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1.
Amer. J. Biol. Anthropol. ; : 36, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1798030

ABSTRACT

Biological anthropologists are ideally suited for the study of pandemics given their strengths in human biology, health, culture, and behavior, yet pandemics have historically not been a major focus of research. The COVID-19 pandemic has reinforced the need to understand pandemic causes and unequal consequences at multiple levels. Insights from past pandemics can strengthen the knowledge base and inform the study of current and future pandemics through an anthropological lens. In this paper, we discuss the distinctive social and epidemiological features of pandemics, as well as the ways in which biological anthropologists have previously studied infectious diseases, epidemics, and pandemics. We then review interdisciplinary research on three pandemics-1918 influenza, 2009 influenza, and COVID-19-focusing on persistent social inequalities in morbidity and mortality related to sex and gender;race, ethnicity, and Indigeneity;and pre-existing health and disability. Following this review of the current state of pandemic research on these topics, we conclude with a discussion of ways biological anthropologists can contribute to this field moving forward. Biological anthropologists can add rich historical and cross-cultural depth to the study of pandemics, provide insights into the biosocial complexities of pandemics using the theory of syndemics, investigate the social and health impacts of stress and stigma, and address important methodological and ethical issues. As COVID-19 is unlikely to be the last global pandemic, stronger involvement of biological anthropology in pandemic studies and public health policy and research is vital.

2.
Preventive Medicine ; : 107056, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1796002

ABSTRACT

Teenagers' vaccination has become crucial to limit the COVID-19 transmission in the population. To increase the vaccination rate of this age group, a school-based vaccination campaign was launched in Québec, Canada from June 7 to 18, 2021. This study aimed to analyze trajectories of vaccination coverage over time among students attending 37 high schools. The study explored whether school-based vaccination campaigns contributed to the progression of the vaccination coverage and attenuated disparities in vaccination coverage across schools. On average, first dose coverage quickly increased from 30.6% to 81.5% between June 6 and 18, 2021, after the launch of the campaign. As of August 13, 2021, first dose coverage had reached 87.9% and 64.9% for the second dose coverage. Public schools with poorer student populations had 6.5 points of percentage lower first dose vaccination rates (95%CI 0.3%;12.6%) compared to other schools. A higher level of concern related to the pandemic among students was associated with a 4.3 points of percentage increased coverage (95%CI 0.7%;8.0%). The initial uneven distribution in first dose coverage decreased dramatically by the end of the campaign. Similar trends were observed for the second dose, although between schools' inequality at the end of the period of observation was significantly larger. The school-based vaccination campaign might have initially contributed to a prompt rise in vaccination coverage and helped the disadvantaged schools to reach similar vaccination coverage as seen in other schools. In addition to being an efficient way to achieve rapidly high vaccination coverage, the school-based approach might contribute to increase equity in vaccination distribution.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 749, 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793961

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence continues to demonstrate that certain marginalised populations are disproportionately affected by COVID-19. While many studies document the impacts of COVID-19 on social inequalities in health, none has examined how public health responses to the pandemic have unfolded to address these inequities in Canada. The purpose of our study was to assess how social inequalities in health were considered in the design and planning of large-scale COVID-19 testing programs in Montréal (Québec, Canada). METHODS: Part of the multicountry study HoSPiCOVID, this article reports on a qualitative case study of large-scale testing for COVID-19 in Montréal. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 19 stakeholders involved in planning large-scale testing or working with vulnerable populations during the pandemic. We developed interview guides and a codebook using existing literature on policy design and planning, and analysed data deductively and inductively using thematic analysis in NVivo. RESULTS: Our findings suggest that large-scale COVID-19 testing in Montréal did not initially consider social inequalities in health in its design and planning phases. Considering the sense of urgency brought by the pandemic, participants noted the challenges linked to the uptake of an intersectoral approach and of a unified vision of social inequalities in health. However, adaptations were gradually made to large-scale testing to improve its accessibility, acceptability, and availability. Actors from the community sector, among others, played an important role in supporting the health sector to address the needs of specific subgroups of the population. CONCLUSIONS: These findings contribute to the reflections on the lessons learned from COVID-19, highlighting that public health programs must tackle structural barriers to accessing healthcare services during health crises. This will be necessary to ensure that pandemic preparedness and response, including large-scale testing, do not further increase social inequalities in health.

4.
Rural Remote Health ; 22(2): 6658, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786553

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Evidence on the association of socioeconomic deprivation with occurrence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is available from international studies and urban settings in western Germany. This study aimed to assess this association based on small geographical areas in a rural setting in eastern Germany. METHODS: This study used routine data of all patients with AMI who were treated in the Hospital Brandenburg in the city of Brandenburg, Germany, between May 2019 and May 2020. Hospitalisation rates of AMI were calculated for postal code regions that were located within the catchment area of the Hospital Brandenburg. Poisson regression was used to compare hospitalisation rates in areas with medium socioeconomic deprivation to areas with high deprivation, controlling for age group, sex and period (before or during COVID-19 pandemic). Publicly available social, infrastructure and healthcare-related features were mapped to characterise the study region. RESULTS: In total, 265 cases of AMI were registered in the study area, which comprised 116,126 inhabitants. The city of Brandenburg was characterised by the highest level of socioeconomic deprivation, while neighbouring areas showed a rural settlement structure and medium levels of deprivation. The number of general practitioners per 10 000 inhabitants did not differ between both areas. The adjusted rate ratio comparing hospitalisations due to AMI in areas with medium socioeconomic deprivation to areas with high socioeconomic deprivation was 0.71 (95%CI 0.56-0.91, p=0.01). CONCLUSION: This study adds evidence about the association of socioeconomic deprivation and AMI occurrence from a rural area in eastern Germany. Further research about the relationship of socioeconomic deprivation and cardiovascular health is needed from heterogeneous contexts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Germany/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pandemics , Socioeconomic Factors
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 820270, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776014

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic disproportionately affected young people aged 16-25 years and has brought about a major increase in mental health problems. Although there is persisting evidence regarding SES differences in mental health status, there is still little knowledge of the processes linking SES to young people's mental health, in particular during the current pandemic. Guided by a stress process model this study examines the role of different psychosocial resource factors in mitigating the vulnerability to mental distress among disadvantaged young people and specifies a range of possible mediating pathways. The research draws on a nationally representative longitudinal sample of 16-25 year-olds who participated in the Youth Economic Activity and Health (YEAH) online survey conducted in the UK between February and October 2021. Mental health was measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist for anxiety and depression. Socio-economic disadvantage was indicated by parental education and receipt of free school meals. Experience of stress was indicated by financial strain. Psychosocial resource factors included indicators of optimism, self-efficacy, and social support. We controlled for age, gender, living arrangements, and economic activity of the young person (being in education, employment or NEET). The findings suggest sequential mediating processes where SES influences are partially mediated via financial strain and the psychosocial resource factors. In addition, the psychosocial resource factors showed independent effects supporting mental health in the face of socio-economic adversity. Moreover, social support played a significant role in boosting self-efficacy and optimism, which in turn reduce mental distress. The findings highlighting the importance of specifying the assumed mediating processes, and to consider multiple resource factors instead of single aspects to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the processes linking SES to young people's mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Social Support , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
6.
Preventing Chronic Disease ; 18(8), 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1771673

ABSTRACT

This study created a map to visualise the community-level distribution of household internet access and COVID-19 vaccination in New York City. To facilitate equitable and efficient COVID-19 vaccine uptake in New York City, public health officials should establish appointment-free vaccination sites, work with other agencies and organizations to advocate for legal and policy approaches that increase internet access, and increase access to in-person and telephone-based services that provide assistance with vaccine appointment scheduling, especially in zip codes with low rates of internet access. Because most disparities in internet access and vaccination were in zip codes in the Bronx and Brooklyn, appropriate partners for public health officials in these areas include the offices of the borough president, the borough-based New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene Neighborhood Health Action Centers, and borough-wide community-based organisations. After this writing, home-based vaccination, appointment-free walk-up vaccination sites, mobile vaccination sites, and pop-up vaccination sites were established. COVID-19 vaccination was significantly associated with household internet access in New York City at the zip code level. Although this association neither implies nor precludes causation, and does not control for possible confounders, it is consistent with the hypothesis that lack of internet access is a barrier to vaccination. Disparities in internet access exist across multiple socioeconomic dimensions and disproportionately affect low-income neighborhoods. More generally, they recommend that bivariate mapping be considered when selecting methods for comparing geographic distributions of health determinants and health outcomes.

7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765725

ABSTRACT

Meaningful inclusion of young people's perceptions and experiences of inequalities is argued to be critical in the development of pro-equity policies. Our study explored young people's perceptions of what influences their opportunities to be healthy within their local area and their understandings of health inequalities. Three interlinked qualitative focus group discussions, each lasting 90 to 100 min, with the same six groups of young people (n = 42) aged 13-21, were conducted between February and June 2021. Participants were recruited from six youth groups in areas of high deprivation across three geographical locations in England (South Yorkshire, the North East and London). Our study demonstrates that young people understand that health inequalities are generated by social determinants of health, which in turn influence behaviours. They highlight a complex interweaving of pathways between social determinants and health outcomes. However, they do not tend to think in terms of the social determinants and their distribution as resulting from the power and influence of those who create and benefit from health and social inequalities. An informed understanding of the causes of health inequalities, influenced by their own unique generational experiences, is important to help young people contribute to the development of pro-equity policies of the future.

8.
Saúde Soc ; 31(1): e210367, 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1760034

ABSTRACT

Resumo Sindemia é o termo utilizado para designar como interações biológicas e sociais influenciam no comportamento de uma determinada doença. A retomada das atividades escolares presenciais em meio à sindemia de covid-19 suscita controvérsias. Os defensores alegam que o retorno presencial mitigaria vulnerabilidades sociais, sanitárias e educacionais, enquanto os críticos afirmam que tal decisão contribuiria para a disseminação do vírus. O presente estudo analisa a dinâmica das internações e mortes por covid-19 entre estudantes da educação básica mediante a retomada das atividades escolares presenciais no município de São Paulo. Ademais, procura desvelar se a incidência de infecção por Sars-Cov-2 entre profissionais da educação teria relação com a qualidade socioterritorial que circunscreve as unidades de ensino básico (UE). As análises foram realizadas utilizando base de dados de instituições públicas paulistas. A retomada das atividades presenciais coincidiu com o aumento de internações e óbitos por covid-19 entre estudantes. O pico ocorreu 15 dias após o início das aulas. As UE inseridas em territórios com menores índices de desenvolvimento humano (IDH) registraram as maiores taxas de infecção por Sars-Cov-2. Retomar as aulas presenciais sem diminuir os riscos de contaminação parece ameaçar principalmente os indivíduos de territórios vulneráveis.


Abstract The term syndemic has been used to designate how biological and social interactions influence the behavior of a particular disease. The resumption of face-to-face school activities amidst the covid-19 syndemic sparks considerable controversy: while supporters claim that returning to school would mitigate social, health, and educational vulnerabilities, critics say that such a decision would help to spread the virus. In this scenario, this study analyzes the dynamics of hospital admissions and deaths related to covid-19 among elementary students in terms of the resumption of face-to-face school activities in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Moreover, it also investigates the association between the incidence of covid-19 among education professionals and the socio-spacial properties in which the based education units (UEs) are located. The analyses were conducted with data from the public institutions of São Paulo. The results indicate that in-person activities resumption coincided with an increase in admissions and deaths from covid-19 among students, peaking 15 days after the beginning of the classes. UEs located in territories with lower human development indices registered the highest SARS-Cov-2 infection rates. Thus, resuming in-person classes without mitigating contamination risks poses a threat for the population, especially for those from vulnerable territories.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Socioeconomic Factors , Students , Education , Syndemic , COVID-19
9.
Data ; 7(2):11, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1760424

ABSTRACT

Area-based socio-economic indicators, such as the Canadian Index of Multiple Deprivation (CIMD), have been used in equity analyses to inform strategies to improve needs-based, timely, and effective patient care and public health services to communities. The CIMD comprises four dimensions of deprivation: residential instability, economic dependency, ethno-cultural composition, and situational vulnerability. Using the CIMD methodology, the British Columbia Index of Multiple Deprivation (BCIMD) was developed to create indexes at the Community Health Services Area (CHSA) level in British Columbia (BC). BCIMD indexes are reported by quintiles, where quintile 1 represents the least deprived (or ethno-culturally diverse), and quintile 5 is the most deprived (or diverse). Distinctive characteristics of a community can be captured using the BCIMD, where a given CHSA may have a high level of deprivation in one dimension and a low level of deprivation in another. The utility of this data as a surveillance tool to monitor population demography has been used to inform decision making in healthcare by stakeholders in the regional health authorities and governmental agencies. The data have also been linked to health care data, such as COVID-19 case incidence and vaccination coverage, to understand the epidemiology of disease burden through an equity lens. Dataset:http://www.bccdc.ca/Our-Services-Site/Documents/BCIMD%20CHSA%202016%20PCA%20Scores.xlsx (accessed on 15 January 2022). Dataset License: CC0.

10.
Public Health Nutr ; 25(4): 1038-1044, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758082

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Food insecurity (FI) affects approximately 11·1 % of US households and is related to worsened infant outcomes. Evidence in lower income countries links FI and infant mortality rates (IMR), but there are limited data in the USA. This study examines the relationship between FI and IMR in North Carolina (NC). DESIGN: NC county-level health data were used from the 2019 Robert Woods Johnson Foundation County Health Rankings. The dependent variable was county-level IMR. Eighteen county-level independent variables were selected and a multivariable linear regression was performed. The independent variable, FI, was based on the United States Department of Agriculture's Food Security Supplement to the Current Population Survey. SETTING: NC counties. PARTICIPANTS: Residents of NC, county-level data. RESULTS: The mean NC county-level IMR was 7·9 per 1000 live births compared with 5·8 nationally. The average percentage of county population reporting FI was 15·4 % in the state v. 11·8 % nationally. Three variables statistically significantly predicted county IMR: percent of county population reporting FI; county population and percent population with diabetes (P values, respectively, < 0·04; < 0·05; < 0·03). These variables explained 42·4 % of the variance of county-level IMR. With the largest standardised coefficient (0·247), FI was the strongest predictor of IMR. CONCLUSIONS: FI, low birth weight and diabetes are positively correlated with infant mortality. While correlation is not causation, addressing FI as part of multifaceted social determinants of health might improve county-level IMR in NC.


Subject(s)
Income , Infant Mortality , Family Characteristics , Food Insecurity , Humans , Infant , North Carolina/epidemiology , United States
11.
Working Papers - Economic Research Southern Africa|2021. (852):34 pp. 35 ref. ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1755692

ABSTRACT

The 1918 influenza - the Spanish flu - killed an estimated 6% of South Africans. Not all were equally affected. Mortality rates were particularly high in districts with a large share of black and coloured residents. To investigate why this happened, we transcribed 39,482 death certificates from the Cape Province. Using a novel indicator - whether a doctor's name appears on the death certificate - we argue that the unequal health outcomes were a consequence of unequal access to healthcare. Our results show that the racial inequalities in health outcomes that existed before October 1918 were exacerbated during the pandemic. Access to healthcare, as we expected, worsened for black and coloured residents of the Cape Province. Unexpectedly, however, we found that other inequalities were unchanged, or even reversed, notably age, occupation and location. Living in the city, for instance, became a health hazard rather than a benefit during the pandemic. These surprising results contradict the general assumption that all forms of inequality are exacerbated during a crisis. Our analyses suggest explanations for the widening racial gap in healthcare access during the 1918 pandemic, from both the demand and the supply side. We could find, however, no evidence of racial prejudice. Our findings confirm the importance of taking race into account in studying the effects of the 2020 Covid-19 pandemic or other world crises.

12.
Bioethics ; 36(3): 252-259, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731097

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we take up the call to further examine structural injustice in health, and racial inequalities in particular. We examine the many facets of racism: structural, interpersonal and institutional as they appeared in the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK, and emphasize the relevance of their systemic character. We suggest that such inequalities were entirely foreseeable, for their causal mechanisms are deeply ingrained in our social structures. It is by recognizing the conventional, un-extraordinary nature of racism within social systems that we can begin to address socially mediated health inequalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Racism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Pandemics , Social Justice
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(12)2020 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725661

ABSTRACT

In the past century, dramatic shifts in demographics, globalization and urbanization have facilitated the rapid spread and transmission of infectious diseases across continents and countries. In a matter of weeks, the 2019 coronavirus pandemic devastated communities worldwide and reinforced the human perception of frailty and mortality. Even though the end of this pandemic story has yet to unfold, there is one parallel that is undeniable when a comparison is drawn between the 2019 coronavirus and the 1918 influenza pandemics. The public health response to disease outbreaks has remained nearly unchanged in the last 101 years. Furthermore, the role of environments and human behaviors on the effect and response to the coronavirus pandemic has brought to light many of the historic and contemporaneous inequalities and injustices that plague the United States. Through a reflection of these pandemic experiences, the American burden of disparity and disproportionality on morbidity, mortality and overall social determinants of health has been examined. Finally, a reimagination of a post-coronavirus existence has also been presented along with a discussion of possible solutions and considerations for moving forward to a new and better normal.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus , Health Behavior , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Determinants of Health , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Environment , Female , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
14.
Can J Public Health ; 113(1): 147-154, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1727043

ABSTRACT

There is no longer any doubt that exposure to the tsunami of health information which is sometimes evidence-based and sometimes unfounded and even misleading, is a public health issue. The term infodemic is used to describe this phenomenon. Research conducted over the past two decades has provided a measure of the extent of information overload and of the quality of information to which populations are exposed. Selected harmful effects have also been observed. It is urgent to mobilize and structure public health systems by involving all the required expertise to combat health misinformation and better manage the infodemic. Towards this end, we are launching a call for critical thinking around three themes: the infosphere as a social determinant of health, the development of skills in infodemiology, and finally, the development, cocreation, and evaluation of consequential interventions to better manage the infodemic and combat disinformation. We believe that lessons learned collectively from the successful integration of infoveillance, infodemiology, and consequential intervention research in our public health systems will serve to better address issues emerging from infodemics.


RéSUMé: Il ne fait désormais aucun doute que l'exposition au raz-de-marée d'informations en santé tantôt fondées sur les données probantes, tantôt sans fondement et même fallacieuses est un enjeu de santé publique. Le vocable infodémie est utilisé pour désigner ces phénomènes. Les études menées depuis deux décennies ont permis de mesurer l'ampleur de la surcharge d'informations et la qualité des informations auxquelles sont exposées les populations. Certains effets néfastes ont aussi été documentés. Il apparaît urgent de mobiliser et structurer les systèmes de santé publique en mobilisant toutes les expertises nécessaires à la lutte contre la désinformation en santé et la gestion de l'infodémie. Pour cela, nous lançons un appel à la réflexion autour de trois axes soit, l'infosphère comme un déterminant social de la santé, le développement de compétences en infodémiologie et finalement, le développement, la cocréation et l'évaluation d'interventions conséquentes pour mieux gérer l'infodémie et lutter contre la désinformation. Nous pensons que les leçons tirées collectivement d'une intégration réussie de l'infosurveillance, de l'infodémiologie et d'une recherche interventionnelle conséquente dans nos systèmes de santé publique serviront à mieux aborder les enjeux associés à l'infodémie.

15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(5): 785-792, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709190

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Mexico City has been sharp, as several social inequalities at all levels coexist. Here we conducted an in-depth evaluation of the impact of individual and municipal-level social inequalities on the COVID-19 pandemic in Mexico City. METHODS: We analyzed suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) cases, from the Mexico City Epidemiological Surveillance System from 24 February 2020 to 31 March 2021. COVID-19 outcomes included rates of hospitalization, severe COVID-19, invasive mechanical ventilation, and mortality. We evaluated socioeconomic occupation as an individual risk, and social lag, which captures municipal-level social vulnerability, and urban population density as proxies of structural risk factors. Impact of reductions in vehicular mobility on COVID-19 rates and the influence of risk factors were also assessed. Finally, we assessed discrepancies in COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 excess mortality using death certificates from the general civil registry. RESULTS: We detected vulnerable groups who belonged to economically unfavored sectors and experienced increased risk of COVID-19 outcomes. Cases living in marginalized municipalities with high population density experienced greater risk for COVID-19 outcomes. Additionally, policies to reduce vehicular mobility had differential impacts modified by social lag and urban population density. Finally, we report an under-registry of COVID-19 deaths along with an excess mortality closely related to marginalized and densely populated communities in an ambulatory setting. This could be attributable to a negative impact of modified hospital admission criteria during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic occupation and municipality-wide factors played a significant role in shaping the course of the COVID-19 pandemic in Mexico City.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Policy Insights Behav Brain Sci ; 9(1): 81-89, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704919

ABSTRACT

Incidents of prejudice and discrimination in K-12 schools have increased over the past decade around the world, including the U.S. In 2018, more than two-thirds of the 2,776 U.S. educators surveyed reported witnessing a hate or bias incident in their school. Children and adolescents who experience prejudice, social exclusion and discrimination are subject to compromised well-being and low academic achievement. Few educators feel prepared to incorporate this topic into the education curriculum. Given the long-term harm related to experiencing social exclusion and discrimination, school districts need to create positive school environments and directly address prejudice and bias. Several factors are currently undermining progress in this area. First, national debates in the U.S. and other countries has politicized the topic of creating fair and just school environments. Second, the Covid pandemic has interrupted children's and adolescents' education by halting academic progress which has particularly negatively affected students from marginalized and ethnic/racial minority backgrounds. Third, teachers have experienced significant stress during Covid-19 with an increase in anxiety around virtual instruction and communication with parents. Three strategies recommended to address these converging problems include creating inclusive and non-discriminatory policies for schools, promoting opportunities for intergroup contact and mutual respect, and implementing evidence-based, developmentally appropriate education programs designed to reduce prejudice, increase ethnic and racial identity, and promote equity, fairness and justice in school environments.

17.
14th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance, ICEGOV 2021 ; : 450-454, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1648998

ABSTRACT

The article aims to cast light on how digital governance tools, such as proofs of vaccination, would impact European freedoms during unstable Covid-19 times. Considering the EU approach to proofs of vaccinations, the e-Health network established trust framework and EU proposal for the "Digital Green Certificate"("DGC"), the article scrutinizes some of already implemented proof of vaccination solutions in the EU. The analysis investigates whether and to what extent this initiative would be adequate to cope with the manifold challenges in managing Covid-19 pandemic. While digital governance tools can significantly improve crisis management, such tools can also affect the rights and freedoms of individuals and communities by exasperating already existing social, political, and economic inequalities. By taking an in-depth look at the existing proof of vaccination solutions in the EU, the article sheds light on how the same digital government proposed solution, the DGC, affect individuals and communities. © 2021 ACM.

18.
Saúde Soc ; 31(1): e210367, 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1674114

ABSTRACT

Resumo Sindemia é o termo utilizado para designar como interações biológicas e sociais influenciam no comportamento de uma determinada doença. A retomada das atividades escolares presenciais em meio à sindemia de covid-19 suscita controvérsias. Os defensores alegam que o retorno presencial mitigaria vulnerabilidades sociais, sanitárias e educacionais, enquanto os críticos afirmam que tal decisão contribuiria para a disseminação do vírus. O presente estudo analisa a dinâmica das internações e mortes por covid-19 entre estudantes da educação básica mediante a retomada das atividades escolares presenciais no município de São Paulo. Ademais, procura desvelar se a incidência de infecção por Sars-Cov-2 entre profissionais da educação teria relação com a qualidade socioterritorial que circunscreve as unidades de ensino básico (UE). As análises foram realizadas utilizando base de dados de instituições públicas paulistas. A retomada das atividades presenciais coincidiu com o aumento de internações e óbitos por covid-19 entre estudantes. O pico ocorreu 15 dias após o início das aulas. As UE inseridas em territórios com menores índices de desenvolvimento humano (IDH) registraram as maiores taxas de infecção por Sars-Cov-2. Retomar as aulas presenciais sem diminuir os riscos de contaminação parece ameaçar principalmente os indivíduos de territórios vulneráveis.


Abstract The term syndemic has been used to designate how biological and social interactions influence the behavior of a particular disease. The resumption of face-to-face school activities amidst the covid-19 syndemic sparks considerable controversy: while supporters claim that returning to school would mitigate social, health, and educational vulnerabilities, critics say that such a decision would help to spread the virus. In this scenario, this study analyzes the dynamics of hospital admissions and deaths related to covid-19 among elementary students in terms of the resumption of face-to-face school activities in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Moreover, it also investigates the association between the incidence of covid-19 among education professionals and the socio-spacial properties in which the based education units (UEs) are located. The analyses were conducted with data from the public institutions of São Paulo. The results indicate that in-person activities resumption coincided with an increase in admissions and deaths from covid-19 among students, peaking 15 days after the beginning of the classes. UEs located in territories with lower human development indices registered the highest SARS-Cov-2 infection rates. Thus, resuming in-person classes without mitigating contamination risks poses a threat for the population, especially for those from vulnerable territories.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Socioeconomic Factors , Students , Education , Syndemic , COVID-19
19.
3rd International Conference on Quantitative Ethnography, ICQE 2021 ; 1522 CCIS:298-317, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1669746

ABSTRACT

Challenges that arise during a time of crisis, as the current COVID-19 pandemic, are a basis for recognizing how different governments handle the governance of units such as schools and issues related to democracy and social inequality. By paying attention to similar or contrasting issues in the political welfare states’ characteristics and organization, the crisis's impact on different countries can be identified and can provide learning examples beyond the study's phenomena. Although Brazil and Sweden are historically and culturally diverse countries, they also share similarities in being politicized by global trends such as neoliberalism. The paper examines the two governments’ discourses and how centralization, decentralization, and neoliberalism and the resulting shift to privatized public services can form a basis for understanding declines in democracy and social inequality in education in both countries. The following research question guides the work, how are democracy and social inequality expounded in Brazil’s and Sweden’s way of organizing education during the COVID-19 pandemic? To investigate how democracy and social inequality were expounded in Brazil’s and Sweden’s way of organizing education during the COVID-19 pandemic, we used a quantitative ethnographic approach to analyze the governments’ discourses. With quantitative ethnographic techniques we identified how the states organized discussions and actions to investigate and solve socio-educational issues related to democracy and how access to resources for education related to inequalities. The governmental intensity of keeping the economy functioning was observed to be influenced by the advance of neoliberalism in both countries. In organizing the education during the COVID-19 pandemic, neoliberalism is pertaining to authoritarianism in Brazil and more culturally contingent actions related to the ethos - “openness” - in Sweden. © 2022, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

20.
Th..nen Working Paper|2021. (171):ii + 28 pp. 22 ref. ; 2021.
Article in German | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1619294

ABSTRACT

The "Corona Crisis" caused by the Covid-19 virus has led to distortions in many labour markets in 2020 and may have exacerbated pre-existing social inequalities. This study asks to what extent different regions and types of regions are affected differently by the labour market effects of the Corona crisis. Using various descriptive analyses at the district level, the influence of the settlement structure, the economic structure and the income power of locations on the "Corona effects" in the labour market is examined. Key indicators of short- and medium-term dynamics are the share of short-time work as well as changes in 2020 compared to 2019 in cumulative entries into and exits from unemployment, in the same entries and exits in December ("compensation effect"), and in the unemployment rate. It can be shown that especially locations without initial structural problems have come through the Corona year 2020 relatively well. However, there is a danger that in the course of the Corona crisis, especially in the agglomeration areas, the inequality between persons and groups of persons within the labour markets will increase further and lastingly. According to the results, the Corona crisis could also contribute to an increase in disparities between locations with comparable settlement structures, at least in the medium term.

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