 pandemic that poses impacts on the entire world affects the attitudes of parents of athletes to participate in organizations. In the activities planned to be organized, the sub-codes like attending without an audience, open-air competitions, provision of spaciousness and ventilation means in the selection of a competition hall, and risk approval notification are classified. In addition, arrangements for the priorities of the parents of athletes in the organizations to be held within the scope of the Covid-19 normalization steps of the respective federation were ensured by presenting the Turkish Fencing Federation with the report drawn up as a result of the study.

5.
Sustainability ; 14(16):10350, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024159

ABSTRACT

The convergence of sports and tourism industries is a vital direction for the coordinated development of industries, and a vital means to build a quality life circle suitable for living, working and traveling in the urban agglomeration of the Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA). By using the coupling coordination degree model and exploratory spatial data analysis and establishing an evaluating indicator system for the converged development of sports and tourism industries, this paper measures and analyzes the convergence development level, spatial-temporal evolution, and spatial correlation of the two industries in 11 cities of GBA from 2011 to 2020. The results showed that the synthetical development level of the two industries in urban agglomeration of GBA was steadily rising, with significant differences in regional development, showing the east coast of GBA > the north coast of GBA > the west coast of GBA. The growth trend of industrial convergence degree is obvious, but the overall coupling coordination degree is not high, basically in the late maladjustment stage and transition stage. The convergence of the two industries shows a positive aggregation distribution in space, and the degree of agglomeration is rising. Cities around the Pearl River Estuary mostly belong to the “high-high” spatial association type, with obvious spillover effect, and become a significant growth pole for the converged development of the two industries in GBA. Cities in the periphery of GBA and the west coast of GBA mostly belong to the “low-low” and “low-high” spatial association types. Finally, sustainable development strategies are put forward from four aspects: spatial layout coordination, industrial division coordination, exchange platform coordination, and regional policy coordination, so as to promote the highly converged and coordinated development of the sports and tourism industries in the urban agglomeration of GBA.

6.
Front Robot AI ; 9: 915322, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023019

ABSTRACT

For almost 25 years, the goal of the RoboCup has been to build soccer robots capable of winning against the FIFA World Champion of 2050. To foster the participation of the next generation of roboticists, the RoboCupJunior competition takes place in parallel and provides a similar challenge of appropriate difficulty for high school students. RoboCupJunior has three main categories: Soccer, Rescue and OnStage. For the Soccer category, participants need to design, build and program a team of autonomous robots to play soccer against an opponent team of robots. The competition is physical in nature, since it assumes physical robots playing against one another. In 2020 and 2021, the COVID-19 pandemic has made it difficult for a competition of this type to take place, due to obvious restrictions on physical gatherings. To allow for some sort of participation, and inspired by positive experience of the larger RoboCup community, the Organizing Committee of RoboCupJunior Soccer has explored porting a portion of the challenge to a simulated environment. Many of the existing environments, however, are built for higher education/research teams competitions or research, making them complex to deploy and generally unsuitable for high school students. In this paper we present the development of SoccerSim, a simulated environment for RoboCupJunior Soccer, based on the Webots open-source robotics simulator. We also discuss how the participation of students was key for its development and present a summary of the competition rules. We further describe the case study of utilizing SoccerSim first as a testbed for a Demo competition, and later as part of RoboCup Worldwide 2021. The participation of more than 60 teams from over 20 countries suggests that SoccerSim provides an affordable alternative to physical robotics platforms, while being stable enough to support a diverse userbase. The experience of using SoccerSim at RoboCupJunior Worldwide 2021 suggests that a simulated environment significantly lowers the barrier to entry, as evidenced by the participation of many teams that have not participated before. To make it easy for similar competitions to take place in the future, we made the code of SoccerSim available as open-source, as well as the associated tooling required for using it in a tournament.

7.
Economic Policy ; 37(110):399-401, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2017889

ABSTRACT

The Covid pandemic dominated social life over the past 2 years. It turned social interaction that is a key part of human life into risky behaviour. It thereby affected the relative utility from different consumption goods compared with a non-pandemic world. Those consumption goods that happen in public or in groups (watching a soccer game at the stadium) come in the pandemic with the risk of infection, whereas others that are done at home (watching a soccer game on TV) remain unaffected. As a result, households face a new trade-off for their consumption decisions when they have to decide about consumption with social interaction and the risk of infection. Many governments put regulation in place that restricted this trade off, whereas other governments asked the population to be responsible enough to decide on this risk-return trade off solely based on private costs and gains.

8.
Br J Sports Med ; 2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019956

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the SARS-CoV-2 infection rate in a cohort of 6500 professional athletes and staff during the 2020 football (soccer) season in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 4269 players (87% male, age: 21.7±4.2 years) and 2231 staff (87% male, age: 42.6±11.9 years) from 122 teams (women: n=16) involved in eight leagues (women: n=2), which took place in São Paulo, Brazil. Between 4 July 2020 and 21 December 2020, swab samples were collected weekly (n=29 507) and tested for SARS-Cov-2 via reverse transcription-PCR by an accredited laboratory commissioned by the São Paulo Football Federation. We contacted the medical staff of each team with positive cases to collect information on disease severity. RESULTS: Among 662 PCR-confirmed cases, 501 were athletes and 161 were staff. The new infection rate was 11.7% and 7.2% for athletes and staff, respectively. Athletes were more susceptible to infection than staff (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.42, 2.06, p<0.001), although with lower chance for moderate to severe disease (OR: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.54, p=0.012). Six teams had ≥20 individuals testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, whereas 19 teams had ≥10 confirmed cases. Twenty-five mass outbreaks were identified (≥5 infections within a team in a 2-week period). The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infections was similar in athletes and staff as the general population in São Paulo. CONCLUSION: Despite weekly testing and other preventive measures, we found a high SARS-CoV-2 infection rate in athletes and staff after resuming football, which coincides with the high prevalence of infection in the community during the same period. These data may assist policy-makers and sports federations for determining if and when it is safe to resume competitions.

9.
Communication & Sport ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2021089

ABSTRACT

The football rivalry between Real Madrid CF and FC Barcelona is one of the most popular at club level globally. In Spain, where it is known as El Clasico (the Classic), it has an unrivalled status in the sports media industry. Its significance relies in part to the historical tension between Catalonia, the region of which Barcelona is the main centre, and Madrid, the capital of Spain. The exaltation of confrontation and partisanship is the central feature of highly popular radio programmes devoted to El Clasico. This study aimed to observe how the media discourse articulated by these programmes was affected by the fact that, during the Covid-19 pandemic, matches were played in empty venues. Through the comparisons of broadcasts of two games, one from 2017 and from 2020, the paper shows that the sensationalistic style is toned down, and a less polarised and partisan sports journalism is possible.

10.
American Behavioral Scientist ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2020672

ABSTRACT

The current study focuses on sport fans' attitudes toward the presence of the first transgender soccer referee in an elite league in Israel, and largely reflects the broader discourse on gender diversity and inclusion in general. Soccer referee Sapir Berman's announcement of her gender transition may have been exceptional, but it joins the broad debate on the role of transgender individuals in sport. Research findings indicate that fans expressed ambivalent reactions to the announcement. Although many responses reflected impressive open-mindedness and support for the referee and her decision, a wide range of opposition strategies was also identified, including disgust, ridicule, violence, and concerns of an existential threat caused by changes in the traditional gender order. The fact that the announcement was made during the COVID-19 pandemic also affected the nature and the contents of fans' responses.

11.
American Behavioral Scientist ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2020659

ABSTRACT

Most studies of the effect of COVID-19 restrictions on home advantage have been conducted on men’s soccer, with the women’s game lacking scientific attention. The present study fills this gap by investigating games in Swedish Damallsvenskan women’s soccer league. Comparing games in the 2019 and 2020 seasons, we find a slight, but not statistically significant reduction in home advantage in games without crowds in terms of goals scored and points achieved. However, unlike in most studies on men’s soccer, we find that away teams received significantly more yellow cards in games without crowds compared to games with crowds. We discuss our results in the context of the findings in men’s soccer. JEL Classification: D00, J71, L00, Z13, Z20. © 2022 SAGE Publications.

12.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 17(9): 1448-1451, 2022 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019679

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) resulted in sporting event suspensions and cancellations, affecting competition calendars worldwide during 2020 and 2021. This challenged high-performance athletes' capacity to complete physical, technical, or tactical training during restricted movement measures (lockdown). With the Football World Cup organized in the last quarter of 2022, the past period of training and match disturbances challenged footballers concerning their performance and potential higher risk of injury at official matches' resumption. There has been considerable debate about the management of resuming professional football (soccer) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Governing bodies worldwide implemented measures to ensure a safe resumption of football. These precautionary measures aimed to protect the health of players, their support staff, and officials around the pitch and ensure the enjoyment of the event by spectators in the football stadiums. We have therefore narratively reviewed scientific papers about how football has resumed on the pitch and in the stands with special focus on the COVID-19 infection control strategies allowing footballers to perform again and supporters to enjoy the game after the 2020 global stop to sport.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Football , Soccer , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Infection Control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy , Soccer/injuries
13.
Business and Human Rights Journal ; 7(2):311-318, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2016379

ABSTRACT

Since 2017, the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) has incorporated human rights risk assessments into its bidding requirements for major events, beginning with the competition to host the 2026 FIFA Men’s World Cup.1 This process began at a time of increased scrutiny on the impact of major events and greater focus on the applicability of the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGPs) to sport. In 2014, the Centre for Sport and Human Rights’ founding Chair Mary Robinson, together with John Ruggie (author of the UNGPs), wrote to FIFA in their respective capacities as Patron and Chair of the Institute for Human Rights and Business (IHRB) to stress the need for ‘sustained due diligence […] with respect to decisions about host nations and how major sporting events are planned and implemented’.2 Following recommendations set forth in the letter, expanded upon in Ruggie’s 2016 report ‘For the Game, For the World’, FIFA introduced robust bidding requirements that any country or region wishing to bid to host a World Cup will have to conduct a human rights risk assessment and outline how they intend to mitigate each of the risks identified.3 These requirements are designed to align the World Cup bidding process with the UNGPs.

14.
Journal of Sport Behavior ; 45(3):91-107, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-2012876

ABSTRACT

Using a five-year data set including the crowd-less games in the 2020 English, Spanish, Italian, and German first division football leagues and multivariate regression analysis, this paper estimated how fans influence home field advantage. Consistent with previous studies, the estimates showed that in games with crowds, referees gave fewer fouls, yellow cards, and red cards but more penalty kicks to the home team than to the away team. Removing the fans from the stadium eliminated these home advantages coming through referee decisions. Removing fans reduced yellow and red cards given to away teams but did not change cards given to home teams. There was not a similar asymmetry for fouls and penalty kicks. These results suggest that crowds influenced referee judgments about how severe an infraction was more than they influenced decisions about whether a foul occurred. The addition of VAR had little impact on referee decisions and no effect on the home advantage in goal differential. Despite the home bias in referee decisions when crowds were in the stadium, fouls, cards, and penalty kicks played a relatively small role in determining home advantage in game outcomes and most of the home advantage remained after fans were removed.

15.
Muhasebe ve Finansman Dergisi ; - (95):135-152, 2022.
Article in Turkish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2010851

ABSTRACT

Futbol endüstrisindeki finansal yönetim yetersizlikleri, COVID-19 sırasında kulüplerin finansal sürdürülebilirliği konusundaki endişeleri artırmıştır. Bu bağlamda, bu çalışma, Borsa İstanbul'da işlem gören dört futbol kulübünün pandemi dönemi finansal performans analizlerini ve performans sıralamalarını önceki beş yıllık dönemle karşılaştırmayı amaçlamaktadır. Çalışma 2016-2020 yılları arasını kapsamaktadır. Çalışmada Kriterler Arası Korelasyon Yoluyla Kriterlerin Önemi ve Gri İlişkisel Analiz tekniklerini entegre eden bir yöntem kullanılmıştır . Çalışma sonucunda, kulüplerin pandemi döneminde çalışma sermayesi ve sabit varlık yatırımlarını arttırdığı ve finansmanda daha az yabancı kaynağa yöneldikleri görülmüştür. Ayrıca geçmiş yıllara göre ortalama finansal performansı yüksek olan kulüpler, finansal olarak pandemiden daha az etkilenmiştir .Alternate : Financial management inadequacies in the football industry have enlarged concerns about the financial sustainability of clubs during the COVID-19. In this regard, this study aims to compare the pandemic period financial performance analyses and performance rankings of the four football clubs trading on the Borsa Istanbul stock market, with the previous five-year period. The study covers the years between 2016-2020. A method that integrates Criteria Importance Through Intercriteria Correlation (CRITIC) and Gray Relational Analysis (GRA) techniques was used in the study. It was concluded that clubs whose revenues decreased due to the discontinuance of their activities during the pandemic acted more prudently in monetary terms. Additionally, the club with a high average financial performance over the previous years has financially been less affected by the pandemic.

16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010059

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has shocked the entire planet. The soccer world has also suffered major upheavals, and many professional soccer players have been infected with the virus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of injuries in Italian Serie A professional soccer players before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We evaluated the incidence of muscle injuries between four competitive seasons of the Italian Serie A (2016-2017, 2017-2018, and 2018-2019 pre-COVID-19 vs. 2020/2021 post-COVID-19) in professional soccer players. Results: Significant differences were found in muscular injuries between the post-COVID-19 season and the previous seasons (p < 0.001). The median split of the players' positivity duration was of 15 days. The players' long positivity (PLP) group showed a significant number of muscular injuries compared to the players' short positivity (PSP) group (p < 0.0014, ES = 0.81, Large). The total teams' days of positivity were significantly related to the total team number of muscular injuries (r = 0.86; CI 95% 0.66 to 0.94; p < 0.0001). In conclusion, this data showed that the competitive season post-COVID-19 lockdown has a higher incidence of muscle injuries in Italian Serie A soccer players compared to the pre-pandemic competitive season.


Subject(s)
Athletic Injuries , COVID-19 , Soccer , Athletic Injuries/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Muscles/injuries , Pandemics , Soccer/physiology
17.
Sci Sports ; 37(7): 572-580, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004483

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Decreases in physical fitness are inevitable after two to six week period of detraining in athletes. Lockdown period changed the characteristics of soccer players' training. Aim of the study: The aim of our study was to apply a HIIT shock-microcycle (SM) after return to training and assess its effect on players' performance. Equipment and methods: Nineteen elite professional soccer players during the lockdown period (LP) from March to May 2020 (8 weeks) performed 3-4 individual training sessions per week. The training sessions included running boots of anaerobic short and aerobic prolonged duration intervals. Intensity was determined according to lab ergospirometry test 2 weeks before LP. All the players followed an indoor program, 3-6 sessions per week consisted of core, balance and flexibility exercises (∼45 minutes). SM training content was same for both groups and took place the first two weeks after LP, consisted by eight high intensity interval training sessions (HIIT), two technique, two tactical sessions and two days off. Results: Repeated sprint ability mean time (RSAMeanTime) and Repeated sprint ability performance-sprint no 4,5,6 (RSA4,5,6S) improved after SM (P = 0.025, Effect size: r2 = 0.331, P = 0.010, Effect size: r2 = 0.411, p = 0.009, Effect size: r2 = 0.418, P = 0.037, Effect size: r2 = 0.293, respectively. Yo-Yo intermitted recovery test level 2 (YYIR2TotalDistance) that covered by players during the 2nd measurement was 10.8% longer (P = 0.004, Effect size: r2 = 0.483). Also, the YYIR2HeartRateRecovery percentage was lower during the 2nd measurement (P = 0.014, Effect size: r2 = 0.107). Conclusions: These results indicate that SM can improve YYIR2 and RSA performance thus it is a useful tool to regain physical attributes in a short period.


Objectifs: L'altération des capacités physiques est inévitable après une période de deux à six semaines d'absence d'entraînement chez les athlètes. La période de confinement due au COVID19 a changé les caractéristiques de la préparation des joueurs de football. But de l'étude: Le but de notre étude était d'appliquer un microcycle d'entrainement fractionné de haute intensité (HIIT, ou microcycle de choc SM), après le retour à l'entraînement, et d'évaluer ses effets sur les performances des joueurs. Matériel et méthodes: Dix-neuf footballeurs professionnels d'élite ont effectué 3-4 séances d'entraînement individuel par semaine pendant la période de confinement de mars à mai 2020 (LP, 8 semaines). Les séances prévoyaient des exercices de courses à pied par intervalles, de courte et longue durée. L'intensité des exercices évaluée par des tests d'ergospirométrie en laboratoire deux semaines avant la LP. Tous les joueurs ont suivi le programme en salle close (3­6 séances par semaine) comprenant des exercices de base, d'équilibre et de flexibilité (∼45 minutes). Le contenu du HIIT était le même pour les deux groupes et a débuté après la LP, pendant les deux semaines suivant l'entraînement et comprenant 8 sessions de HIIT, 2 sessions d'entrainement technique, 2 sessions de tactiques et 2 jours de congé. Résultats: RSAMeanTime et RSA4,5,6S testé après le HIIT (p = 0.025, p = 0,010, p = 0,009, p = 0,037 respectivement. YYIR2Total Distance: la distance totale parcourue par les joueurs durant la seconde évaluation était plus longue de 10,8 % (p = 0,004). De même, le pourcentage de YYIR2HeartRateRecovery était plus bat durant la seconde évaluation (p = 0,014). Conclusions: Les résultats de l'étude ont démontré que le SM peut améliorer les performances YYIR2 et RSA, et constitue une arme utile pour la régénération des aptitudes physiques dans un espace limité.

18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997580

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 virus disease has caused numerous changes in sports routines in the last two years, showing the influence on an increase in sports injuries. The aim of this study was to prospectively analyze the incidence and characteristics of injuries in male professional football players diagnosed with COVID-19 when they return to play after recovering from this illness. METHODS: Injury characteristics of professional male football players were recorded for the 2020-2021 season following the international consensus statement from the International Olympic Committee (IOC). SARS-CoV-2 infection in the football players was certified by PCR analysis. Injury epidemiology was compared in players infected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus before and after being diagnosed with COVID-19. RESULTS: 14 players (53.8%) were diagnosed with COVID-19 during 2020-2021 season and 12 (46.2%) were not infected (controls). Only three (21.4%) had suffered an injury before being diagnosed with COVID-19. Eleven players (78.6%) had injuries after being diagnosed with COVID-19 (p < 0.001). Among the players diagnosed with COVID-19, injury incidence increased on their return to play after the infection (3.8 to 12.4 injuries/1000 h of exposure, p < 0.001). Additionally, injury incidence during training (10.6 vs. 5.1 injuries/1000 h of exposure, p < 0.001) and matches (56.3 vs. 17.6 injuries/1000 h of exposure, p < 0.001) was ~two-fold higher on return to play after COVID-19 compared to controls (33.4 vs. 17.6 injuries/1000 h of exposure, respectively, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Injury incidence in professional football players who had been infected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus significantly increased compared to the injury rates that these same players had prior to the illness. Additionally, the injury incidence was higher when compared to players who were not infected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus during the season, especially during matches.


Subject(s)
Athletic Injuries , COVID-19 , Football , Soccer , Athletic Injuries/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Soccer/injuries
19.
Research in Sport Management and Motor Behavior ; 11(22):20-39, 2021.
Article in Persian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1995039

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the corona virus has had a significant impact on the economic situation of sport, and professional football has not been immune to these effects. This article discusses the main effects of this crisis on professional football. To conduct this research, 32 research articles published in 2020 in the list of authoritative publications of the Ministry of Science and Google Scholar database related to the research topic were reviewed. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The results of this analysis indicate 13 categories of effects of this virus in football. These effects were collected in two main categories. The first category includes the negative effects of corona on football, including the effects of corona on players, referees, the right to television broadcasting of clubs and football clubs, and the importance of fans and the impact of empty stadiums on club economies and corona financial losses on football. The next category is the positive effects of the corona virus in football, which also includes the readiness of the clubs, the positive effects of the corona virus on the referees, the environment, the low probability of harm to spectators, innovation, increasing solidarity and entrepreneurship. The study also briefly discusses the effects of the Corona virus on Iranian football.

20.
Int J Environ Health Res ; : 1-12, 2022 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991865

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate mental health problems reported by Turkish amateur football players. A total of 4516 Turkish amateur football players were invited to complete an anonymous online survey including demographic and COVID-19 pandemic related questions, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, General Anxiety Disorder-7 scale, and Athlete Psychological Strain Questionnaire. A total of 1263 players participated in the study (27.9% response rate). Single players reported higher depression and anxiety scores than married players. Higher depression, anxiety, and athletes-specific stress scores were reported by players with an annual income <$5,000 and those reporting an income loss >75% during the COVID-19 pandemic. Players with a sports injury history, psychiatric illness, sleep problems, and perceived inadequate social and/or organizational support reported poorer indices relative to their counterparts. Implementation of mental health screening among amateur football players may assist in detecting vulnerabilities and initiating appropriate timely intervention.

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