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1.
International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1840158

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Given the increasing need after the outbreak of COVID-19 to encourage restaurant customers to dine in, the purpose of this paper is to examine the effects that anthropomorphic cues jointly with brand awareness and subjective social class have on restaurant-visit intention. Design/methodology/approach: To better comprehend the use of anthropomorphic cues, this paper involved two studies that used two types of anthropomorphic cues: (1) non-food (a spoon) and (2) food ingredients. For each study, a 2 × 2 mixed factorial design was used. Findings: Using three-way mixed ANOVAs, the results from Study 1 confirmed that adding anthropomorphic cues to a non-food object (a spoon) could induce positive effects for restaurants with lower brand awareness, especially among individuals with low subjective social class. In contrast, Study 2 showed that adding anthropomorphic cues to a food ingredient (e.g. tomato, lettuce and olive) had a weaker effect on restaurants with high brand awareness, especially among individuals with a high subjective social class. Practical implications: Marketers should use anthropomorphism strategies based on their target customers, especially if their brand is less popular. Originality/value: Using the theoretical framework from the elaboration likelihood model, this paper contributes to the anthropomorphism literature by showing how an anthropomorphized image that fits an individual’s interests could trigger a careful thinking process that leads to differential behaviors based on brand awareness. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

2.
Anadolu Psikiyatri Dergisi ; 22(4):194-199, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1823934

ABSTRACT

Objective: At the dawn of the new decade of the 20th century, the world was taken aback by the scourge of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study aimed to study the nature of religious coping of frontline healthcare workers seen through the perspective of gender, socio-economic status, and occupation. Methods: An online-based study was carried out among frontline healthcare workers involved in the care of COVID-19 patients (n = 200). Sociodemographic data form and the Brief Religious Coping scale were used in this study. Results: There were more female healthcare workers (60.5%) and doctors (69.5% vs. 30.5%). Healthcare workers used more positive religious coping than negative religious coping (median score: 22 vs. 9). Positive religious coping was seen more in females (median score: 23 vs. 21, P = .015). Non-doctors applied positive coping more than doctors (median score: 26 vs. 21, P < .001). There were significant differences in positive religious coping scores across income groups, with the B40 group having the highest score (median score: 24). Post hoc pairwise comparison concluded that the B40 group had significantly higher positive religious coping scores than the M40 group. Conclusion: Positive coping was utilized more among female healthcare workers, nondoctors, and the lowest socio-economic group. As prior literature has shown that positive religious coping is desirable and has superior mental health outcomes, our findings show that more effort should be channeled into enhancing positive religious coping, particularly among male healthcare workers, doctors, and the middle and high socio-economic group. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

3.
Education Sciences ; 12(4):283, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1809785

ABSTRACT

In the early school years, the emphasis is more and more on cognitive output factors. Non-cognitive development is receiving less attention than before, though such factors are important determinants of academic success. This study aims at answering two questions: (1) How do young children perform on a number of non-cognitive characteristics, more specifically, attitudes, behavior, and relationships? (2) Are there any differences with regard to those characteristics according to the pupils’ social and ethnic/immigrant background? To answer the questions, data from the Dutch large-scale cohort study COOL5-18 were analyzed. The main sample included nearly 6500 grade 2 pupils (6-year-olds). Teachers answered questions about their pupils’ attitudes, behavior, and relationships. One- and two-way analyses of variance were employed, and effect sizes were computed. The results showed that the teachers rated their pupil’s work attitude as lower than their behavior and popularity. They were more positive regarding their relationship with the pupils. More important was that there were differences according to the pupils’ social and ethnic/immigrant backgrounds: ethnic minority/immigrant pupils scored less positive on all non-cognitive characteristics than native Dutch pupils, and the higher the parental educational level, the more favorable their children performed on the non-cognitive characteristics. These findings are discussed and possible solutions are presented.

4.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(4):LC06-LC09, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1798690

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Until sufficient herd immunity is generated in the population, contact tracing, testing, and quarantining should be continued as key interventions in breaking the chain of transmission of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Aim: To identify appropriate strategies for testing of the travellers, who were coming from high-risk areas by analysing patterns of testing among COVID-19 positive returnees. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in Community Medicine Department, Government Medical College, Palakkad, Kerala, India, during 25th Sepetember 2020 to 15th October 2020, using the secondary data available from the database of COVID-19 Contact Tracing Cell (CCTC) to determine the testing pattern among the laboratory confirmed cases of COVID-19 positive returnees in Palakkad district. Only COVID-19 positive travellers returning to Palakkad district in May 2020 were included in the study, thus the sample size obtained was 122. Data regarding age, gender, co-morbidity, presence of symptom and time of its onset, time of swab collection and reporting of results which were collected by CCTC were analysed. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 was used to analyse the data collected by CCTC. Quantitative variables were summarised as means with standard deviations and median with interquartile ranges. Qualitative variables were summarised as percentages. Results: Between arrival and swab collection there was mean duration of 6.9±3.8 days and a median duration of 7 days among the total positive returnees. Among the asymptomatic cases the mean duration was found to be 7.4±3.6 days for the same. Between day 10 and day 12 of quarantine 79%-91% of the cases have given swabs for Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) testing. This had yielded 90% positive reporting within 14 days of quarantining. Total 10 cases were diagnosed after 14 days of quarantine due to late swab collection while in quarantine. Mean duration between symptom onset and swab collection among 22 symptomatic cases was 1.9±1.6 days (median= 2 days). Conclusion: Testing of asymptomatic returnees from high risk area may be initiated (swab collection) by day 10 as swabs collected around 10th day of quarantine capture maximum number of positive cases. A delayed initiation for testing may prolong the time taken for diagnosis. Those who have tested negative during 14 days of quarantine should self-monitor for symptoms and reduce contact with high risk persons for one more week.

5.
Social work and the COVID-19 pandemic: International insights ; : 103-109, 2020.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1793132

ABSTRACT

Research by the Office of National Statistics into COVID-19-related deaths in the UK up to April 2020 provides clear evidence that working-class people in the most deprived areas of England and Wales are the most likely to die after contracting the virus. We know that COVID-19 is both virulent and highly contagious, the key factor in its global spread, our collective susceptibility and the reason why isolation and lockdowns are so important. We also know that, from a very timely report by the World Health Organization, global healthcare provision was almost completely unprepared to deal with the pandemic, despite it being known that such an occurrence was highly likely. The WHO's Strategic Preparedness and Response plan, initially published weeks before the pandemic was declared and later updated, outlined how poorly equipped global healthcare services were. Experiences have illustrated this, with too few beds, staff and equipment a universal phenomenon. This chapter focuses on the question of vulnerability of specific population cohorts, to develop an analysis of what it is that makes them so. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

7.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 15: 711-723, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760060

ABSTRACT

Background: Whether the pandemic can be effectively prevented and controlled depends on the entire population's adherence to recommendations and preventive behaviors. The present study aimed to investigate the social class differences and internal mechanisms of prevention behaviors in the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We conducted an online cross-sectional survey among the general Chinese population at the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey website's subscribers could access the questionnaire through the Tencent online platform, and a total of 1948 participants voluntarily completed it. Most of the participants were female (n = 1257, 64.528%), between the ages of 18-29 (n = 999, 51.284%), university graduates (n = 1015, 52.105%), and had an annual family income below 100,000 yuan (n = 1119, 57.444%). The differences in COVID-19 prevention behaviors among different social classes, the mediating role of infectious threat perception and the moderating role of perceived epidemic transparency were examined. Results: 1) There were significant differences in prevention behaviors among different social classes. 2) The level of infectious threat perception played a mediating role in the relationship between social class and prevention behavior. When the individuals were from a lower social class, the level of threat perception and the level of COVID-19 prevention behaviors were also lower. 3) Perceived epidemic transparency played a moderating role in the relationship between social class and COVID-19 prevention behavior. It also played a moderating role in the relationship between social class and infectious threat perception. Conclusion: In the implementation of epidemic prevention and control measures, different social classes should be targeted and guided differently. In particular, lower-class individuals can be guided by improving the perceptions of epidemic transparency and infectious threat.

8.
Paediatr Child Health ; 27(1): 25-31, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735623

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Recent studies highlight synergies for families receiving early childhood literacy support from their health care provider and public library, with more reading at home and higher quality book-sharing interactions. Our primary objective was to determine the percentage of Children's Hospital Winnipeg Ambulatory Clinic's patients who had ever used a public library. The clinic has a longstanding early-childhood literacy program and serves remote communities and low-income Winnipeg families. Methods: A structured survey was administered to parents or legal guardians by the first author. It explored library barriers and covariates that might affect library use. Analysis included descriptive statistics and a logistic regression model for predictors of library use. Results: Ninety-seven nearly consecutive surveys were administered, half prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Most respondents were female, from Winnipeg, and in the two lowest neighbourhood income quintiles. Roughly half (46.4%) of children had used a library. Most respondents wanted health care providers to promote literacy and provide information about public libraries, and more supported in-clinic distribution of books. The number of children per household positively predicted library use, possibly a proxy for experience with community resources. About 2/3 of respondents believed that library fines should be abolished. Most identified other barriers, for example, inconvenient hours, distance, or concerns about COVID-19. Conclusion: Less than half of surveyed families used public libraries, citing multiple barriers, including fines. Moreover, not all health care providers can offer new books and anticipatory guidance. Clinics that promote use of public libraries may therefore represent a low-cost, stand-alone alternative.

9.
J Community Psychol ; 2022 Mar 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729141

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has detrimentally affected the mental health of lower income communities. We sought to investigate the relationship among multilevel social support, specifically individual-, network-, and neighborhood-level social supports, COVID-19-related stressors, and probable diagnoses of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress (PTS), within a racially diverse and predominantly low-socioeconomic status population. We used multiple logistic regressions to assess the odds of diagnosis for high versus low social support and stressor levels. Participants who endorsed high levels of stress had significantly higher odds of probable diagnoses. Participants who endorsed low individual-level social support had higher odds of probable depression and anxiety. Those who endorsed low neighborhood-level social support had higher odds of probable depression and probable PTS. Network-level social support was not significantly associated with the health indicators of interest. Results indicate the importance of both individual- and neighborhood-level support to protect mental health during COVID-19.

10.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; 83(4-B):No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1716901

ABSTRACT

I propose a novel explanation for many of the social class disparities documented across the social and behavioral sciences: the "thick skin bias." Across 33 studies, I show that people of lower socioeconomic status (SES) are systematically perceived to be less harmed by negative events than higher-SES people, even when this is patently false. In Chapter 1, I provide initial demonstrations of this thick skin bias, rule out multiple alternative explanations, and show that the bias extends to judgments about children as young as five and to judgments made by several professional populations and a nationally representative sample of the U.S. In Chapter 2, I investigate one mechanism underlying the thick skin bias: an overgeneralization of the sometimes accurate intuition that perceptions adapt to prior levels of exposure (as in psychophysical adaptation). Chapter 3 extends the thick skin bias to the context of gender-based violence, and Chapter 4 extends it to the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Chapter 4 also tests the efficacy of providing people with an informational prime as a method of reducing the thick skin bias: information reduces, but does not fully reverse, the perception that people in poverty are less harmed by negative events. A brief conclusion charts future directions for research on the causes and consequences of and potential cures for the thick skin bias. Taken together, the work in this dissertation offers a new direction for research on social class stereotypes and provides a new perspective on how biased beliefs about people in poverty justify, perpetuate, and exacerbate economic inequality. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

11.
Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies ; 19(3):56-111, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1688369

ABSTRACT

This article focuses on a particular group in capitalist society that is disabled, demeaned and denied by capitalism itself, through processes of economic exploitation, systematic and systemic class exclusion, and discrimination/ prejudice-that is-the working class. In doing so I recognise that the working class (defined as all those who sell their/ our labour power) is segmented horizontally into 'layers,' or strata (for example, the dispossessed, unemployed, unskilled, though to the supervisory. managerial level/ stratum) and also vertically, for example, by 'race'and by gender, with particular ethnic groups, and women in general, disabled and oppressed and exploited to a greater degree than their/ our white, male sisters and brothers). Analysing from a Classical Marxist perspective I address the structures of the capitalist state through which this exclusion and 'subalternising'is imposed, through formal state structures such as education, media, the panoply of state force and class law, as well as through the material power of the capitalist class, expressed through, for example, wage suppression and enforced immiseration of the majority of the working class. In doing so I address two types of neo-Marxist analysis- 'Structuralist neo-Marxism' and 'Culturalist neo-Marxism', and the dialectical relationship between them. They differ on such matters as: the degree of 'relative autonomy' for resistant agency;the relative impact and import of cultural-ideological as against structural- material analysis;and the salience or not of social class analysis, the Capital-Labour relation, vis-a vis other forms of oppression such as 'race;and gender', and their implications for political resistance and organisation at the cultural-ideological level and at the level of power, the material power to reform and revolutionise economic and social relations of Capital. I propose an activist programme of resistance at two levels. Firstly, societal level, looking at Marxists such as Marx and Engels, Rosa Luxemburg, Lenin, Trotsky and the dialectical relationship between Reform and Revolution. Secondly, at the level of Education, both formal and informal (through social movements, political parties, trade unions, through public pedagogy for example). Within the formal education structures, I advance specific proposals regarding schooling and teacher education. This is a panoptic paper- the issues above are linked in terms of Classical Marxist analysis of capitalism, class exploitation and oppression, and the implications of such analysis for the praxis and politics of resistance.

12.
Safety and Health at Work ; 13:S167, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1677036

ABSTRACT

Introduction:Coronavirus disease 2019(Covid19) is more common in some occupations and also many workers have been influenced in term of socioeconomic conditions in this period.The aim of this study is to investigate the occupational distribution of the patients diagnosed with Covid19, in two dimensions that work-related covid19 transmission(WRCT) and pandemic-related economic worsening(PREW). Method:The study population of this cross-sectional study was 271 workers, out of 1505 who were diagnosed with Covid19 at Hospital between 19.03.2020-04.09.2021.A structured questionnaire were applied by telephone interview.The outcomes of the study were WRCT and PREW. International Standard Classification of Occupations and Erikson-Goldthorpe social class chart was used for occupational and socioeconomic classifications.Descriptive statistics is presented. Chi square test is used in comparison of proportions. Results:Of 233 workers who accepted to participate in the study, 51.5% were male(n=120).The mean age was 37.7(±9.2).WRCT was found 3.6 times higher in healthcare workers(CI%95 1.9-6.9).PREW was observed in 53 workers(%27.7).Twenty workers had quit from their jobs(8.5%).PREW was higher in private sector(OR=6.69 CI %95 3.1-14.5).PREW was found significantly high in self-employed and small business owners compared to other social classes(p=0.001). Conclusions:Healthcare workers are expose higher biological risk factors while small business owners might be vulnerable against economical risk factor. The white collar workers who could work from home were the luckiest, the virus risk has been reduced while ensuring business continuity.

13.
Int J Cancer ; 2022 Feb 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669439

ABSTRACT

Patients with low socioeconomic status (SES) are among the most underserved groups of people regarding cancer care. Analyzing the impact of the coronavirus-induced disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on health care disparities and calling attention to inequalities in cancer care is crucial to justify and initiate adequate countermeasures. We aimed to determine whether the COVID-19 pandemic aggravated health care disparities of cancer outpatients related to their SES and analyzed patient data of the largest university center providing services for patients with hematologic and oncologic disorders in Austria from 2018 to 2021. SES was assessed using three indicators: monthly net household income, level of education and occupational prestige. In total, 1217 cancer outpatients (51.1% female) with a mean age of 59.4 years (SD = 14.2) participated. In the first year of the pandemic, the relative proportion of individuals with low income, low education level and low occupational prestige seeking cancer care at our outpatient center decreased significantly (P ≤ .015). The strongest indicator was income, with a consistent effect throughout the first pandemic year. Countermeasures and specific interventions to support cancer patients with low SES in their access to health care should be initiated and prioritized.

14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(2)2022 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625668

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is profoundly affecting the minds and behaviors of people worldwide. This study investigated the differences in the need for structure among people from different social classes and the psychological mechanisms underlying this need, as well as the moderating effect of the threat posed by the pandemic. Using data collected from non-student adults in China, we found that the lower an individual's social class, the lower their need for structure, and this effect was based on the mediating role of perceived control. However, the mediating effect was moderated by pandemic threat, and the above relationship existed only when this threat was low. When the level of pandemic threat was higher, neither the effect of social class nor of perceived control on the need for structure were significant. Specifically, in higher-threat situations, the need for structure among individuals from higher social classes and who had a higher sense of control increased significantly, meaning the mediating effect was no longer significant. This finding showed that under the threat of a pandemic, individuals who have a lower need for structure will still pursue and prefer structure and order. The theoretical and practical implications of the research are also discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , China/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Class
15.
Cogent Medicine ; 8, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1617066

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: In March 2020, approximately 57 million children were affected by massive school closures in the wake of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Many child advocates expressed concerns about the impact of physical school closures and transition to virtual learning on school-aged children's mental health and well-being, particularly those who utilized resources, such as counselling or special education, within the school system. This systematic review was done to identify a) the effect and impact of school closures on the mental health of children in grades K-12, if any, and b) to guide future research on the topic. Methods: A systematic review focused on published articles addressing the effect that COVID-19 related school closures and transition to virtual learning had on school-aged children's and adolescents' mental health. Inclusion criteria included: human studies, scholarly papers, school-aged children, SARS-CoV-2 research, mental health impacts, an article written in English, and research-based in the United States. Exclusion criteria included: not human studies, studies not available in English, individuals over 18 years old, and SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV research. The search was conducted between March 20, 2021, and April 18, 2021. Articles were further screened utilizing the PRISMA flow diagram. Once screened, included articles were reviewed by one member of the research team and a PICO-style analysis was used for each article. After the initial review, a total of 11 articles were included in this systematic review. Learning Points Discussion: We identified several areas of a child's life that school closures limited access to, such as reduced-cost meals, mental health services, and special education. Since the school closures and subsequent transition to online schooling, these resources became unavailable or limited by virtual technology. Children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds and marginalized communities were particularly vulnerable to negative mental health changes due to school closures and decreased access to school-based resources. These individuals belonging to a lower socioeconomic class are more likely to have inadequate computers to utilize in-home learning, have more unstable internet connections, and are less likely to have a caregiver that can stay home to help with their distanced learning. This research will be vital in understanding any adverse effects on children and shaping the future development of school-based programs and their funding.

16.
Psychology & Marketing ; : 16, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1589004

ABSTRACT

In two experimental studies, we tested the effect of COVID-19 vaccine scarcity on vaccine hesitancy. Based on extensive scarcity literature, we initially predicted that high (vs. low) scarcity would increase demand for vaccines, operationalized as one's willingness to receive a vaccine. Contrary to this prediction, Study 1 showed that scarcity of vaccines reduced participants' sense of priority which, in turn, also reduced their vaccination intentions. Trust in doctors moderated the effect of perceived vaccination priority on vaccination intentions such that for individuals with high trust in doctors, reduced perceived priority did not reduce their vaccination intentions as much. Study 2 replicated these effects with a more general population sample, which included at-risk individuals for COVID-19 complications. At-risk participants (vs. low-risk) had higher perceived vaccination priority, but describing vaccine doses as scarce reduced vaccination intentions similarly across both groups. Moreover, Study 2 demonstrated that compassion for others is a boundary condition of the effect of vaccine scarcity on vaccination intentions. For participants with high compassion, scarcity reduces willingness to receive a vaccine;for participants with low compassion, scarcity increases their willingness to be vaccinated. Our results suggest that health policymakers need to deemphasize the scarcity of vaccines to increase vaccine acceptance.

17.
Sport in Society ; : 18, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1585347

ABSTRACT

This study examined the impact of COVID-19 on youth sport parents based on competition level to understand how the pandemic affected youth sport and factors associated with youth returning to sport. Survey data were collected from samples of US sport parents in two waves - early in the pandemic (N = 751) and as programs began to resume (N = 707). Data showed elite sport parents were more willing to return. Although most participants returned to play, significant numbers had not resumed participation. Parent comfort was the most important factor associated with resuming. However, parents allowed children to resume play due to perceived external pressure, potentially creating stress among parents regarding sport participation decisions. Attending school in person and household income were associated with the ability to resume sport suggesting the need to provide school sport environments and consider the financial impacts of COVID-19 on sport families.

18.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583666

ABSTRACT

We examined whether (the lack of) social support can explain why researchers have found lower rates of adherence to follow public health guidelines amongst people who perceived themselves as coming from lower social class backgrounds during the COVID-19 pandemic. To do this, we surveyed 5818 participants from 10 countries during the first wave of lock-down. Contrary to previous findings, social class was not related to general adherence to COVID-19 regulations or desire to engage in citizenship behaviours (e.g., showing initiatives to help others during the pandemic). However, we found evidence of an indirect effect whereby those who perceived themselves as higher social class were more likely to be both the recipient and provider of social support which in turn predicted greater adherence and desire to engage in citizenship behaviours during the earlier wave of the pandemic. Our findings highlight the importance of social support in unlocking potential for collective cooperation (i.e., adherence to COVID-19 rules and desire to engage in citizenship behaviours). They suggest that instead of enforcing strict regulations, government authorities need to address existing social support barriers within lower income communities to facilitate cooperation from everyone in the community.

19.
ECNU Review of Education ; 4(3):615-629, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1566486

ABSTRACT

Purpose: In the domain of shadow education (private supplementary tutoring), Denmark and China may be placed at opposite ends of a spectrum. Denmark has a recently emerged, small, and high-cost sector that mostly serves low achievers, while China has a more industrialized sector with a long history and economies of scale. The paper juxtaposes the two to shed light on each. Design/Approach/Methods: The article is a personal narrative of the author's research experiences. She grew up and had initial education in China before moving to the Nordic realm for 2 years. This provided a set of initial lenses, which were subsequently deployed in research partnership from her current base in China with colleagues in Denmark. Findings: The juxtaposition raises questions that might otherwise not have been asked and provides insights that might otherwise not have been gained. Danish families hesitate to use shadow education for advantages in the egalitarian society, in contrast to Chinese patterns that stress competition and achievement. These facets have implications for the modes of shadow education and even the names of tutorial companies. Originality/Value: The paper has a methodological value in addition to its substantive insights on the trajectories of shadow education in the two countries.

20.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 76(4): 350-353, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443619

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence on the relationship between socioeconomic position (SEP) and infections with SARS-CoV-2 is still limited as most of the available studies are ecological in nature. This is the first German nationwide study to examine differences in the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infections according to SEP at the individual level. METHODS: The 'CORONA-MONITORING bundesweit' (RKI-SOEP) study is a seroepidemiological survey among a dynamic cohort of the German adult population (n=15 122; October 2020-February 2021). Dried blood samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and oral-nasal swabs for viral RNA. SEP was measured by education and income. Robust logistic regression was used to examine adjusted associations of SARS-CoV-2 infections with SEP. RESULTS: 288 participants were seropositive, PCR positive or self-reported a previous laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The adjusted odds of SARS-CoV-2 infection were 1.87-fold (95% CI 1.06 to 3.29) higher among low-educated than highly educated adults. Evidence was weaker for income differences in infections (OR=1.65; 95% CI 0.89 to 3.05). Highly educated adults had lower odds of undetected infection. CONCLUSION: The results indicate an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in low-educated groups. To promote health equity in the pandemic and beyond, social determinants should be addressed more in infection protection and pandemic planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Promotion , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
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