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1.
Prev Med Rep ; 28: 101834, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851950

ABSTRACT

The control of human flow has led to better control of COVID-19 infections. Japan's state of emergency, unlike other countries, is not legally binding but is rather a request for individual self-restraint; thus, factors must be identified that do not respond to self-restraint, and countermeasures considered for those factors to enhance its efficacy. We examined the relationship between sociodemographic factors and self-restraint toward social behaviors during a pandemic in Japan. This cross-sectional study used data for February 18-19, 2021, obtained from an internet survey; 19,560 participants aged 20-65 were included in the analysis. We identified five relevant behaviors: (1) taking a day trip; (2) eating out with five people or more; (3) gathering with friends and colleagues; (4) shopping for other than daily necessities; (5) shopping for daily necessities. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between sociodemographic factors and self-restraint for each of the behaviors. Results showed that for behaviors other than shopping for daily necessities, women, those aged 60-65, married people, highly educated people, high-income earners, desk workers and those who mainly work with interpersonal communication, and those with underlying disease reported more self-restraint. Older people had less self-restraint than younger people toward shopping for daily necessities; an underlying disease had no effect on the identified behavior. Specialized interventions for these groups that include recommendations for greater self-restraint may improve the efficacy of the implementing measures that request self-restraint.

2.
International Journal of Nursing Education ; 14(2):118-130, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-1836626

ABSTRACT

Background: The global coronavirus disease pandemic of 2019 (COVID-19) has caused health care provider to experience extraordinary psychological stress. Objective: This study assessed the psychological well-being of nurses during the COVID-19 outbreak and factors associated with it. Methods: An online survey was sent to all nurses working at the Ministry of Health Hospitals and living in Tabuk city, Saudi Arabia. A total of 219 nurses were completed the survey. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale -- 21 items (DASS-21) assessed the psychological well-being of respondents in the previous week. Results: One -quarter of nurses (24.7%) reported extremely severe symptoms of anxiety, more than one third (37%) reported extremely sever symptoms of stress, less than one quarter (14.1%) reported extremely sever symptoms of depression. Higher anxiety scores were significantly associated with direct contact with confirmed COVID 19 cases (p= 0.08), general health status (p= 0.001) and marital status (p= 0.042). Higher DASS-21 Stress scores were significantly associated with working more than eight hours per shift (p=0.024), marital status(P=0.036) and general health status (p <0.001). Higher DASS-21 Depression scores was significantly associated general health status (p <0.001). Conclusions & implication for practice: The COVID-19 outbreak has had a significant effect on the psychological well-being of Saudis nurses, particularly nurses who were married, had contact with COVID 19 cases, had working more than eight hours per shift, and had poor general health status. Protecting the psychological health of nursing staff is essential, nursing leaders are in charge of providing social support for nurses so that they will be able to cope with their anxiety, stress, and depression.

3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792353

ABSTRACT

Older adults are at a high risk of experiencing severe complications of influenza. Receiving a vaccination is a beneficial strategy to prevent the disease and reduce the severity of influenza illnesses. This cross-sectional questionnaire-based study aimed to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic, clinical, and mental parameters as well as other potential risk factors on refusal to vaccinate against influenza among the elderly population in Poland. Furthermore, due to the prevailing COVID-19 pandemic, we put efforts into finding any statistical correlations between the fear of COVID-19 infection in patients and their attitudes toward receiving an influenza vaccination. The study was conducted in November-December 2020 in Poland on a representative nationwide sample of 500 individuals aged > 60. Of the respondents, 62 (12.4%) and 51 (10.2%) underwent influenza vaccination in 2019 and 2020, respectively. Out of ten different factors analyzed in this study, three were significantly associated with attitudes towards influenza vaccination. Participants with net income below the national average of PLN 3000 (OR = 2.37, CI 95% [1.26-4.47]), compared to those earning more than PLN 3000, had significantly higher odds of having a negative attitude towards influenza vaccination. Furthermore, respondents with <174 cm height (OR = 2.56, CI 95% [1.51-4.33]) and those with strong fear of COVID-19 infection (OR = 1.65, CI95% [1.02-2.66]) were also more likely to refrain from influenza vaccination. We believe the identification of factors limiting the willingness to receive influenza vaccination is an effective way to help clinicians focus their efforts on educating the groups of patients with the highest odds of refusing to receive the vaccine. Moreover, it may aid the design and enforcement of national solutions or the implementation of novel legislative measures and preventive programs, increasing public confidence and promoting vaccination, especially among groups at high risk of developing this disease.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785676

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which caused the outbreak of the pandemic declared by the World Health Organization (WHO, World Health Organization) on 11 March 2020, has resulted in the introduction of many restrictions worldwide to contain the rapidly spreading pathogen. A particularly vulnerable professional group are paramedics working in Emergency Medical Teams. AIM: The main aim of this study was to investigate the influence of selected sociodemographic and clinical parameters on anxiety and depression symptoms in paramedics during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study involved 387 paramedics working in Medical Rescue Teams in Poland. The majority of respondents were male (72.35%). In order to achieve the aim of the study, an online diagnostic survey was conducted using a questionnaire of the author's own design and standardized questionnaires: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and General Anxiety Disorders (GAD-7). RESULTS: Significantly higher values were observed for all analysed scales in females compared to males. The main factors influencing the occurrence of anxiety and depression symptoms were gender, seniority at work, family relations, use of sleeping pills. Alcohol consumption increased in this professional group during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Females and users of sleep medication who work in the emergency department during a pandemic are more likely to experience symptoms of depression and anxiety. A longer length of service and satisfying relationships with family are factors in reducing these symptoms. Paramedics who are in informal relationships and single manifest more emotional problems compared to those who are married. Increased alcohol consumption can be considered as a way of coping with stress. However, further studies in this professional group are needed to assess the further impact of the pandemic on psychiatric symptoms among emergency medical workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Allied Health Personnel , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780028

ABSTRACT

The study aims to investigate whether assessment of sexual life remained stable during the COVID-19 pandemic. Two surveys were conducted among Polish adults aged 18-70 years in June 2020 (n = 2042; perspective of last 2-3 months) and in June 2021 (n = 2418; last 12 months). Data from 2017 (n = 1980) were used as a reference point. Four questions allowed for defining five sexual life assessment profiles (k-means cluster analysis). Their characteristics were presented using 12 variables and 16 factors that contributed to difficulties in sexual life. The 2020 survey showed a temporary increase in the importance of sexual life and the frequency of sexual intercourse. However, the percentage of respondents representing the most favorable profile decreased significantly over the consecutive survey periods (47.1%, 34.2%, and 32.3%, respectively). Pandemic-induced fatigue and stress as well as the permanent presence of others at home were reported as two main factors negatively affecting the frequency of sexual intercourse during the pandemic. Respondents who assessed their sexual life as poor were more likely to consider illness, depression, and low self-esteem as factors negatively impacting their sexual life in 2021 than a year earlier. The results confirmed that as the pandemic drew on, the assessment of sexual life changed compared to the time around the first lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Epidemiol Prev ; 46(1-2): 34-46, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: the levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies after the second vaccine dose decline in the following months; the administration of an additional vaccine dose (booster) is able to restore the immune system in the short period significantly reducing the risk of a severe disease. In the winter of 2021, a new particularly infectious variant caused the urgent need to increase the coverage of the booster dose. OBJECTIVES: to present, using real data, an evaluation of the efficacy of the booster dose in reducing the severe disease of SARS-CoV-2 infection in terms of hospital admissions, intensive care and death from all causes. DESIGN: descriptive study of vaccine adherence; associative study of the factors linked with adherence of vaccination and COVID-19 symptoms; associative study of vaccine effectiveness against hospital admission and mortality. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: population-based study in the Milan and Lodi provinces (Lombardy Region, Northern Italy) with subjects aged >=19 years alive at 01.10.2021, not residing in a nursery home, followed up to 31.12.2021. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: COVID-19 symptoms, hospitalization for COVID-19, intensive care hospitalization, and all-cause mortality in the period 01.10.2021-31.12.2021. RESULTS: the cohort included 2,936,193 patients at 01.10.2021: at the end of the follow-up period (31.12.2021), 378,616 (12.9%) had no vaccine, 128,879 (4.3%) had only 1 dose, 412,227 (14.0%) had a 2nd dose given since less than 4 months, 725. 806 (25%) had a 2nd dose given since 4-7 months, 74,152 (2.5%) had a 2nd dose given since 7+ months, 62,614 (2.1%) had a 2nd dose and have had the disease, and 1,153,899 (39.3%) received the booster. In the study period (01.10.2021-31.12.2021), characterized by a very high prevalence of the omicron variant, 121,620 cases (antigenic/molecular buffer positive), 3,661 hospitalizations for COVID-19, 162 ICU hospitalizations, and 7,508 deaths from all causes were identified. Compared to unvaccinated people, subjects who had the booster dose had half the risk of being symptomatic, in particular for asthenia, muscle pain, and dyspnoea which are the most commons COVID-19 symptoms. In comparison with the subjects who had the booster dose, the unvaccinated had a 10-fold risk of hospitalization for COVID-19, a 9-fold risk of intensive care, and a 3-fold risk of dying. CONCLUSIONS: this work highlights the vaccination efficacy in reducing serious adverse events for those who undergo the booster and the need to implement specific engagement policies to bring to a booster those who had taken the second dose since the longest time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 854687, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771120

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To describe the prevalence of burnout among frontline healthcare workers (HCWs) during the COVID-19 pandemic and the associated sociodemographic and occupational factors. Methods: A cross sectional survey study was carried out to study HCWs burnout using the 19-item Full Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) that includes personal, work, and patient-related burnout subscales. Bivariate analysis was used to test for associations and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 207 responses received; where the mean score of personal burnout was 67.23, the mean of work-related burnout was 61.38, and the mean of patient-related burnout was 54.55. Significant associations were found; where female HCWs, those working in rotating day-and-night shifts, working more than 55-h per week, and who had their shift time and hours changed during the pandemic, had higher levels of personal and work-related burnout (P < 0.05). Patient-related burnout was higher among those who were single (divorced or separated), nurses, non-Citizens, those with fewer years of experience, and who were infected by COVID-19 and have been quarantined (P < 0.05). Age was not a significant factor of burnout in any of the CBI subscales. Conclusions: There is a prevalent level of burnout among frontline HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings highlight key sociodemographic and occupational factors affecting burnout; which can help planning for psychological support strategies. Furthermore, effective administrative control is important to institute policies and mechanisms to identify, and freely report burnout symptoms among HCWs to promote their wellbeing.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics
8.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(6): 598-601, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748316

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have occurred to determine if a patient's blood type, Rhesus factor (Rh), and sociodemographic attributes contribute to contracting SARS-CoV-2. True association remains unknown. METHODS: Inclusion criteria included in-patients who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 with blood type assessed. Study endpoints combined ABO, Rh and all-cause inpatient mortality (ACIM) with testing positivity. Pregnancy status was one of several secondary endpoints evaluated. A logistic regression analysis was used to estimate association. RESULTS: Of the 27,662 patients who met inclusion criteria, Type A blood was associated with increased positivity [1.01 (1.0-1.21), P = .03]. Type B [1.10 (0.99-1.23), P = .08] and AB [0.98 (0.81-1.19), P = .84] showed no association. When evaluating ACIM, type A [1.18 (0.91-1.52), P = .22], B [1.13 (0.82- 1.56), P = .480], and AB [1.06 (0.62-1.81), P = .839] were not associated with increased mortality. The female subgroup was less likely to test positive [0.88 (0.82-0.986), P = .002]. Black patients demonstrated a higher likelihood of positivity when compared to White [1.96 (1.79-2.14), P < .001]. Non-pregnant women exhibited a 2.5 times greater likelihood of testing positive [2.49 (2.04-3.04), P < .001]. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms results of previous research which showed SARS-Co-V-2 positivity related to blood type. It also confirms more recent research demonstrating inequities related to acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 for certain sociodemographic groups. Larger studies are warranted to confirm and further explore novel pregnancy findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy
9.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 15: 100331, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700814

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A broad vaccination coverage is crucial for preventing the spread of Covid-19 and reduce serious illness or death. The aim of this study was to examine social inequalities in Covid-19 vaccination uptake as of 17th May 2021 among Swedish adults aged ≥ 60 years. METHODS: The study population comprised a general population cohort aged 60 years or older (n = 350,805), representative of the Swedish population. Data were collected through the nationwide linked multi-register observational study SCIFI-PEARL, and associations between sociodemographic determinants and Covid-19 vaccination uptake were analysed using logistic regression. Intersectional analyses of sociodemographic heterogeneity were performed by taking several overlapping social dimensions into account. Data availability extended to 17 May 2021. FINDINGS: The overall vaccination coverage was 87·2% by 17th May 2021. Younger age, male sex, lower income, living alone, and being born outside Sweden, were all associated with a lower uptake of vaccination. The lowest Covid-19 vaccination uptake was seen in individuals born in low-or middle-income countries, of which only 60% had received vaccination, with an odds ratio (OR) of not being vaccinated of 6·05 (95% CI: 5·85-6·26) compared to individuals born in Sweden. These associations persisted after adjustments for possible confounding factors. The intersectional analyses showed even larger variations in vaccination in cross-classified sociodemographic subgroups (ranging from 44% to 97%) with marked differences in uptake of vaccination within sociodemographic groups. INTERPRETATION: The uptake of Covid-19 vaccine during the spring of 2021 in Sweden varied substantially both between and within sociodemographic groups. The use of an intersectional approach, taking several overlapping social dimensions into account at the same time rather than only using one-dimensional measures, contributes to a better understanding of the complexity in the uptake of vaccination. FUNDING: SciLifeLab / Knut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation, Swedish Research Council, Swedish government ALF-agreement, FORMAS.

10.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612641

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite generally high coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination rates in the UK, vaccination hesitancy and lower take-up rates have been reported in certain ethnic minority communities. METHODS: We used vaccination data from the National Immunisation Management System (NIMS) linked to the 2011 Census and individual health records for subjects aged ≥40 years (n = 24 094 186). We estimated age-standardized vaccination rates, stratified by ethnic group and key sociodemographic characteristics, such as religious affiliation, deprivation, educational attainment, geography, living conditions, country of birth, language skills and health status. To understand the association of ethnicity with lower vaccination rates, we conducted a logistic regression model adjusting for differences in geographic, sociodemographic and health characteristics. ResultsAll ethnic groups had lower age-standardized rates of vaccination compared with the white British population, whose vaccination rate of at least one dose was 94% (95% CI: 94%-94%). Black communities had the lowest rates, with 75% (74-75%) of black African and 66% (66-67%) of black Caribbean individuals having received at least one dose. The drivers of these lower rates were partly explained by accounting for sociodemographic differences. However, modelled estimates showed significant differences remained for all minority ethnic groups, compared with white British individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Lower COVID-19 vaccination rates are consistently observed amongst all ethnic minorities.

11.
Epidemiol Prev ; 45(6): 568-579, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607585

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to present an evaluation of the campaign for vaccination against COVID-19 in the territory covered by the Agency for Health Protection of the Metropolitan Area of Milan from 01.01.2021 to 30.09.2021. DESIGN: descriptive study of vaccine adherence; predictive study of the factors associated with vaccine adherence, efficacy of vaccination in terms of hospitalization and mortality, and factors that increase the risk of hospital admission following full vaccination. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: population-based study with subjects aged >18 years eligible for vaccination (N. 2,981,997). An information system obtained by integrating various administrative healthcare sources made it possible to analyse socioeconomic characteristics, COVID-19 related hospitalizations, and general mortality in subjects eligible for vaccination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: full vaccination (2 doses); COVID-19-related hospitalizations, COVID-19-related hospitalizations occurring more than 15 days after the second dose, general mortality. RESULTS: in the first nine months of the vaccination campaign, 74.7% of the subjects (N. 2,228,915) was fully vaccinated, whereas 15.6% (N. 465,829) did not even receive one dose. Women have a lower probability of getting vaccinated than men; the 50-59 years and 70+ years age groups emerge as the most problematic to reach, while the younger one (<40) is the most adherent. A social gradient emerged, with residents of more disadvantaged areas progressively less incline to get vaccinated than those living in more affluent areas. Adherence is greater in Italian citizenship and is likely to increase with an increase in the number of chronic conditions. Hospitalizations amounted to 1.22% (N. 5,672) in the unvaccinated population compared to 0.05% (N. 1,013) in the vaccinated population; general mortality was 4.51% (N. 15,198) in the unvaccinated population against 0.32% (N. 8.733) in the vaccinated population. Sociodemographic factors and the presence of previous health conditions are important predictors of hospitalization outcomes even within the fully vaccinated population. Specifically, the highest hazard ratios are found in subjects with heart failure (HR 2.15; 95%CI 1.83-2.53), in immunocompromised patients (HR 2.02; 95%CI 1.52-2.69), and in transplant recipients (HR 1.92; 95%CI 1.10-3.33). CONCLUSIONS: vaccination campaign adherence is affected by the sociodemographic characteristics of the population and is a determining factor in preventing hospitalizations for COVID-19 and death. The persistent higher risk of hospitalization in chronic subjects following the second dose emphasizes the need to direct booster doses to the more vulnerable. Information systems proved to be effective monitoring tools in the absence of specific trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs , Italy/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
12.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(12)2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593735

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines are crucial for achieving sufficient immunisation coverage to manage the pandemic, but vaccine hesitancy persists. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of vaccine hesitancy in adults and in parents for vaccinating their children using an integrated social cognition model. A community-based cohort in Singapore [N = 1623] completed a survey (wave 25) between June and July 2021 which measured their risk perceptions, distress, trust, vaccination beliefs, and vaccine intentions/behaviours. Results indicated low rates of hesitancy (9.9%) for own vaccination, with most concerns citing side effects, safety, and hasty development. Remaining respondents were vaccinated (69%) or intended to vaccinate (21%). The multivariable model (non-vaccinated respondents) indicated that, living with people in poor health, subjective norm, moral norm, benefits, and necessity of vaccination were associated with lower vaccine hesitancy (R2 Cox & Snell: 51.4%; p < 0.001). Hesitancy rates were higher for children's vaccination (15.9%), with male gender, lower perceived vaccine benefits, high COVID-19 risk perceptions, vaccination concerns, and necessity beliefs associated with higher odds of parental vaccine hesitancy (R2 Cox & Snell = 36.4%; p < 0.001). While levels of vaccine acceptance are high, more targeted messages are needed. For adults' vaccination, more emphasis should be on benefits and social gains, while for parental hesitancy, messages related to safety should be prioritised.

13.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(11): e31635, 2021 11 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542263

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has radically shifted living practices, thereby influencing changes in the health status and behaviors of every person. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on the self-reported health status and health behaviors along with any associated factors in adults in the Republic of Korea wherein no stringent lockdown measures were implemented during the pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a web-based self-reported survey from November 2020 to December 2020. The study participants (N=2097) were identified through quota sampling by age, sex, and geographical regions among residents aged 19 years or older in Korea. The survey collected information on basic demographics, changes in self-reported health status, and health behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Self-reported health status and health behaviors were categorized into 3 groups: unchanged, improved, or worsened. A chi-square test and logistic regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: With regard to changes in the self-reported health status, the majority (1478/2097, 70.5%) of the participants reported that their health was unchanged, while 20% (420/2097) of the participants reported having worser health after the COVID-19 outbreak. With regard to changes in health behaviors, the proportion of participants who increased tobacco consumption was similar to that of those who decreased tobacco consumption (110/545, 20.2% vs 106/545, 19.5%, respectively), while the proportion of those who decreased their drinking frequency was more than twice as many as those who increased their drinking frequency (578/1603, 36.1% vs 270/1603, 16.8%, respectively). Further, those who decreased their exercising frequency were more than those who increased their exercising frequency (333/823, 15.9% vs 211/823, 10%, respectively). The factor that had the greatest influence on lifestyle was age. In the subgroup analysis, the group aged 20-29 years had the highest number of individuals with both a worsened (100/377, 26.5%) and an improved (218/377, 15.7%) health status. Further, individuals aged 20-29 years had greater odds of increased smoking (6.44, 95% CI 2.15-19.32), increased alcohol use (4.64, 95% CI 2.60-8.28), and decreased moderate or higher intensity aerobic exercise (3.39, 95% CI 1.82-6.33) compared to individuals aged 60 years and older. Younger adults showed deteriorated health behaviors, while older adults showed improved health behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: The health status and the behavior of the majority of the Koreans were not found to be heavily affected by the COVID-19 outbreak. However, in some cases, changes in health status or health behavior were identified. This study highlighted that some groups were overwhelmingly affected by COVID-19 compared to others. Certain groups reported experiencing both worsening and improving health, while other groups reported unchanged health status. Age was the most influential factor for behavior change; in particular, the younger generation's negative health behaviors need more attention in terms of public health. As COVID-19 prolongs, public health interventions for vulnerable groups may be needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Status , Humans , Internet , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Young Adult
14.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(11): e33231, 2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505777

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the COVID-19 pandemic has left an unprecedented impact worldwide, countries such as the United States have reported the most substantial incidence of COVID-19 cases worldwide. Within the United States, various sociodemographic factors have played a role in the creation of regional disparities. Regional disparities have resulted in the unequal spread of disease between US counties, underscoring the need for efficient and accurate predictive modeling strategies to inform public health officials and reduce the burden on health care systems. Furthermore, despite the widespread accessibility of COVID-19 vaccines across the United States, vaccination rates have become stagnant, necessitating predictive modeling to identify important factors impacting vaccination uptake. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the association between sociodemographic factors and vaccine uptake across counties in the United States. METHODS: Sociodemographic data on fully vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals were sourced from several online databases such as the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the US Census Bureau COVID-19 Site. Machine learning analysis was performed using XGBoost and sociodemographic data. RESULTS: Our model predicted COVID-19 vaccination uptake across US counties with 62% accuracy. In addition, it identified location, education, ethnicity, income, and household access to the internet as the most critical sociodemographic features in predicting vaccination uptake in US counties. Lastly, the model produced a choropleth demonstrating areas of low and high vaccination rates, which can be used by health care authorities in future pandemics to visualize and prioritize areas of low vaccination and design targeted vaccination campaigns. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals that sociodemographic characteristics are predictors of vaccine uptake rates across counties in the United States and, if leveraged appropriately, can assist policy makers and public health officials to understand vaccine uptake rates and craft policies to improve them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Machine Learning , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Vaccination
15.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502542

ABSTRACT

A population's desire to take the COVID-19 vaccine is an important predictor of a country's future pandemic management. This cross-sectional study examines the impact of psychological and sociodemographic factors on attitudes toward and intentions to take the COVID-19 vaccine among students and faculty at four colleges of health professions and sciences at Qatar University. The data were collected through an online survey using Google Forms. The survey was distributed through various online platforms. Data analysis was conducted using Stata 16. Of the 364 participants, 9.89% expressed a high mistrust of vaccine safety, and 21.7% were uncertain about their levels of trust; 28% expressed strong worries about unforeseen side effects, whereas 54.95% expressed moderate worries. Furthermore, 7.69% expressed strong concerns and 39.84% showed moderate concerns about commercial profiteering. Approximately 13% of the participants expressed a strong preference towards natural immunity, whilst 45.33% appeared to believe that natural immunity might be better than a vaccine. Importantly, 68.13% of the participants intended to receive the COVID-19 vaccine once it became available, compared to 17.03% who were uncertain and 14.83% who were unwilling to be vaccinated. Our findings differ from the data on vaccine hesitancy among the general population of Qatar. We argue that this gap is due to scientific knowledge and domain of education. Furthermore, although knowledge and awareness may affect vaccine attitudes, mental health and sociodemographic factors play a role in shaping attitudes towards vaccines.

16.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211040746, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370931

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Arkansas COVID-19 vaccine uptake has been lower than the national average. This study examined associations between sociodemographic factors and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, fear of infection, and protection self-efficacy. METHODS: Adults either residing, having employment, or receiving health care in Arkansas (n = 754) participated in an online survey between October 30, 2020 and January 16, 2021. Participants were recruited in both rural and urban areas from 6 Arkansas primary care clinics. Survey questions addressed sociodemographic factors, COVID-19 infection fear, protection self-efficacy, and COVID-19 vaccine attitudes. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess associations between dependent variables and respondents' sociodemographic characteristics, COVID-19 infection fear, and COVID-19 protection self-efficacy. RESULTS: About 38% of participants reported COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Age, sex, race, and education were significantly associated with COVID-19 and general vaccine attitudes. Odds of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy decreased as age increased (OR = 0.98; P < .01). Women had higher odds of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy than men (OR = 1.52; P < .05). Respondents with a high school diploma and below and respondents with some college or a technical degree had greater odds of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy (OR = 2.58; P < .001; and OR = 1.97; P < .01, respectively) compared to respondents with a 4-year college degree. Black/African American respondents had greater odds of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy compared to White respondents (OR = 3.08; P < .001). No significant difference was observed among rural and urban respondents regarding COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy; however, respondents in rural areas were more likely to report low general vaccine trust compared to those in urban areas (OR = 1.87; P < .01). Respondents reporting no fear (OR = 5.51; P < .001) and very little fear (OR = 1.95; P < .05) of COVID-19 had greater odds of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy compared to respondents who feared COVID-19 infection to a great extent. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and general trust in vaccines differ significantly among age, sex, race, and education. These trust and hesitancy patterns are challenges for achieving population immunity and follow similar patterns of vulnerability to COVID-19. Vaccination programs and interventions must consider these differences in COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and general vaccine trust to alleviate COVID-19 disparities. Findings make a significant contribution in evaluating vaccine hesitancy among a large, diverse sample from a rural state.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Parents , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Efficacy , Vaccination
17.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-17, 2021 Jul 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336138

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic caught the decision makers in many countries sub-optimally prepared to respond. To better cope with similar situations in the future, it is vital to understand the major predictors of health-beneficial behavior and adherence to imposed mitigation measures and guidelines. To tailor the promotion of government-imposed measures, it is important to understand how the sociodemographic background combined with personality traits affect the perception and responsiveness of people. We investigated the perception and adherence to mitigation measures during the pandemic by examining their trends across several sociodemographic categories and personality dimensions. The strongest predictors of confidence in the preventive measures and their implementation were the participants' concern of infection and concern of infecting their loved ones, followed by gender and age. Education, settlement size, field and type of employment, household type, own medical problems, and the age and health of the participants' loved ones had a smaller influence on the perceived guidelines importance and implementation. Adherence to measures was positively related to the participants' score in conscientiousness and, in lesser extent, openness. Agreeableness, energy, and emotional stability correlated positively with adherence to basic guidelines. Study provides information useful for developing and adapting future public health policies and interventions. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-021-02051-5.

18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(15): e019671, 2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329070

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Influenza infection is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure exacerbation) and mortality, and all-cause mortality in patients with CVD. Infection with influenza leads to a systemic inflammatory and thrombogenic response in the host body, which further causes destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. Influenza vaccination has been shown to be protective against cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in several observational and prospective studies of at-risk populations. Hence, many international guidelines recommend influenza vaccination for adults of all ages, especially for individuals with high-risk conditions such as CVD. Despite these long-standing recommendations, influenza vaccine uptake among US adults with CVD remains suboptimal. Specifically, vaccination uptake is strikingly low among patients aged <65 years, non-Hispanic Black individuals, those without health insurance, and those with diminished access to healthcare services. Behavioral factors such as perceived vaccine efficacy, vaccine safety, and attitudes towards vaccination play an important role in vaccine acceptance at the individual and community levels. With the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, there is a potential threat of a concurrent epidemic with influenza. This would be devastating for vulnerable populations such as adults with CVD, further stressing the need for ensuring adequate influenza vaccination coverage. In this review, we describe a variety of strategies to improve the uptake of influenza vaccination in patients with CVD through improved understanding of key sociodemographic determinants and behaviors that are associated with vaccination, or the lack thereof. We further discuss the potential use of relevant strategies for COVID-19 vaccine uptake among those with CVD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Services Misuse/prevention & control , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination Coverage
19.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 8: 100158, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: From the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, age (most importantly), male gender and various comorbidities were found to be associated with severe forms of COVID-19. However, there was little information provided for an entire country such as France, which was severely affected throughout the epidemic. METHODS: In France, the SNDS, comprising all health insurance reimbursements and benefits, and the PMSI, comprising hospital data, can be used to estimate the risk associated with about fifty diseases or health conditions for hospitalization primarily related to COVID-19 and COVID-19-related deaths. A cohort was constituted comprising all people alive on February 15, 2020. Data were censored at 15 June 2020 for COVID-19-related hospitalization and at 15 July 2020 for death for patients still hospitalized for COVID-19 on 15 June 2020. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for the associations between each comorbidity (n=47) and the risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization or death. These associations were determined with adjustment for age and gender, and then in models including all variables (adjusted hazard ratios [aHR]). FINDINGS: In a population of 66,050,090 people, 87,809 people (134 per 100,000) were hospitalized for COVID-19 between February 15, 2020 and June 15, 2020 and a subgroup of 15,661 people (24 per 100,000) died in hospital.A much higher risk was observed with increasing age, reaching a risk of hospitalization for COVID-19 more than five fold higher and a risk of COVID-19-related in-hospital mortality more than 100-fold higher in people aged 85 years and older (absolute risks of 750 and 268 per 100,000, respectively) compared to people aged 40 to 44 years.Men were at higher risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization aHR 1.38 [1.36-1.40]) and COVID-19-related in-hospital mortality (aHR 2.08 [2.01-2.16]) compared to women. Positive associations between social deprivation index and risk of COVID-19 were also observed. Almost all chronic health conditions were positively associated with an increased risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization and in-hospital mortality, with the exception of dyslipidaemia, which was negatively associated. The strongest associations for both COVID-19-related hospitalization and in-hospital mortality were observed in people with Down syndrome (7.0 [6.1-8.1] and 22.9 [17.1-30.7], respectively), mental retardation (3.8 [3.5-4.2] and 7.3 [6.1-8.8], respectively), kidney transplantation (4.6 [4.2-5.0] and 7.1 [6.0-8.4], respectively), lung transplantation (3.5 [2.4-5.3] and 6.2 [2.8-14.0], respectively) end-stage renal disease on dialysis (4.2 [3.9-4.4] and 4.7 [4.2-5.2], respectively) and active lung cancer (2.6 [2.4-2.8] and 4.0 [3.5-4.6], respectively). INTERPRETATION: This national cohort study confirms the associations with most diseases and health conditions in France and provides data on less frequent health conditions, which could be useful particularly to target priority populations during present and future vaccination campaigns. FUNDING: None.

20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(11)2021 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259499

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional study utilizes data from a nationwide web-based survey aimed to identify the factors affecting the emotional well-being of Brazilian adolescents aged 12-17 during the period of school closures and confinement. Data collection took place from 27 June to 17 September 2020. We used the "virtual snowball" sampling method, and students from private and public schools were included. A total of 9470 adolescents were analyzed. A hierarchical logistic regression model was used to find the factors associated with reporting at least two of three self-reported problems-sadness, irritability, and sleep problems. The main proximal factor was loneliness (AdjOR = 8.12 p < 0.001). Problems related to school closures also played an important role. Regular intake of fruits and vegetables, as well as physical activity, demonstrated a positive influence on emotional well-being, while excessive screen time (AdjOR = 2.05, p < 0.001) and alcohol consumption negatively affected outcomes (AdjOR = 1.73, p < 0.001). As for distal variables, less affluent adolescents were the most affected, and males reported fewer emotional problems than females. Uncertainty regarding the disease in a context of socioeconomic vulnerability, together with rises in unhealthy behaviors and isolation from their immediate social circles, have negatively affected adolescents' emotional status throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
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