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1.
SSM - Population Health ; 21:101326, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165870

ABSTRACT

Previous research on pre-COVID-19 pandemic rising White mortality in the United States suggests that White Americans' perceived decline in relative group status may have influenced worsening mortality. In conjunction with other social and economic indicators, social status threat is one determinant of this population-level health shift, yet it is unclear how perceptions of status threat shape individual health outcomes. Because of this, we sought to identify and synthesize research studies across disciplines that broadly explored how perceived threats to White Americans' social status affect their health. Our research objectives were to (1) examine how status threat (and related constructs) have been measured across the health and social sciences, (2) determine which health outcomes and behaviors are related to status threat, and (3) identify gaps in the existing knowledge base. We systematically searched six multidisciplinary databases. Only 12 studies met inclusion criteria, suggesting that status threat and Whites' health is an understudied topic that warrants continued investigation. Furthermore, there was inconsistency in how threats to status were measured and conceptualized across disciplines. Threat-related indicators evaluated changes in Democratic or Republican vote share, perceived racial treatment, financial status, personal identification with political party affiliation, perceptions of hypothetical "majority-minority” population shifts, racial awareness, and subjective social status. Studies primarily relied on self-rated measures of overall health, mental health status, and social determinants of health. Consequently, there is a gap in the literature concerning which specific health outcomes (besides mortality) are directly affected by status threat. Overall, included studies demonstrated that Whites' can experience negative health effects when they perceive threats in societal conditions, within their interpersonal social experiences, or related to their individual social standing. Moving forward, researchers should consider how Whites' beliefs about their position within social hierarchies potentially affect individual and group-level health outcomes.

2.
Social Security, Journal of Welfare & Social Security Studies ; - (118):1-24, 2022.
Article in Hebrew | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2111785

ABSTRACT

Background: The Covid-19 pandemic has severely affected the health of the elderly both worldwide and in Israel. In addition to the health hazards that prey on the elderly during the coronavirus period, the harm to their mental well-being and their basic rights cannot be ignored. Ageism and human rights abuses of elderly people are negative social phenomena which have been exacerbated by Covid-19. This article is based on a report (October 2020) by the Israel Institute of Equality and Human Rights (The Zulat Institute) on the human rights issue of the elderly during the coronavirus pandemic whose authors are among its signatories. Aim: To describe the manifestations of ageism in relation to the elderly during the first and second wave of the coronavirus pandemic, based on a human rights approach. Method: This was a qualitative study, based on consultation with a multidisciplinary group of independent experts in a joint process – a modified Delphi process – of a structured discussion around an open questionnaire on the treatment of the elderly in Israel during the first and second coronavirus waves. During the discussion, the group focused on three major human rights relevant to the elderly at this time: the right to respect, the right to participate in decision making and the right to health. Findings: Government policy regarding the elderly in the first months of the outbreak of the pandemic was characterized by paternalistic overprotectiveness, ageism and violation of the human rights of elderly people to dignity, participation and health. In both geriatric and protected housing institutions, human rights violations of the residents were due to physical isolation and prolonged social distancing from their relatives. Even within the community, where 94% of the elderly live in Israel, many cases of severe bodily and mental health harm were observed resulting from isolation and exclusion. These vulnerabilities are the result, inter alia, of structural failures in the public system to support the elderly in Israel, including decentralization of governmental responsibility, chronic shortage of geriatric-nursing personnel, and privatization of community services for the elderly. In addition, patronizing and ageist attitudes to the elderly were discussed, as were their needs and what to do about them. Conclusions and recommendations: Policies that will lead to the eradication of ageism and the prohibition of age discrimination through legislation should be promoted, and the rights of the elderly to dignity, participation and health should be maintained. In addition, the social standing of the elderly should be strengthened, as should responses to the needs of the elderly in the community and geriatric institutions. Information suited to digital capabilities and language and cultural groups should be made accessible to encourage open and respectful dialogue with the elderly and their families about their wishes regarding the medical care they receive and where it will be provided. In this way health and social services for the old in the community can be strengthened. [ FROM AUTHOR]

3.
Social Security, Journal of Welfare & Social Security Studies ; - (118):1-15, 2022.
Article in Hebrew | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2111783

ABSTRACT

The socio-anthropological study of old age has been captured by the concept of ageism that accords values of discrimination and inequity to the attitude towards and the treatment of the elderly. This reflects cultural sentiments of modern liberal values of the desire for the equality of human rights alongside the recognition of shame and guilt as guiding principles in the construction of the social status of the old in a youth oriented milieu. The underlying narrative generating this stance is the overview of the life cycle as a continuous developmental process that stretches from cradle to grave in a cumulative manner of yielding life overview and temporal build-up of memory and identity. The fight against ageism is thus an attempt to avoid disjuncture and interruption in the integral conception of ageing, hence denying the boundaries that divide life stages from one another. This endeavor is underpinned by the assumption that cultural categories are bound to be mixed and hybridized as part of the spirit of globalization that is conditioned upon exchange, transformation and conversion. The emergence of the third age is an example for such hybridized phenomenon consisting of once separated age classes. The fourth age, however, defies the notion and possibility of blended categories as it is an undecipherable, irreversible and existential space beyond understanding, translation and temporality. Thus, the modern bound, mobility geared conceptual language of social gerontology is ill equipped to tackle the properties of the fourth age, hence confounding the two into one indivisible epistemological unit of old age. The thrust of the Covid-19 era catalyzed a critical change in the social standing of the old, separating and excluding it from the rest of society while rendering it a race apart. The globalization of the pandemic exiled the whole elderly category to an island of the disenfranchised, the condemned and the contaminated who are subject to compassionate demonization as less than humans. [ FROM AUTHOR]

4.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(8):119-121, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067746

ABSTRACT

Aim: To assess the concerns of university students regarding COVID-19 lockdown. Methods: A Cross-Sectional online survey was conducted among student population living in different socio-economical areas of Karachi. Information was gathered on their age, gender, education level, occupation status, area of residence, and knowledge about lockdown due to Covid-19. These variables were examined according to the socio-economic status of the area where students reside. Results: A total of 200 subjects above 20 years were interviewed out of which data was analyzed for 160 subjects. The majority of students were between the ages of 20-25 years, females, Muslims, and unemployed. According to 86.9% of students COVID- 19 can be prevented by avoiding contact and almost 74.4% students were in favor of lockdown further 37.5% students wanted no gaps between lockdowns. In this study, 31.3% spent time using phones while 15% spent time reading while 22% of the students spent their time in physical activity. Almost 66.3% of students did not develop any psychological problems. About 77.5% did not face any financial problems. Conclusion: Most of the respondents were in favor of lockdown as COVID-19 spread can be prevented by avoiding contact. Study highlighted COVID-19 lockdown had no effect on mental health of the respondents. This study will help in creating awareness regarding lockdown. It will enlighten new arenas for public health experts and stakeholders to develop new strategies, and interventions and predict a preparedness program plan for future Pandemic.

5.
Journal of Acute Disease ; 11(4):140-149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2066825

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify helpful laboratory paprameters for the diagnosis and prognosis of COVID-19. Methods: An observational retrospective study was conducted to analyze the biological profile of COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the Unit of Pulmonology at Setif hospital between January and December 2021. Patients were divided into two groups: the infection group and the control group with patients admitted for other pathologies. The infected group was further divided according to the course of the disease into non-severe and severe subgroups. Clinical and laboratory parameters and outcomes of admitted patients were collected. Results: The infection group included 293 patients, of whom 237 were in the non-severe subgroup and 56 in the severe subgroup. The control group included 88 patients. The results showed higher white blood cells, neutrophils, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, transaminases, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and lower levels of lymphocyte, monocyte and platelet counts, serum sodium concentration, and albumin. According to ROC curves, urea, alanine aminotransferase, C-reactive protein, and albumin were effective diagnosis indices on admission while neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, glycemia, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase were effective during follow-up. Conclusions: Some biological parameters such as neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, glycemia, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase are useful for the diagnosis of COVID-19.

6.
Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; 167(1 Supplement):P162-P163, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064401

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The year 2020 brought unparalleled challenges for maintaining safe access to pediatric care with a rapid expansion of existing telemedicine infrastructure, while allowing for cross-leveraging capacity for emergency and inpatient care of COVID-19 patients. Method(s): We examined telemedicine encounters across multiple specialties during fiscal years (FYs) 2019-2021, encompassing before and after the primary COVID-19 surge, as well as the infrastructure and processes created. Included in this analysis were age, gender, preferred language, zip code of residence, and primary insurance plan. Result(s): Telemedicine visits institution-wide increased from 220 in FY 2019 to 94,057 in FY 2021, representing an increase of 0.05% to 19.9% of total visits. Notably, total penetration of primarily Spanish-language telemedicine visits increased from 6.4% to 14.8% from FY 2020 to FY 2021. During that same time frame, our pediatric otolaryngology practice demonstrated a reduction of overall telemedicine visits (8% to 5.8%) in favor of a return to brick-and-mortar visits;this trend varied across numerous medical and surgical specialties, influenced by ability to optimally render diagnostic and treatment capabilities virtually. Conclusion(s): The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated technologic and process innovation to preserve care to our vulnerable pediatric population and created sustainable infrastructure for future postpandemic patient care. Barriers to telemedical care include clinical diagnostic limitations, low socioeconomic status with limited smartphone and broadband access, as well as nonprimarily English-speaking patients. Our institution rapidly scaled telemedicine access across the sociodemographic spectrum through the COVID-19 pandemic and is working across specialties to maintain and increase access to those within our diverse Southern California community, as well as in service to our international and rural families.

7.
Archives of Disease in Childhood ; 107(Supplement 2):A412-A413, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064059

ABSTRACT

Aims The COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented impact on the lives of children and young people (CYP);with illness-related anxiety, social/physical distancing, mandatory quarantines, travel restrictions, school closures, isolation and family disruptions having a negative impact on mental wellbeing. While several reports have highlighted high rates of mental health problems and suicidal ideation, few studies have focused on self-harm related hospital attendances by CYP during the pandemic or provided reliable trend analyses in comparison with pre-pandemic data. Our objective was to compare pre-pandemic (2019) and pandemic (2020 and 2021) attendances to the emergency department by CYP, for mental health issues including overdose, self-harm, suicidal ideation/attempt. Methods * Single-centre observation study of CYP of age 8 years to 18 years, attending the emergency department (ED) for overdose, self-harm and suicidal ideation/attempt, from 01/ 01/2019 to 31/12/2021 (36 months). * Eligible patients were identified using discharge diagnostic coding and mental health services database review using search terms including 'overdose', 'deliberate self-harm', 'self-harm', 'self-injury', 'self-injured', 'hurt themselves', 'suicide', 'suicidal', 'suicidal ideation. Results * 1226 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. * Number of CYP attending ED in 2019, 2020 and 2021 were 374, 418 and 434 respectively. * Compared to 2019, in 2021 there is a 16% overall increase in the number of CYP attending ED for mental health issues (figure 1). Of note, 2021's analysis shows that the rate of ED attendance was greater in the first 6 months when compared to the latter 6 months. * The greatest increase from 2019 is seen in CYP attending with suicidal intent and overdose (figure 2). * We will be carrying out further data analysis on our inner-city population evaluating the disparities across age, gender and socio-economic status as well as the care journey of reattenders. In addition, data collection will continue in 2022 to evaluate if this trend continues or stabilises post-removal of pandemic restrictions Conclusion * Continuing incremental trend of ED attendances in 2021 despite the easing of pandemic restrictions in July 2021 and vaccine roll-out for 12-16-year-olds in September 2021 suggest a cumulative impact on mental health from the long course of the pandemic. As noted in figure 2, over 60% of the patients seen in 2021 were in the first half of the year, suggesting that continuing lockdowns may have had an impact in attendance. Further, UK youth surveys report that many CYP found the 2021 lockdown harder than the 2020 lockdowns, possibly due to the prolongation of uncertainty over the future.1 * The short and long-term mental health implications of the pandemic should be seen against the background of worsening mental health morbidity in CYP in the UK over the preceding few years, especially as our data shows a large increase in presentations with suicidal ideation/attempt. This calls for a systematic response to widen access to mental health services in the future. (Figure Presented).

8.
Archives of Disease in Childhood ; 107(Supplement 2):A292-A293, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064036

ABSTRACT

Aims The COVID-19 pandemic triggered a national lockdown to be imposed in the UK in March 2020. Social restrictions resulted in children being isolated within their homes with little to no contact with teachers, social workers, or health services. These measures decreased the opportunity to detect children suffering from abuse.1 Nationally, social restrictions contributed to 8,500 fewer referrals to children's services during COVID-19.2 Increased financial strain3 alongside domestic violence4 is suggested to have potentiated an increase in child abuse during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study therefore aimed to assess how COVID-19 affected child protection referrals in Leeds and evaluate the concern that the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in more child abuse yet fewer child abuse referrals. 2,5-7 Methods Referrals to Leeds Community Paediatric Department between 1st March and 30th September 2019 and 2020 were collated using electronic patient records and in total 426 referrals were evaluated. The source, reason and outcome of referrals was recorded as well as the age, sex, ethnicity, number of siblings, and socioeconomic status of each child. The presence of domestic violence in the household as well as any prior interactions with children's services was recorded. Results There were 22.5% fewer referrals in 2020 during the pandemic when compared to 2019, with a reduction in referrals from every source. The percentage of children with domestic violence in their household rose significantly from 44.58% in 2019 to 58.60% in 2020. The age of children referred differed significantly between 2019 and 2020. The modal age of children referred in 2019 was four years whereas in 2020 it was one year. Conclusion The number of referrals for suspected child abuse decreased in Leeds during COVID-19. It is therefore likely that child abuse became less visible rather than less prevalent during this pandemic.

9.
Chest ; 162(4):A1026, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060755

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Impact of Health Disparities and Differences SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Original Inv PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 11:15 am - 12:15 pm PURPOSE: As of March 25, 2022, age-standardized data reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention showed that Hispanic, Black and American Indian or Alaska Native are about twice as likely to die from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as their White and Asian counterparts. However, there is paucity of data regarding the effect of race on outcomes in COVID-19 related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients managed with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Our study aims to understand the differences in the outcome between White/Asian and other ethnically minority COVID-19 patients treated with ECMO in our intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: Retrospective analysis of adult patients with COVID-19 related ARDS treated with ECMO in the ICUs of a quaternary care hospital between 03/01/2020 and 03/31/2022. Patients were divided into two groups: White/Asian (WA) and Other Minorities (OM). Demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of the two groups were compared. RESULTS: Of the 36 COVID-19 patients managed with ECMO during the study period, 18 (50%) patients belonged to the WA group while 18 (50%) patients belonged to the OM group. In the WA group, 16 (89%) were white and 2 (11%) were Asians whereas in the OM group, 16 (89%) patients were Hispanics and 2 (11%) patients were African-American. Both groups were similar in terms of age, gender, comorbidity burden (measured by Charlson Comorbidity Index), and severity of illness at the time of ICU admission (assessed by APACHE-IV score). Mean RESP score was lower in the OM group but was not statistically significant (1.3 ± 3.9 vs 2.9 ± 2.3, p= 0.157). This was reflected in the higher hospital mortality in the OM group compared to the WA group [n= 9 (50%) vs. 15 (83%), p=0.075]. There was no significant difference between the groups in the rate of ECMO-related complications, including major bleeding requiring transfusion, transaminitis (alanine transaminase greater than 5 times of upper normal limit), stroke, myocardial dysfunction (defined as an ejection fraction < 30%), acute kidney injury requiring dialysis and positive sterile fluid cultures. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed higher mortality in ethnically minority patients compared to the white and Asian population but the difference was not statistically significant. It is possible that the relatively small number of patients in our study led to a beta error. Higher mortality rates among people of color have been attributed to low socio-economic status, structural inequities in health care and differences in vaccination rates. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Larger studies are needed to further explore differences in clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients of different races and ethnicities treated with ECMO. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by ALEENA ARSHAD No relevant relationships by Dipak Chandy No relevant relationships by Subo Dey No relevant relationships by Oleg Epelbaum No relevant relationships by Daniel Greenberg No relevant relationships by Theresa Henson No relevant relationships by Lawrence Huang No relevant relationships by Daniel Peneyra No relevant relationships by Areen Pitaktong No relevant relationships by Hamid Yaqoob

10.
Medical Journal of Malaysia ; 77(Supplement 1):5-9, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058532

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) must be controlled by involving all stakeholders, including the community. Community protocol compliance with COVID-19 health guidelines is essential. This study assessed the social determinants of health on community protocol compliance with COVID-19 health guidelines among adults in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Material(s) and Method(s): This study was a mixed-method study of 461 adults from February through May 2021 in Yogyakarta Province. We collected data through an online survey, focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews. Logistic regression was used to analyze the results. Result(s): Most respondents (86%) always wore masks, followed social distancing (51.8%), and washed their hands regularly (99%). Subjects older than 45 years, women, and community leaders demonstrated greater compliance with COVID-19 health protocols compared to other people. On the other hand, the occupation has become a healthy lifestyle practice indicator. Conclusion(s): Gender, age, educational level, economics, and social status were determinants of health protocol adherence among adults in Yogyakarta. Therefore, health providers need to consider social determinants for health promotion approaches and COVID-19 prevention and control strategies. Copyright © 2022, Malaysian Medical Association. All rights reserved.

11.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition ; 75(Supplement 1):S170-S171, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058503

ABSTRACT

Background: Foreign body ingestions (FBI) are most commonly seen in children aged 6 months to 4 years and occur at home. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract without causing any injury. However, 10-20% of cases require endoscopic intervention and <1% require surgery. On March 4th, 2020, a state of emergency in California was announced in response to the evolving COVID-19 pandemic, including closure of all county public schools on March 13th, 2020, and a shelter-in-place order ceasing all non-essential business and travel on March 16th, 2020. Despite the breadth of data on FBIs prior to the pandemic, and others outlining findings from surgical perspectives or in other countries during the pandemic, there is limited data on FBIs and the COVID-19 pandemic in a US pediatric Level 1 Trauma Center in a state with extended and strict mandated shutdowns. Method(s): We used the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) data set for a single large tertiary center, retrospective analysis of FBI, patient demographics, and patient disposition between 3/16/2019-3/15/2021 to better characterize FBI prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our primary outcome measure was the number of patients presenting to our emergency department (ED) and admitted to our hospital for FBI. High Risk FBI were events involving button batteries, magnets, lead-based objects, or sharp objects (broken glass, needles, nails). We also conducted a secondary chart review to collect demographic data on FBI patients who required admission. All automatically collected data was qualitatively screened and systematically categorized for more effective data presentation. Result(s): While the overall number of presentations to the ED remained similar (279 to 268), there was a higher rate of admissions (8.9% vs 12.3%) during the pandemic. The average age of patients with an ingestion was 42.5 months pre-pandemic, 52.7 months during pandemic;the average age of patients admitted for an FBI was 35.4 months pre-pandemic, 50.9 months during pandemic. The number of high-risk ingestions during the pandemic (10.8% vs 14.2%) was higher. Of children who needed to be admitted, a greater number required endoscopic procedures during the pandemic (29.9% vs 38.5%). There was also a larger proportion of patients belonging to ethnic minorities (Black, Asian, Hispanic/Latino) that were admitted during the pandemic (45.5% vs 63.0%). Conclusion(s): Both ED and hospital admission data reflect the disruption to the home and work environments that the general population experienced in the pandemic. The increased average age of a FBI-presenting and FBI-admitted patient could reflect the increased incidence in older, possibly school-aged children, in light of the state-wide shutdown of schools and children being at home full-time. The increase in high risk and admission rates in the pandemic also suggests that mandates placing children in the home increase their exposure to harmful materials and increased risk of serious injury requiring invasive procedures. We serve a particularly vulnerable population;the majority of our patients are insured by Medicaid and of lower socioeconomic status (SES), and we would expect that the increase in FBI is correlated to SES. Moving forward, we would like to further investigate how the COVID-19 pandemic may have further exacerbated pediatric health disparities by analyzing health outcomes based on patients' preferred language (English or other) and home zip code and corresponding census info (median household income, percent living below the poverty line). In our at-risk population, based on the above data, we propose implementing proactive counseling by primary care providers (PCP) on safety around FBI. Education provided to families at PCP visits on securing dangerous objects in the home may help decrease FBI especially during times when children are required to be at home more often, like during a pandemic.

12.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition ; 75(Supplement 1):S22-S23, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058154

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Pediatric colonoscopy is a routine procedure used to diagnose and treat gastrointestinal conditions. Effective delivery of bowel preparation (BP) instructions is important to achieve optimal cleanout results and can occur in a variety of methods including in-person, written pamphlet, or video. Inadequate preparation has been shown to increase the duration of colonoscopy, potentially increasing the procedural risk and the inability to complete the procedure, which leads to the need for repeat procedures associated with increased costs, risks, and psychological hardships. Thus, several studies have looked at optimal medication regimens for adequate BP and different delivery methods of BP instructions for adult colonoscopies, finding that more BP education results in greater patient comprehension, thereby improving BP scores. Objective(s): However, there is limited information on which delivery method of BP instruction yields optimal cleanouts, specifically for pediatric patients undergoing colonoscopy. The aim of this quality improvement study was to determine if the quality of BP is affected by the method of instruction delivery. Method(s): Our centre's delivery method of BP instructions had historically been in-person by a physician or nurse case manager (NCM), but in 2019 we developed an online video for families to watch instead. From 2019 to 2021, patients aged 0-18 years and their families received either in-person or video instructions (both along with a written pamphlet to take home) on BP prior to colonoscopy. In 2020, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, patients began receiving instructions over the phone, recorded as 'in-person' along with a mailed-out pamphlet. In March 2020, due to staff shortages, some families were only receiving the written pamphlet, so this third modality of instructions were also included in the study. We excluded inpatient BPs, flexible sigmoidoscopies and repeat colonoscopies. Outpatient BP consisted of pico-salax with dosing based on the patient's weight, the day before the procedure. The Ottawa Bowel Preparation Quality Scale was used to score the BP, with a cut-off score <7 as adequate cleanout at the time of colonoscopy. Patient age, indication for scope, method of delivery and time to procedure were captured. Video and pamphlet only groups were combined into one alternative instruction group due to small numbers for statistical analysis. Primary outcome was the differences in BP scores between the in-person and alternative instruction groups. Result(s): Of the 136 patients (mean age 11.51y (SD 4.53)), 81 (60%) received in-person BP instructions (46 from a physician (62.2%) and 28 from a NCM (37.8%) n=74), 25 (18%) received video instructions, and 30 (22%) received pamphlet only. The median time from BP instruction to the scope procedure was 30 days (IQR 14, 49;range 1-116 days), but only captured prior to onset of COVID pandemic. BP adequacy was achieved in 81.2% of patients (Table 1). There were no significant differences in BP adequacy (76.8% vs. 83.6%, p=0.333) or mean (SD) total BP score between in-person and other (video/pamphlet) methods (5.33 (3.0) vs. 5.33 (2.89), p=0.997), respectively. Age was not a significant predictor for BP scores (p>0.094), but indication for scope did predict total BP score, albeit irrespective of delivery method. Patients who underwent colonoscopy for an indication of IBD had higher total BP scores than those without (M=6.81, SD=2.66 vs. M=5.06, 2.93, p=0.005) and patients who had polyp had lower BP scores than those without (M=2.58, SD=2.07 vs (M=5.59, SD=2.89, p=0.001). Conclusion(s): In conclusion, method of BP instruction delivery for pediatric patients undergoing colonoscopy does not impact quality of BP. Further studies are required to explore the role of parental factors such as education, socioeconomic status, or primary language on BP quality as well as the role of waiting times for endoscopy on the retention of information.

13.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition ; 75(Supplement 1):S494-S495, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2057944

ABSTRACT

Background: The utilization and reimbursement of technology-based health care services has drastically increased, especially in the era of COVID-19. However, they are not universally accessible and are disproportionately utilized, which can exacerbate already existing disparities Objective: To evaluate differences in technology-based health care usage in an academic pediatric gastroenterology practice based on demographic characteristics and the Area Deprivation Index (ADI), a validated composite index of socioeconomic status (SES). Design/Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of new patients seen in the Pediatric Gastroenterology Clinic at the Children's Hospital Colorado for constipation from 1/1/2019-12/31/2020. Demographic variables and number of secure messages, telephone calls, telehealth visits, and emergency department (ED) visits for constipation were extracted for up to one year. We assigned each patient a state and national ADI based on home address. Univariate negative binomial regression models were used to determine significance. We also used a Poisson regression model to better understand the interplay between ED visits, technology-based health care usage, and SES. Result(s): 2087 patients were included in our study. The predicted mean number of patient-initiated secure messages (P=0.04) and phone calls (P=0.03) were significantly less in those with lower socioeconomic status (higher state ADI) (Figure 1). Socioeconomic status based on both state and national ADI did not significantly affect telehealth video usage. The predicted mean number of telehealth video visits and patient-initiated secure messages were significantly lower in Hispanic patients (P<0.001 and P<0.001), non-English speakers (P<0.001 and P<0.001), and those with government insurance (P=0.02 and P<0.001) (Table 1). The predicted mean number of patient-initiated phone calls was also significantly lower in Non-English speakers (P=0.02). The Poisson regression model showed that when the number of patient-initiated secure messages and telephone calls is small, lower SES is associated with more ED visits. As the number of patient-initiated secure messages and telephone calls increase, the extent of the positive association between low SES and ED visits attenuated gradually and eventually became negatively associated (P=0.04 and P=<0.001). This relationship was not significant for telehealth video visits. Conclusion(s): Patients with lower socioeconomic status, non-English speakers, and Hispanic patients utilize technology-based health care services significantly less. Thus, while technology-based health care services may help to increase access to care for some patients, it is important to minimize barriers and prevent the worsening of already-existing inequities in health care access. Improving access to secure messaging and telephone calls in patients with low SES may help to prevent constipation-related ED visits as well as reduce healthcare costs.

14.
European Physical Education Review ; 28(4):1025-1041, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2053540

ABSTRACT

The limited amount of research on the influence of social status during group work in physical education has typically focused on interactions and power. What is less understood is whether social status has an impact on various physical education outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity, game performance, and knowledge outcomes of high- and low-status fifth-grade students during a physical education field hockey unit delivered utilising the Sport Education model. 44 students completed sociometric peer nomination surveys to determine the social status hierarchy of all students in the class. Students wore accelerometers to measure moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during the unit. Pre- and post-unit game performance and knowledge were assessed through the Team Sport Assessment Procedure and cognitive tests, respectively. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed no significant difference between high- and low-status students' average MVPA over all phases of the unit (pre-season, season and post-season), while analysis of covariances revealed significant differences in game performance and field hockey knowledge based on social status. Results suggest while physical activity levels were similar between high- and low-status students, some lower-status students were at risk in terms of developing skills and knowledge. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of European Physical Education Review is the property of Sage Publications Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

15.
Asian Anthropology (1683478X) ; 21(3):197-210, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2037117

ABSTRACT

This research examines two groups of young Western entrepreneurs' experiences of leaving China during the Covid-19 pandemic, either due to business failure or due to being stuck abroad when China closed its border to international travelers. Based on semi-structured long-distance interviews with twenty young white entrepreneurs who had previously worked in different Chinese cities, this article highlights the impacts of the Covid-19 crisis on their businesses, social status, and identities before and during the pandemic. We identify two prominent themes in our respondents' highly emotional reflections on their involuntary return experiences: loss and victimhood. We argue that such narratives betray multi-layered tensions between privileges and precariousness in the social construction of whiteness in a transnational context. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Asian Anthropology (1683478X) is the property of Routledge and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

16.
Voprosy Ginekologii, Akusherstva i Perinatologii ; 21(3):28-35, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033519

ABSTRACT

Objective. To assess the effectiveness of different preventive measures for novel coronavirus infection in pregnant women. Patients and Methods. This study included 125 pregnant women hospitalized with moderate to severe laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between September and November 2021 (the fourth pandemic wave), and 175 pregnant women who were not infected with COVID-19 during the same period. All women in these two groups were comparable for gestational age (II–III trimesters, 24–39 weeks), age (20–40 years), social status, parity, body mass index, and had no known COVID-19 risk factors. Results. Our findings revealed that vaccination 3-5 months before pregnancy (OR = 4.12;95% CI 1.28–13.27;χ2 = 0.022), inconsistent use and/or non-timely replacement of face masks (OR = 5.71;95% CI 2.83–11.51) were associated with the increased risk of COVID-19 in the second and third trimesters of gestation. It was showed that systematic (once in the morning at 24–48-hour intervals) intranasal administration of recombinant interferon alpha-2b (IFN-α;Grippferon) as compared with a single application after exposure to COVID-19 reduced the disease incidence rate and there was no evident risk of illness (OR = 0.08;95% CI 0.05–0.14;19.2% vs 74,3%, p < 0.001). This can be explained by the fact that women were mostly infected in unpredictable conditions (e.g., 29.2% of pregnant women were infected from family members, 23.9% had unknown source of exposure). The use of umifenovir, not currently authorised for the medication-assisted prevention of COVID-19 in pregnant women, and rectal administration of IFN-α suppositories did not reduce the disease incidence rate. Rectal use of IFN-α suppositories by pregnant women off-label increased the incidence (32.0 vs 15.4%, p = 0.001) and risk of developing novel coronavirus infection (OR = 2.58;95% CI 1.48–4.50). Conclusion. There is a need to improve awareness among pregnant women about the mandatory and timely vaccination against COVID-19 during pregnancy and the importance of strict adherence to wearing face masks. Increased efforts should be made to monitor and inform pregnant women about the use of only authorised medication-assisted preventive measures of SARS-CoV-2 infection, such as intranasal administration of recombinant IFN α-2b (Grippferon). During the epidemic rise in COVID-19 cases, the systematic intranasal administration of recombinant interferon-based medication Grippferon (once in the morning at 24–48-hour intervals) is recommended for pregnant women.

17.
HemaSphere ; 6:3064-3065, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032171

ABSTRACT

Background: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the largest group of hematological malignancies and represented 12% of all new cancer cases in metropolitan France in 2018. The survival outcomes of NHL patients have improved due to important therapeutic advances. Age-standardized 5-year net survival from 2010 to 2015 in France was 86% for follicular lymphoma (FL) and 61% for diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), which are above the average survival rates in Europe (FL 72% and DLBCL 51%). In this context, the question of quality of life in NHL patients is garnering increasing interest. To the best of our knowledge, few data from France have addressed the issue of living conditions of long-term NHL survivors at the scale of the general population. Aims: To identify the clinical and social determinants of long-term health related quality of life (HRQoL) in NHL survivors in the general population and to describe their socio-professional reintegration, socio-economic status, sexual wellbeing and the impact of COVID. Methods: All patients were registered in the population-based cancer registry specialized in hematological malignancies in the Côte d'Or area (A French Department with a total of 532,901 residents in 2019). We identified patients diagnosed with DLBCL or FL according to the third edition of the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O- 3), from January 1st 2010 to December, 31st 2017, and who were still alive on March, 1st 2021, with an updated address. Patients under 18 years old and adults unable to provide consent were not eligible. In March 2021, patients completed standardized self-report questionnaires for HRQoL (SF-12), anxiety and depression (HADS), social support (SSQ6), socio-economic deprivation (EPICES). Reminders were sent to non-responders after one month. The determinants of HRQoL were identified using a generalized linear model. Results: Among 436 patients diagnosed, 248 were alive at the study endpoint, of whom 157 (FL 51% and DLBCL 49%) completed the questionnaires, yielding a response rate of 63.3%, the median of time since diagnosis was 76 months [39-133]. The mean age of participants was 67.3 years (SD = 12.4), 55% were men, 74% Ann Arbor stage III-IV, 78% were treated by chemotherapy and immunotherapy, with 99% in the DLBCL group, 11% relapsed after treatment, 64% had no comorbidities and 62% did not have socio-economic deprivation, 27% were employed at the time of the survey, 60% of survivors had not received information about sexuality, 29% reported a negative impact of the disease on their professional activities, 54% reported an impact of the COVID crisis on their life. This impact was socio-economic for 77% and psychological for 23% of respondents. The main factors associated with a negative impact on HRQoL were depression, anxiety, and loss of sexual desire. Summary/Conclusion: Six years after diagnosis, clinical parameters did not have a major influence on HRQoL, except for relapse. The main determinants of HRQoL identified were psychological and social factors. All these elements are potential targets for specific interventions by the social system to improve HRQoL in NHL patients.

18.
The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Global Studies ; 17(1):53-75, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2030457

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is an exemplar of the consequences of global economic development contributing to national crises that require supranational cooperation, collaboration, and coordination to address. Threat and use of deadly force will fail to overcome these crises and is likely to worsen them. The nuclear setting proffers such responses as potentially suicidal. Growing awareness of economic and political interdependency is expanding de facto awareness of existing in a global polity. Complex interdependency presents opportunities to develop further these critical global polity collective capacities. Strategic neo-functionalism can promote cosmopolitan political attitudes and values via creation and promotion of vested interests in global integration. Social identity theory posits three forms of social identity management on the basis of four primary individual impulse axioms: (1) a distinctive motivation of the subject is to maintain a positive self-image;(2) subjects form in-groups vis-à-vis out-groups;(3) individuals comparatively evaluate the social status of their in-groups with significant out-groups;and (4) individuals tend to equate the comparative status of their ingroup with their self-image. If and when individuals comparatively evaluate themselves negatively within their societal contexts, then they will respond psychologically and socially, individually and collectively. Social justice movements press for the accommodation of differences to cease using them as a basis for ascriptive hierarchical community societal status differentiation. This accommodation takes the form of creation of substantive social creativity capacities that ultimately produce measurable, exploited social mobility opportunities. It aims to be policy relevant by underscoring the tasks confronting regime strategists for managing nationalism.

19.
Children (Basel) ; 9(8)2022 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023219

ABSTRACT

(1) Objective: Evidence suggests that comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) can protect and empower younger generations to advocate for their reproductive health and wellbeing. This survey aims to investigate the current status and influencing factors of CSE among Chinese junior high school students, and to evaluate its correlation with the learning experience of sex education and subjective social status (SSS) to provide evidence for the implementation of CSE in the future. (2) Methods: A total of 4109 participants aged 11 to 16 years were recruited using data from a cross-sectional survey among junior high school students in China in 2021. CSE knowledge, attitude, and skills were used to generate the CSE comprehensive capacity by a principal component analysis. One-way ANOVA was used to assess the different effects of school sex education and family sex education. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the association between CSE comprehensive capacity and SSS. (3) Results: The average score of CSE comprehensive capacity was 82.44 ± 8.60 (with a total score of 100 points) among participants. After the adjustment, subjective social status was positively related to CSE comprehensive capacity (B = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.20-0.36), and SSS (School) (beta = 0.62) had a higher impact on CSE comprehensive capacity compared to SSS (Family) (beta = -0.10). School sex education was associated with the CSE knowledge level with a larger magnitude compared to family sex education (mean deviation = -0.53, p = 0.031), whereas family sex education was related to the CSE skill level with a greater magnitude (mean deviation =1.14, p = 0.005). (4) Conclusions: These findings suggest that sex education at school and within the family might have a different impact on CSE capacity, which was positively associated with SSS among junior high school students.

20.
Psychology of Men & Masculinities ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2016591

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is causing extensive job loss leading to a loss of social status in many men. Endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology may render some men particularly sensitive to status loss and thereby to an increased risk for suicidality. In this anonymous online survey conducted in German-speaking European countries, 490 men completed questionnaires regarding loss of social status due to the COVID-19 pandemic, past-month and lifetime suicide attempt and suicidal ideation. Furthermore, endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology and prototypical and male-typical externalizing depression symptoms were measured. Out of a total of 490 men, 14.7% of men reported experiencing status loss due to the pandemic. These men were more than four times as likely to have attempted suicide in the past month (OR = 4.48, 95% CI [1.72, 11.67]) and more than twice as likely to report suicidal ideation during the past 2 weeks (OR = 2.47, 95% CI [1.42, 4.28]), than men not reporting status loss. Status loss, but not endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology, was associated with suicide outcomes. However, when male-typical externalizing depression symptoms and prototypical depression symptoms were included in the models, they exhibited the only direct associations with suicide outcomes (e.g., for past-month suicide attempt: male-typical externalizing depression symptoms OR = 2.18, 95% CI [1.31, 3.62], prototypical depression symptoms OR = 2.41, 95% CI [1.13, 5.12]). A significant interaction between status loss and endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology further suggests an enhancing moderating effect of traditional masculinity on the relationship between status loss and past-month suicide attempts (OR = 3.27, 95% CI [1.16, 9.27]). Status loss due to the COVID-19 pandemic emerges as risk factor for suicide in men. Men who experience status loss due to the COVID-19 pandemic while concomitantly exhibiting strong endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology have an additional increased risk of suicide. Public Significance Statement Status loss due to the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly among men with strong endorsement of traditional masculinity ideologies, may play a critical role in understanding the elevated suicide rates in the aftermath of the most acute phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Health care policy should specifically target men with experienced status loss due to the COVID-19 pandemic in suicide prevention programs and swiftly design mental health care campaigns tailored to the group of men with strong endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology.

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