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1.
International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education ; 14(1):1565-1571, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1820500

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this research were: 1) to investigate health communication of "Thai herbs";2) to investigate Thai herbs discourses;and 3) to analyze contents, language and social context of "Thai herbs" discourses for self-care from coronavirus disease-2019 via social media of medical agencies in Thailand by means of qualitative research with an analysis of discourse information from contents and language via social media of the Department of Thai Traditional and Alternative Medicine. Moreover, in-depth interviews was applied with purposive sampling technique, including personnel in charge of producing contents via social media from the Department of Thai Traditional and Alternative Medicine, Protection and Promotion of Thai Traditional Medical Knowledge Subdivision, and the Institute of Thai Traditional Medicine. The findings were: 1) for the process of health communication of "Thai herbs," key encoders were health professionals in Thai traditional medicine, whose emphasis was to construct participation among people and to reduce communication inequality among them with the performance strategy to conform to the Policy and National Public Relations Plan No. 5 (2016-2021) focusing on getting information from people and using it to set the directions for content production;2) "Thai herbs" discourses were: 1) the body of knowledge on Thai traditional and alternative medicine;and 2) self-care from coronavirus disease -2019;3) from an analysis of contents of "Thai herbs" discourses, the followings were found: (1) an inspiration in self-care from coronavirus disease-2019;(2) creating accurate knowledge in using Thai herbs;and 3) clarifying contents of fake news found on social media;from an analysis of language used in "Thai herbs" discourses the followings were found: (1) creating creditability of medical information;(2) giving in-depth information;(3) exemplifying for clarity;and (4) writing through slogans;social context consisted of: (1) an economic aspect affected by the hoarding of Thai herbs;(2) an aspect of trends from people's rumors;and 3) an aspect of media and information literacy.

2.
Cureus Journal of Medical Science ; 14(4):11, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1820492

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Social media use in the residency application process has been on the rise, yet applicant and program director (PD) perspectives in orthopaedic residency have not been explored in depth. Our objective is to evaluate perspectives of orthopaedic residency applicants and PDs on social media usage and its impact on the residency application process. Methods: Cross-sectional survey study conducted in 2021 with two related, anonymous surveys sent to residency applicants and PDs. One hundred thirteen of 562 (20.1%) applicants to our institution and 29 of 148 (19.6%) PDs listed on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) website responded to our survey and were included in the analysis. Results: Applicants reported learning about residency programs through lnstagram (69.2%), the program website (58.9%), and Doximity (29.9%). Thirty-four percent of applicants reported social media influencing their rank list, with non-training-related posts being the most impactful. PDs reported that 97% of their programs have an official web page, 41% have an active Instagram site, 27% have a Twitter account but none regularly update Doximity. Just over 48% of PDs reported institutional support for online content creation. Financial investment varied, with 35% reporting no spending, and 24% spending over $2501. In response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) restrictions, 79% of PDs reported generating increased social media content. Discussion: Social media provides a low-cost but far-reaching opportunity for PDs to recruit residents and highlight their respective programs. Social media content should display the culture and lifestyle of the program, with consistency in content creation. PDs should also ensure accuracy on external sites such as Doximity.

3.
Biomedicines ; 10(4):43, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1820166

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 pandemic has affected the physical health, psychological wellbeing, and mental health of the whole population. Young people are among those most at risk of developing mental health symptoms or disorders related to the pandemic. Purpose: the present narrative review is aimed at providing an updated overview of the current literature concerning the psychological impact of the SARS-CoV-2 infection but also of the COVID-19 outbreak, environmental restriction, and social distancing on mental health outcomes among the youth population aged between 15 and 25 years. Methods: in December 2021, an electronic search on this topic was performed on PubMed. Relevant publications from January 2020 until December 2021 were included. Findings: 53 cross-sectional studies, 26 longitudinal studies, 4 ecological studies, 1 qualitative study, and 1 systematic review were included. We found many methodological limitations in the studies included, especially poor choice of study samples and short follow-ups. Little literature was in support of a strong relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and consequences on youth mental health. On the contrary, many studies showed how extraordinary measures to limit the spread of the virus have impacted young people in terms of onset of new mental disorders and symptoms, suicidality, and access to emergency psychiatric services. Depressive and anxiety symptoms and disorders show the greatest increase in incidence, especially in girls and young women. Conclusions: it seems important to pay attention to the mental health of young people in relation to the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, studies with more robust methodologies and longer follow-ups are needed to establish precise indications for targeted interventions in this context.

4.
Decision Sciences ; : 22, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1819889

ABSTRACT

We examine the role of firm-initiated social media communication using Twitter in mitigating the negative impact of large-scale disruptions, such as the Covid-19 pandemic, on the shareholder value of firms. We develop our hypotheses using signaling theory and test them using data collected from Twitter and Bloomberg (R). Our data set consists of 121,988 firm-generated tweets from 467 S&P 500 firms collected in March 2020 at the time of the lockdown announcement in the United States. We find that frequent and relevant communication reduces latency and increases the observability of messages, preserving a firm's shareholder value. We also find that a positive outlook and extent of interest from stakeholders results in preserving shareholder value. On average, firms lost about 1.08% of their market value per day (about 9.72% during the 9-day period around the lockdown announcement). Our study contributes to the extant literature in three ways: (1) adds to the literature on disruptions-shareholder value by considering large-scale disruptions such as the Covid-19 pandemic, (2) highlights informational and communication elements of risk management strategy, and (3) adds to the growing body of literature on Twitter by considering firm-generated tweets. The results of our study are of importance to managers as well. For instance, firms tweeted about 57 times per week, and each additional tweet could preserve about $5.85 million of a firm's market valuation, on average. Also, it is not enough that the firms took appropriate actions during a large-scale disruption;they also need to communicate their actions and its implications to their stakeholders effectively. These results can help managers devise their Twitter communication strategy during large-scale disruptions.

5.
International Journal of Emerging Markets ; : 19, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1819796

ABSTRACT

Purpose This study aims to investigate the online purchase intention of an older-aged group in Kosovo. Very few studies have analyzed the online purchase intention of these age groups in emerging countries including Kosovo, during the COVID-19 pandemic, which led to an increased usage of online shopping among older adults. Design/methodology/approach The study used a quantitative methodology and a structured questionnaire was used for collecting the data. Structural equation modeling (SEM) using partial least squares (PLS) was used to analyze 262 responses from an older-aged group of consumers from Kosovo. Findings The findings of this study showed that COVID-19 as a perceived risk affected online purchase intention. In addition, panic from perceived risk, perceived usefulness of social media and delivery in time also positively impacted the online purchase intention of this group of generations. Originality/value The study provides theoretical implications to consumer behavior literature during pandemics and how certain age groups behave during their purchase intention. The study also provides insight into other studies in emerging countries to see similarities and differences in online purchase behavior.

6.
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation ; : 102783, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819516

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 virus has caused and continues to cause unprecedented impacts on the life trajectories of millions of people globally. Recently, to combat the transmission of the virus, vaccination campaigns around the world have become prevalent. However, while many see such campaigns as positive (e.g., protecting lives), others see them as negative (e.g., the side effects that are not fully understood scientifically), resulting in diverse sentiments towards vaccination campaigns. In addition, the diverse sentiments have seldom been systematically quantified let alone their dynamic changes over space and time. To shed light on this issue, we propose an approach to analyze vaccine sentiments in space and time by using supervised machine learning combined with word embedding techniques. Taking the United States as a test case, we utilize a Twitter dataset (approximately 11.7 million tweets) from January 2015 to July 2021 and measure and map vaccine sentiments (Pro-vaccine, Anti-vaccine, and Neutral) across the nation. In doing so, we can capture the heterogeneous public opinions within social media discussions regarding vaccination among states. Results show how positive sentiment in social media has a strong correlation with the actual vaccinated population. Furthermore, we introduce a simple ratio between Anti and Pro-vaccine as a proxy to quantify vaccine hesitancy and show how our results align with other traditional survey approaches. The proposed approach illustrates the potential to monitor the dynamics of vaccine opinion distribution online, which we hope, can be helpful to explain vaccination rates for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

7.
8th International Conference on Modelling and Simulation for Autonomous Systems (MESAS) ; 13207:397-416, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1819411

ABSTRACT

Most of present humanitarian crises are protracted in nature and their average duration has increased. Climate change, environmental degradation, armed conflicts, terrorism, and migration are producing exponentially growing needs to whom humanitarian organizations are struggling to respond. Novel infectious diseases such as COVID-19 add complexity to protracted crises. Planning to respond to current and future medical threats should integrate terrorist risk assessment, to safeguard population and reduce risks to aid workers. Technologies such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), and Modelling and Simulation (M&S) can play a crucial role. The present research has included the conduct of the United Nations HNPW 2021 session on AI and Medical Intelligence and an exercise on a real scenario. Focusing on medical and terror threats in North East Nigeria operating environment, authors have successfully deployed and tested the Expert.ai Medical Intelligence Platform (MIP) jointly with the MASA SYNERGY constructive simulation, with the aim to improve situational awareness to support decision-making in the context of a humanitarian operation.

8.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(3):429-431, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1819185

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the frequency and pattern of myths and misconceptions regarding COVID-19 vaccine in the general population at Isra University Hospital Hyderabad Material and Methods: This cross-sectional survey base study was conducted at the Isra University Hospital Hyderabad, during a period of six months from August 2021 to January 2022. All the patients who visited the OPD and their attendants of any age or gender, were included. All the subjects were properly counseled that their privacy was fully secured and their name and contact numbers were taken. After obtaining sociodemographic information, the participants were interviewed regarding COVID-19 infection in the past, previous vaccination history for diseases other than COVID-19, conceptions, and myths regarding COVID-19 vaccination, acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination, reasons to vaccinate for COVID-19, and reasons not to vaccinate for COVID-19. All the information was gathered via study proforma including questioner and SPSS version 26 was used for the purpose of data analysis. Results: A total of 145 individuals of either gender were studied regarding myths and misconceptions of COVID-19 vaccine, their average age was 27.71+9.86 years and females were in majority 62.1%. Among the study population, doctors, private employee and housewives were the most common as 44.1%, 11%, 11.7% and 9% respectively. Most of the cases 62.1% were unmarried. According to the myths and misconceptions, 8.3% said it can affect fertility, 23.4% had no trust on its effectiveness and safety, 14.5% said it is an artificial infection procedure, 11% were afraid from its dangerous side effects, 3.4% said the vaccine will change their DNA, 13.8% said it is a controversial substance and 6.9% afraid that they will die within 2 years. 24.1% cases heard myths from family, 24.8% heard from friends and 51% heard by social media. 17.2% had idea that it is an international conspiracy and 4.8% said this may cause sexual dysfunction and 4.8% said it is a procedure of implanting microchip to control them. Conclusion: There were several misconceptions in the general population, most myths like effects of male fertility, distrust on vaccine efficacy, they will be infected artificially, fear of dangerous side effects, controversial substances were observed to be the commonest myths and misconceptions regarding the COVID-19 vaccine in the general population. Above ideas were adopted mostly by the friends and social media.

9.
Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal ; 23(12), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1819094
10.
Spor Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi ; 6(2):521-534, 2021.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1819037

ABSTRACT

Covid-19, which first appeared in Wuhan, China, and caused the death of many people, caused the structures within the sports industry to change as well as in all industries. In this period, sports organizations try to use social media tools effectively in order to stay in touch with their fans. Purpose of this research is to analyze the post of the most followed clubs and their fans on Twitter about Covid-19 in the Turkish Football Federation Super League. The study, a total of 2,971 hashtags related to Covid-19 were analyzed. The number of posts and percentages of tweets by fans and football clubs about Covid-19 was also included in the analysis. In this way, the contents of the Twitter posts of both fans and football clubs regarding Covid-19 were determined. The netnography method was used as the working method. The hashtags performed by the fans on Twitter were analyzed by the content analysis method. According to the findings, Fenerbah..e SK and its followers have become the football club that produced the most content (80.46%) regarding the Covid-19 outbreak. Although Galatasaray SC fans have produced the most hashtags, Galatasaray SK (16.5%) has produced the least amount of content about the epidemic. As a result, in the period of the Covid-19 epidemic, while it is seen that football fans unite in a common culture by posting similar hashtags about the Covid-19 epidemic on Twitter, it is seen that football clubs post less place to content related to the epidemic less than fan groups.

11.
Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Publica ; 39(1):70-76, 2022.
Article in Spanish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818848

ABSTRACT

A cross-sectional study was conducted on medical students at a private Peruvian university. The objective was to describe knowledge and attitudes towards COVID-19 and the student’s perception of the role of media outlets and social media. 32% of students did not know that serological tests are preferable to molecular tests to diagnose COVID-19 in the first five days of illness;73% reported being willing to work as a volunteer during the pandemic, and 94% received false information regarding COVID-19 on social media. This study demonstrates that information regarding diagnostic tests should be reinforced and that the high percentage of students willing to volunteer during the COVID-19 pandemic should not be overlooked.

12.
Urological Science ; 33(1):1-2, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818473
13.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(9), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818141

ABSTRACT

The relationship between Long Covid (LC) symptoms and physical activity (PA) levels are unclear. In this cross-sectional study, we examined this association, and the advice that individuals with LC received on PA. Adults with LC were recruited via social media. The New Zealand physical activity questionnaire short form (NZPAQ-SF) was adapted to capture current and pre-COVID-19 PA levels and activities of daily living (ADLs). Participants reported how PA affected their symptoms, and what PA recommendations they had received from healthcare professionals and other resources;477 participants completed the survey. Mean age (SD) was 45.69 (10.02) years, 89.1% female, 92.7% white, and median LC duration was 383.5 days (IQR: 168.25,427). Participants were less active than pre-COVID-19 (26.88 ± 74.85 vs. 361.68 ± 396.29 min per week, p < 0.001) and required more assistance with ADLs in a 7-day period compared to pre-COVID-19 (2.23 ± 2.83 vs. 0.11 ± 0.74 days requiring assistance, p < 0.001). No differences were found between the number of days of assistance required with ADLs, or the amount of PA, and the different durations of LC illness (p > 0.05). Participants reported the effect of PA on LC symptoms as: worsened (74.84%), improved (0.84%), mixed effect (20.96%), or no effect (28.72%). Participants received contradictory advice on whether to be physically active in LC. LC is associated with a reduction in PA and a loss of independence, with most participants reporting PA worsened LC symptoms. PA level reduction is independent of duration of LC. Research is needed to understand how to safely return to PA without worsening LC symptoms.

14.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(9), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818140

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused an overall increase in stress and depression in society. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the psychological condition of college students during the COVID-19 pandemic and explore factors influencing their daily functioning. The study focused on four main aspects such as mental well-being, sexuality, concern about financial status, and trust in medical authorities. The study was based on a specially designed survey. The questionnaire was created using Google Forms and shared on social media sites. A total of 630 students participated in the survey, 17 surveys were excluded due to incomplete data and 613 surveys (97.30%) were considered for the final analysis. During isolation, 68.0% of students experienced fear of missing out (FOMO). A total of 73.4% were frustrated due to spending a lot of time in front of a computer. A significant decrease in motivation to study was reported by 78.1% of the respondents. Students showed significantly different attitudes towards sexuality. Concern about the financial situation was reported by 48.7% of respondents. The state of the Polish economy was of concern to 86.4% of respondents. A total of 74.5% of students declared concern about their career development. During the pandemic, 59.0% of respondents became concerned about their health. The attitude towards vaccination was described as positive by 82.5% of the respondents. The percentage of respondents experiencing negative psychological effects relative to the overall epidemiological situation of COVID-19 is troubling. Given the unexpected length and severity of the pandemic, we suggest that students’ concerns be more thoroughly understood and addressed.

15.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(6), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1818102

ABSTRACT

Grocery workers were essential to the workforce and exempt from lockdown requirements as per Minnesota Executive Order 20-20. The risk of COVID-19 transmission in grocery settings is not well documented. This study aimed to determine which factors influenced seropositivity among grocery workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study of Minnesota grocery workers aged 18 and older using a convenience sample. Participants were recruited using a flyer disseminated electronically via e-mail, social media, and newspaper advertising. Participants were directed to an electronic survey and were asked to self-collect capillary blood for IgG antibody testing. Data were analyzed using logistic regression and adjusted for urbanicity, which confounded the relationship between number of job responsibilities in a store and seropositivity. Of 861 Minnesota grocery workers surveyed, 706 (82%) were tested as part of this study, of which 56 (7.9%) tested positive for IgG antibodies. Participants aged 65-74 years had the highest percent positivity. Having multiple job responsibilities in a store was significantly associated with seropositivity in our adjusted model (OR: 1.14 95% CI: 1.01-1.27). Workplace factors influenced seropositivity among Minnesota grocery workers. Future research will examine other potential factors (e.g., in-store preventive measures and access to PPE) that may contribute to increased seropositivity.

16.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1):846, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1817209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination against COVID-19 has been available in Germany since December 2020. However, about 30% of the population report not wanting to be vaccinated. In order to increase the willingness of the population to get vaccinated, data on the acceptance of vaccination and its influencing factors are necessary. Little is known about why individuals refuse the COVID-19 vaccination. The aim of this study was to investigate the reasons leading to rejecting vaccination, based on posts from three social media sites. METHODS: The German-language versions of Instagram, Twitter and YouTube were searched regarding negative attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination. Data was extracted until a saturation effect could be observed. The data included posts created from January 20, 2020 to May 2, 2021. This time frame roughly covers the period from the first reports of the spread of SARS-CoV-2 up to the general availability of vaccines against COVID-19 in Germany. We used an interpretive thematic approach to analyze the data and to inductively generate codes, subcategories and categories. RESULTS: Based on 333 posts written by 323 contributing users, we identified six main categories of reasons for refusing a COVID-19 vaccination: Low perceived benefit of vaccination, low perceived risk of contracting COVID-19, health concerns, lack of information, systemic mistrust and spiritual or religious reasons. The analysis reveals a lack of information among users and the spread of misinformation with regard to COVID-19 and vaccination. Users feel inadequately informed about vaccination or do not understand the information available. These information gaps may be related to information not being sufficiently sensitive to the needs of the target group. In addition to limited information for the general population, misinformation on the internet can also be an important reason for refusing vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: The study emphasizes the relevance of providing trustworthy and quality-assured information on COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccination to all population groups. In addition, vaccinations should be easily accessible in order to promote the population's willingness to be vaccinated.

17.
BMC Public Health ; 22(528), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1817204

ABSTRACT

Background: Effective strategies of prevention have been and can aid in reducing and overcoming contagious diseases including COVID-19, still there is dearth of knowledge regarding general public awareness and perception. The current study aims to determine the existing knowledge and perception of people living in Karachi about isolation, quarantine, social distancing and community containment.

18.
Clinical Cancer Research ; 27(6 SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816941

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Determine the role of social determinants of health (SDOH), including socioeconomic status (SES) (education, income in predicting intent to vaccinate for COVID-19 among a diverse community-based population, over sampled for cancer survivors in Connecticut (CT). Background: Race, ethnicity, and the SDOH (e.g., food insecurity, housing instability, trouble paying utilities bills) have a known impact on COVID-19 incidence, morbidity, and mortality. Although the impact on cancer survivors is not as well understood, this population may also face disproportionately severe outcomes. To our knowledge, there are no published studies that address intention to vaccinate in community based populations that are predominantly African American/Black (AA) or Hispanic/Latinx (H/L), nor in the cancer survivors who live in these communities. Prior studies have suggested that some vulnerable populations have lowered willingness to vaccinate (e.g., for influenza) than other groups. This study will explore the role of the high burden of SDOH barriers and selected socio-cultural factors such as perceived risk, medical mistrust, and source of health information. Methods: Data for this study are from 252 CT residents, collected from August - December, 2020 using Qualtrics, an online survey platform. Using an extensive network of community partners, we recruited through list serves and social media, targeting communities known to be most impacted by the pandemic. The intent was to enroll a population that was similar to the racial/ethnic sociodemographic profile of the city of New Haven, while oversampling cancer survivors. Using SAS 9.4, we conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses to identify the role of SDOH in willingness to vaccinate. Results: The study population was disproportionately African American/Black (23.5%) and Hispanic/Latinx (17.5%) and included 83 (32.9%) cancer survivors. In this high-risk population, 38.9% of the sample were unwilling or uncertain whether they would vaccinate against Covid-19 in the future. In multivariate adjusted model, individuals reporting at least one SDOH barrier (food insecurity, trouble paying utilities bills, or housing instability) were significantly less likely to vaccinate (odds ratio=2.26;95% Confidence Interval 1.17-4.36). Other significant predicators included low perceived risk and lacking confidence in information provided through the health care system. Conclusion: Social determinants of health play a critical role in predicting intent to vaccinate for COVID-19. Special efforts are needed to ensure that vulnerable populations understand their individual risk, the benefits and risks of getting the COVID-19 vaccine, with interventions aimed at enlisting trusted entities that may not be recognized as traditional sources of health information.

19.
Journal of Musculoskeletal Research ; 25(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816790

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The sudden lockdown due to COVID-19 in India led to closure of schools and colleges. This resulted in an increased usage of online mode of study, with a more sedentary lifestyle. The survey study aimed to analyze the prevalence of any musculoskeletal problem in students and teachers due to the same. Methodology: A Google Form was distributed by a snowball sampling technique using various social media platforms. A total of 715 responses were received. Results: Maximum respondents were in the age range of 18-25 years. Eighty eight percent of participants in the survey were involved in the online mode of education, with 60.8% experiencing some form of musculoskeletal pain or discomfort;71% of people believed that the cause of pain was online working. Neck pain (51.3%) followed by low back pain (33.4%) and headaches (29.8%) were commonly reported. University teachers reported maximum pain followed by university students, school teachers and school students. Of all the respondents, 60.8% people admitted to adopting awkward postures while at work, whereas only 27.6% of them exercised to relieve pain and discomfort. Conclusion: There is an urgent need to develop appropriate intervention strategies for people involved in sedentary online work to prevent the occurrence of musculoskeletal pain and discomfort. Physical therapy can play a major role in managing this lifestyle hazard.

20.
Journal of Consumer Affairs ; 56(1):339-358, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1816597

ABSTRACT

The current study aims to examine consumer behavior in Turkey during the COVID-19 pandemic and how consumers adapt to this new normal. In this regard, 78 Turkish consumers were interviewed online. Data were analyzed through grounded theory with a stimulus-organism-response framework and constant comparative methods. This study showed that environmental stimuli affecting consumer behavior during the pandemic are economic downturn, partial lockdown regulations, restrictions on some services, and social media messages. Organism consists of fear, boredom, and perceived risk. Consumers' behavioral responses to the pandemic are changes in purchasing of consumer goods, avoidance from physical stores, a decline in leisure activities, a decline in shopping frequency, planned vs. impulse buying, stockpiling, and prosumption. Overall, this study provides a more general framework regarding multiple aspects of the pandemic on consumer behavior.

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