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1.
Risk Anal ; 2022 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241589

ABSTRACT

Social media analysis provides an alternate approach to monitoring and understanding risk perceptions regarding COVID-19 over time. Our current understandings of risk perceptions regarding COVID-19 do not disentangle the three dimensions of risk perceptions (perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and negative emotion) as the pandemic has evolved. Data are also limited regarding the impact of social determinants of health (SDOH) on COVID-19-related risk perceptions over time. To address these knowledge gaps, we extracted tweets regarding COVID-19-related risk perceptions and developed indicators for the three dimensions of risk perceptions based on over 502 million geotagged tweets posted by over 4.9 million Twitter users from January 2020 to December 2021 in the United States. We examined correlations between risk perception indicator scores and county-level SDOH. The three dimensions of risk perceptions demonstrate different trajectories. Perceived severity maintained a high level throughout the study period. Perceived susceptibility and negative emotion peaked on March 11, 2020 (COVID-19 declared global pandemic by WHO) and then declined and remained stable at lower levels until increasing once again with the Omicron period. Relative frequency of tweet posts on risk perceptions did not closely follow epidemic trends of COVID-19 (cases, deaths). Users from socioeconomically vulnerable counties showed lower attention to perceived severity and susceptibility of COVID-19 than those from wealthier counties. Examining trends in tweets regarding the multiple dimensions of risk perceptions throughout the COVID-19 pandemic can help policymakers frame in-time, tailored, and appropriate responses to prevent viral spread and encourage preventive behavior uptake in the United States.

2.
J Infect Dis ; 226(Suppl 3): S372-S374, 2022 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240048
3.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 15(2): e008704, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232960
4.
Cureus ; 15(5): e38541, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236936

ABSTRACT

In the United States, one in six children has an intellectual and/or developmental disability (I/DD), including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, cerebral palsy, learning disabilities, seizures, and developmental delays, with or without intellectual impairment. Individuals with I/DDs experience disproportionate rates of immune, metabolic, cardiovascular, and neurological disorders, as well as anxiety, depression, functional somatic symptoms, and other co-occurring physical and mental health conditions. During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, having an I/DD emerged as one of the strongest predictors of contracting and dying from COVID-19. These findings spurred increased attention toward the myriad health inequities affecting this population well before the pandemic. While inequities for individuals with I/DD can be traced to many factors, social determinants of health (SDOH) - the underlying social, economic, and environmental conditions that lead to poor health outcomes and high healthcare costs - are key contributors. Our interdisciplinary combined internal medicine and pediatrics (Med-Peds) team of physicians, psychologists, and researchers within a large, diverse, academic health system aimed to pilot-test the implementation of a five-item SDOH screener within a Med-Peds specialty clinic focused on the developmental needs of individuals with I/DD and their families (Leadership Education in Neurodevelopmental Disabilities {LEND}) and a general primary care practice (PCP). The SDOH screener tested in this initiative includes five items from the Accountable Health Communities (AHC) Health-Related Social Needs Screening Tool (HRSN) assessing social isolation, food insecurity, transportation, and paying for basic needs, such as housing and medical care. In this study, we describe the process of implementing this screener and collecting initial pilot data from 747 patients between October 2022 and April 2023 across the LEND and the primary care practice. We also highlight the challenges and opportunities identified during the mid-way point of implementation and pilot testing. The results of this pilot study revealed low response rates among SDOH screeners, spurring several measures to increase uptake, including increasing the accessibility of the screener and ensuring the screener results in effective referrals. We call on additional Med-Peds healthcare teams without universal SDOH screening protocols in place - particularly those serving the I/DD population - to consider adopting these practices.

5.
Z Gesundh Wiss ; : 1-12, 2023 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236231

ABSTRACT

Aim: The social and economic impacts that have occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic can disproportionally affect those already experiencing poverty or at risk of poverty. Therefore, this study sought to explore the relationship between well-being and social determinants of health among Australian adults during the pandemic. Subject and Methods: Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 20 participants, aged 21-65 years, from various socioeconomic areas. Results: Three main themes emerged from the analysis of the data: food security; housing outcomes; and psychological and emotional impact. Participants in low socioeconomic areas struggled with food security, having to access food banks, which was precipitated by employment loss during the pandemic. Some female participants experienced worsening inequalities and lack of financial and housing stability, affecting their overall well-being. Conclusion: This study identified that there was a clear social divide between adults living in low socioeconomic areas compared with those living in high socioeconomic areas, with participants in low socioeconomic areas faring worse in terms of exacerbated social determinants of health and consequent impacts on well-being.

6.
GeoJournal ; 88(3): 3239-3248, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233247

ABSTRACT

Using data from the Louisiana Department of Public Health, we explored the spatial relationships between the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) and COVID-19-related vaccination and mortality rates. Publicly available COVID-19 vaccination and mortality data accrued from December 2020 to October 2021 was downloaded from the Louisiana Department of Health website and merged with the SVI data; geospatial analysis was then performed to identify the spatial association between the SVI and vaccine uptake and mortality rate. Bivariate Moran's I analysis revealed significant clustering of high SVI ranking with low COVID-19 vaccination rates (1.00, p < 0.001) and high smoothed mortality rates (0.61, p < 0.001). Regression revealed that for each 10% increase in SVI ranking, COVID-19 vaccination rates decreased by 3.02-fold (95% CI = 3.73-2.30), and mortality rates increased by a factor of 1.19 (95% CI = 0.99-1.43). SVI values are spatially linked and significantly associated with Louisiana's COVID-19-related vaccination and mortality rates. We also found that vaccination uptake was higher in whites than in blacks. These findings can help identify regions with low vaccination rates and high mortality, enabling the necessary steps to increase vaccination rates in disadvantaged neighborhoods.

7.
Matern Child Health J ; 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233058

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality is a public health crisis in the U.S., with no improvement in decades and worsening disparities during COVID-19. Social determinants of health (SDoH) shape risk for morbidity and mortality but maternal structural and SDoH are under-researched using population health data. To expand knowledge of those at risk for or who have experienced maternal morbidity and inform clinical, policy, and legislative action, creative use of and leveraging existing population health datasets is logical and needed. METHODS: We review a sample of population health datasets and highlight recommended changes to the datasets or data collection to better inform existing gaps in maternal health research. RESULTS: Across each of the datasets we found insufficient representation of pregnant and postpartum individuals and provide recommendations to enhance these datasets to inform maternal health research. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant and postpartum individuals should be oversampled in population health data to facilitate rapid policy and program evaluation. Postpartum individuals should no longer be hidden within population health datasets. Individuals with pregnancies resulting in outcomes other than livebirth (e.g., abortion, stillbirth, miscarriage) should be included, or asked about these experiences.


SIGNIFICANCE: We review population health datasets and provide recommendations that would enable maternal health researchers to unlock the full potential of these datasets by exploring the influence of structural factors and SDoH on maternal health among under-researched groups.

8.
Value in Health ; 26(6 Supplement):S247, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20244376

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Social determinants of health (SDoH) including income, education, employment, and housing are known to affect health outcomes;while use in real-world database studies are limited. This study assessed socioeconomic differences in burden of disease and utilization of COVID-19 specific medications in a large cohort of patients in the US. Method(s): A total of 17,682,111 patients having a COVID-19 diagnosis between 4/1/2020 and 4/30/2022 were identified in the IQVIA longitudinal medical and pharmacy claims databases of >277 million patients. For SDoH, a 3-digit zip code median Area Deprivation Index (ADI) (v2.0 University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health 2015) was calculated for each patient, maintaining patient privacy. The ADI is a validated tool ranking neighborhoods by socioeconomic disadvantage. Medical and pharmacy utilization was assessed and stratified by ADI pentiles, where 0-20 was the least disadvantaged, and 81-100 was the most disadvantaged. Result(s): The proportion of patients having a claim with COVID-19 diagnosis was higher in the most disadvantaged (7.75%) compared to the least disadvantaged group (5.94%) (US overall: 6.37%). Medical claims prior to COVID-19 diagnosis were highest in the least disadvantaged, while prior pharmacy utilization was highest in the most-disadvantaged group. There was sparse use of COVID-19 medications overall;the least disadvantaged patients had the lowest use of COVID-19 specific medications. Casirivimab/imdevimab use was highest in the 61-80 (2.01%) and 81-100 (1.79%) ADI groups, and remdesivir use was highest in the moderately disadvantaged (ADI 41-60 and 61-80) groups (both 2.33%). Utilization of hydroxychloroquine (unapproved for COVID-19) increased from 0.91% in the least to 2.13% in the most disadvantaged groups. Conclusion(s): This study shows unequal burden of COVID-19 prevalence by SDoH, with the most disadvantaged having a higher disease burden and utilization of certain approved and unapproved COVID-19 medications, highlighting the need for further study of the reasons for these disparities.Copyright © 2023

9.
Value in Health ; 26(6 Supplement):S404-S405, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20243876

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The Covid-19 pandemic highlighted the importance of considering Social Determinants of Health (SDoH) in healthcare research. Administrative claims databases are widely used for research, but often lack SDoH data or sufficient transparency in how these data were obtained. This study describes innovative methods for integrating SDoH data with administrative claims to facilitate health equity research. Method(s): The HealthCore Integrated Research Database (HIRD) contains medical and pharmacy claims from a large, national US payer starting in 2006 and includes commercial (Comm), Medicare Advantage (MCare), and Medicaid (MCaid) populations. The HIRD includes individually identifiable information, which was used for linking with SDoH data from the following sources: national neighborhood-level data from the American Community Survey, the Food Access Research Atlas, and the National Center for Health Statistics' urbanicity classification;and member-level data on race/ethnicity from enrollment files, medical records, self-attestation, and imputation algorithms. We examined SDoH metrics for members enrolled as of 05-July-2022 and compared them to the respective US national data using descriptive statistics. We also examined telehealth utilization in 2022. Result(s): SDoH data were available for ~95% of currently active members in the HIRD (Comm/MCare/MCaid 12.5m/1m/7.6m). Socioeconomic characteristics at the neighborhood-level differed by membership type and vs. national data: % of members with at least a high-school education (90/88/84 vs. 87);median family income ($98k/$76k/$70k vs. $82k);% of members living in low-income low-food-access tracts (9/14/18 vs. 13);urban (57/52/47 vs. 61). At the member-level, the % of White Non-Hispanics, Black Non-Hispanics, Asian Non-Hispanics, and Hispanics were 61/6/5/6 (Comm), 76/12/2/2 (MCare), and 45/26/5/19 (MCaid). Imputation contributed 15-60% of race/ethnicity values across membership types. Telehealth utilization increased with socioeconomic status. Conclusion(s): We successfully integrated SDoH data from a variety of sources with administrative claims. SDoH characteristics differed by type of insurance coverage and were associated with differences in telehealth utilization.Copyright © 2023

10.
Value in Health ; 26(6 Supplement):S248, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20243781

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The objective of this study is to measure the national impact of COVID-19 on cervical cancer screening rates in Colombia in five of its geographic regions to inform future health policy decision making. Method(s): This study utilized a quasi-experimental interrupted time-series design to examine changes in trends for the number of cervical cancer screenings performed in five geographic regions of Colombia. Result(s): In the rural region of Vichada, we found the lowest incidence of cervical cancer screenings, totaling at 3,771 screenings. In Cundinamarca, the region which hosts the capital city, a total of 1,213,048 cervical cancer screenings were performed. The researcher measured the impact on cervical cancer screenings in December 2021 against the counterfactual. This impact was ~269 cases that were not performed in December 2021 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the counterfactual. In Cundinamarca, unlike other regions, we observed a stagnant pre-pandemic trend, a sharp drop in screenings in March 2020, and an immediate upward trend starting in April 2020. In the month of April 2020, compared to the counterfactual, there were 27,359 screenings missed, and by the month of December 2021, there were only 5,633 cervical cancer screenings missed. Conclusion(s): The region of Cundinamarca's sharp climb back to pre-pandemic screening levels could signal the relatively stronger communication system in the region, and especially in the capital district of Bogota, in re-activating the economy. This can serve as an example of what should be implemented in other regions to improve cervical cancer screening rates. Areas for further research include the examination of social determinants of health, such as the breakdown of the type of insurance screened patients hold (public versus private), zone (urban versus rural), insurance providers of those screened, ethnicities of the patients screened, and percentage of screenings that resulted in early detection of cervical cancer.Copyright © 2023

11.
Review of Political Economy ; 35(3):823-862, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20243319

ABSTRACT

Comparative empirical evidence for 22 OECD countries shows that country differences in cumulative mortality impacts of SARS-CoV-2 are caused by weaknesses in public health competences, pre-existing variances in structural socio-economic and public health vulnerabilities, and the presence of fiscal constraints. Remarkably, the (fiscally non-constrained) U.S. and the U.K. stand out, as they experience mortality outcomes similar to those of fiscally-constrained countries. High COVID19 mortality in the U.S. and the U.K. is due to pre-existing socio-economic and public health vulnerabilities, created by the following macroeconomic policy errors: (a) a deadly emphasis on fiscal austerity (which diminished public health capacities, damaged public health and deepened inequalities);(b) an obsessive belief in a trade-off between ‘efficiency' and ‘equity', which is mostly used to justify extreme inequality;(c) a complicit endorsement by mainstream macro of the unchecked power over monetary and fiscal policy-making of global finance and the rentier class;and (d) an unhealthy aversion to raising taxes, which deceives the public about the necessity to raise taxes to counter the excessive liquidity preference of the rentiers and to realign the interests of finance and of the real economy. The paper concludes by outlining a few lessons for a saner macroeconomics.

12.
Revista Cubana de Medicina Militar ; 52(1), 2023.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20242430

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has had effects on the health of health workers, including obstetricians, but the consequences in this occupational group are unknown. Objective: Determine the consequences of COVID-19 on the physical, psychological and social health of obstetricians in Peru. Methods: Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study, carried out on 511 attending obstetricians, in the first line of care. An online questionnaire, previously validated and reliable, was applied to measure the variables: general characteristics and exposure to COVID-19, physical health, psychological health, and social health. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: 468 (91.6%) obstetricians are women, 287 (56.2%) aged 40-59 years, 213 (41.7%) married, 292 (57.1%) working at the first level of care;216 (42.3%) were infected with COVID-19, 165 (32.3%) had headache, 127 (24.9%) sore throat and 121 (23.7%) fatigue;167 (77.3%) required outpatient treatment and 3 (1.3%) intensive care. Obesity reported by 102 (20.0%) obstetricians was the main comorbidity, followed by hypertension with 38 (7.4%) and diabetes with 14 (2.7%);263 (51.5%) reported depressive symptoms and 464 (90.8%) stress;238 (46.6%) felt discrimination and 118 (23.1%) carried the workload of the home alone. Conclusions: The physical, psychological and social health of obstetricians is affected by the pandemic;generates disorders of overweight/obesity, depression, stress;as well as discrimination and work overload at home. © 2023, Editorial Ciencias Medicas. All rights reserved.

13.
Obstetrics & Gynecology ; 141(5):36S-36S, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-20240424

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has brought renewed public attention to food insecurity and other social determinants of health. According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), food insecurity affects 10.5% of households nationwide. Our study sought to determine the prevalence of food insecurity at the University of Louisville and the effect that implementing food pantry amenities within the clinic has on pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: Institutional review board approval was obtained. We screened pregnant women presenting to our outpatient clinic for prenatal care each trimester. Food security was determined using a modified version of the USDA Adult Food Security Survey over the past 12 months. Women that were determined to be food insecure were provided access to food pantry amenities at each prenatal visit. Screening data were entered in REDCap, then exported into Stata for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Survey data demonstrated that 38% of our patients screened positive for food insecurity. As a result, a total of 5,829 lb of food have been distributed. Secondary outcomes including prenatal care adherence rates, weight gain during pregnancy, pregnancy complications, and birth outcomes will be displayed graphically. CONCLUSION: Rates of food insecurity in our clinic population were three times higher compared to the national average. Formal screening allows providers to better identify families experiencing food insecurity and connect them to food pantry amenities. Importantly, our initiative can serve as a guide for other institutions considering food security interventions. Implementing food pantries in academic institutions nationwide will enhance and inform these innovations to target at-risk populations and provide health equity. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Obstetrics & Gynecology is the property of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

14.
Journal of Public Health in Africa ; 14(S2) (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20239380

ABSTRACT

Background. Surveys on Public Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (PKAP) have been conducted in various countries with respondents from the public as well as health workers. Measuring the knowledge of the public about COVID-19 is very important to determine the knowledge gap among the public and also as an evaluation of the preventive efforts for COVID-19. Objective. The purpose of this research was to determine whether education level is a factor that affects one's literacy about COVID-19. Materials and Methods. This is cross-sectional research with online-based data collection using the Kobo toolbox application. The data collection was carried out from the 19th of April until the 2nd of May 2020. The number of people under study is 792. The level of knowledge was measured using 12 research questions with true or false question types. the multivariable logistic regression was carried out. Results. Most of the respondents (52.5%) were in the young age group (15-35 years old), were male (57.3%), and had a bache-lor or diploma education level (62.1%). Furthermore, most of the respondents had good knowledge (65.4%). The higher the respon-dents' educational level means, the better knowledge they had concerning COVID-19 (P=0.013). Conclusions. Public knowledge about COVID-19 is affected by their level of education. A good level of knowledge about COVID-19 was found among respondents with master's and doctoral degrees. This finding can contribute to the prevention of COVID-19, in which the priority of educating communities about COVID-19 should be given to those having an educational level below a master's degree.Copyright © the Author(s), 2023.

15.
HemaSphere ; 7(Supplement 1):25, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20239282

ABSTRACT

Background: According to national prevalence data, SCD has an estimated economic burden of $2.98 billion per year in the United States and caring for a child with sickle cell disease (SCD) carries its own financial burden, resulting in higher healthcare costs and unintended days lost from employment. Social experiences are known to impact health outcomes in the general pediatric population. These experiences can be examined through the construct of social determinants of health (SDOH), the "condition in which people are born, grow, work, live and age" that impact their health. Since the WHO has designated COVID-19 a pandemic in January 2020, many families in the US have suffered financially, and during the shutdowns, there was a record number of jobs lost. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on financial and employment status of SCD Families Methods: This study was part of the larger CNH Sickle Cell Disease Social Determinants of Health study that was IRB approved. Caregivers of children with SCD completed a 30-question survey reporting their experiences with SDOH that included Demographics, USDA Food Security Scale, the We Care housing screening tool, and the validated COVID-19 Employment Status/COVID-19 related household finances survey in RedCap during clinic visits and hospitalizations Results: 99 caregivers of SCD patients responded to our survey (82.5% Female, 17.5% Male) (N=97). 93.9% identified as African-American, 3% identified as Hispanic or Latinx, 1% identified as "other". Of respondents, 66% were insured through on Medicaid and 33% had private insurance. Twenty-six percent endorsed food insecurity and 2724% relied on low-cost food. Thirty-one percent lived in an apartment, 67.768% lived in a home, 1% lived in shelter or transitional housing. Sixteen percent lived in subsidized or public housing. Thirty-seven (36.8%) percent reported at least once they were being unable to pay the mortgage or rent on time at least once, 9% (8.5%) reported living with other people because of financial difficulties, 55.2% reported their home not being heated, 7.2% reported being evicted from their home and 3.1% lived in an emergency shelter or transitional housing. 6.1% had an educational level of high school graduation or less, 42.2% were college graduates or completed additional post-graduate education (N=98). Two weeks prior to the pandemic, 61.5% worked full time, 13.5% worked part time, 6.3% were unemployed with only 2.1% working from home of the 96 caregivers who responded to this question. 15.5% (N=12 of 77) reported losing their job or were furloughed during the pandemic;34.4% (N=33 of 96) reporting at least one household member losing a job or a significant amount of income. Twenty-five percent (N=21 of 83) reported it was difficult to get work/school done because of the home environment. 36.4 % (N=35 of 96) reported household income was significantly less since February 2020. 53% (N=52 of 97) worried their household income has been or will be negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, 48.9% (N=47 of 96) worried the value of their assets (housing, savings, other financial assets) has been or will be negatively impacted by COVID-19 and its effects. Since February 2020, 9.8% (N= 9 of 97) received unemployment insurance, 30.9% (N=29 of 94) received SNAP or food stamps, 16.5% (N= 15 of 91) received from the food pantry, 6.6% (N=6 of 90) applied for temp ass.

16.
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina ; 84(1):70-75, 2023.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20238837

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Faced with the pandemic produced by SARS-CoV-2, the Peruvian government implemented several measures such as the temporary closure of primary care facilities and the health system implemented various policies and strategies;one of them was to create and implement the Drug Delivery System for Chronic Patients (SIENMECRO) project. Background: To describe the creation and implementation process of SIENMECRO project. Methods: Qualitative case study that involved reviewing existing documentation such as texts and videos and conducting in-depth interviews with officials and collaborators involved since the preparation of SIENMECRO proposal. Results: SIENMECRO project emerges as a positive initiative with the aspiration of promoting an integrated health system that addresses the health reality from the social determinants of health, due to patients' difficulties to go to their controls and to receive their treatment. Although there was no comprehensive plan for the implementation and control of the project, it was essential to cover the need for health care for a vulnerable segment of the population, avoiding their transfer and preserving the health of the people most likely to suffer complications from COVID-19 infection. Conclusions: It is an initiative where the health system takes a more proactive role for the benefit of the population, implementing the use of technology of the information and communication in health care, articulating with the various providers and bringing services closer to the most vulnerable citizens.

17.
American Journal of Public Health ; 113(6):631-633, 2023.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-20236642

ABSTRACT

The article discusses a study from Gaffney and colleagues, published within the issue which provides evidence for the fundamental role that workplace transmission played in differences in the risk of COVID-19 infection. Topics include the impact of occupational transmission of COVID-19;reasons for the denial on the role of work in the risk of disease, injury and death;and means by which work as a fundamental determinant of health can be targeted.

18.
ERS Monograph ; 2023(99):167-179, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20236503

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance is caused by and exacerbates social and health inequalities. Human and animal antimicrobial use is contributing as much as societal failures to dispose of and manage our waste and respect our environment. A multisector, multidisciplinary approach is required to resolve these issues.Copyright © ERS 2023.

19.
Psychology & Sexuality ; 14(2):432-444, 2023.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-20235026

ABSTRACT

Transgender and gender diverse (TGD) individuals experience high levels of minority stress, as well as a high prevalence of suicidality and self-harm. The current study investigates if emotion regulation mediates the relationships of minority stressors with self-harm and suicidality. TGD adult primary care patients (N = 115) completed a survey including measures of minority stressors, emotion dysregulation, self-harm, and suicidality. Emotion regulation mediated the relationship between victimisation and suicidality. Emotion regulation did not mediate the relationship between victimisation and self-harm. TGD individuals' suicide risk may be increased when they experience victimisation through increased emotion dysregulation.

20.
The International Migration Review ; 57(2):521-556, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20232143

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic has extracted a substantial toll on immigrant communities in the United States, due in part to increased potential risk of exposure for immigrants to COVID-19 in the workplace. In this article, we use federal guidance on which industries in the United States were designated essential during the COVID-19 pandemic, information about the ability to work remotely, and data from the 2019 American Community Survey to estimate the distribution of essential frontline workers by nativity and immigrant legal status. Central to our analysis is a proxy measure of working in the primary or secondary sector of the segmented labor market. Our results indicate that a larger proportion of foreign-born workers are essential frontline workers compared to native-born workers and that 70 percent of unauthorized immigrant workers are essential frontline workers. Disparities in essential frontline worker status are most pronounced for unauthorized immigrant workers and native-born workers in the secondary sector of the labor market. These results suggest that larger proportions of foreign-born workers, and especially unauthorized immigrant workers, face greater risk of potential exposure to COVID-19 in the workplace than native-born workers. Social determinants of health such as lack of access to health insurance and living in overcrowded housing indicate that unauthorized immigrant essential frontline workers may be more vulnerable to poor health outcomes related to COVID-19 than other groups of essential frontline workers. These findings help to provide a plausible explanation for why COVID-19 mortality rates for immigrants are higher than mortality rates for native-born residents.

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