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1.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 37(2): 143-153, abr.jun.2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1964482

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Devido à crise sanitária mundial provocada pela disseminação da COVID-19, muitos serviços de saúde interromperam a realização de procedimentos cirúrgicos não urgentes. No cenário da Cirurgia Plástica, no qual a maioria das cirurgias são eletivas, estimam-se consequências socioeconômicas a estes especialistas. O objetivo deste estudo é dimensionar este impacto. Métodos: Os efeitos da pandemia dentro da prática clínica dos cirurgiões plásticos brasileiros foi investigada por meio de um questionário on-line, endereçado aos associados da Sociedade Brasileira de Cirurgia Plástica. Resultados: A pesquisa foi aplicada a 645 cirurgiões. A maioria dos entrevistados relatou restrições operacionais à realização de procedimentos e redução da renda, sobretudo nas regiões severamente afetadas pela pandemia. Cirurgiões plásticos com mais de 10 anos de formação foram os mais prejudicados. Elevada taxa de contaminação, sobrecarga mental, diminuição na prática de atividades físicas e uso de medicações psiquiátricas também foram relatados. Conclusão: A pandemia da COVID-19 trouxe mudanças no cenário pessoal e profissional do cirurgião plástico brasileiro. Devido à importante redução no volume de trabalho, houve impacto financeiro nos especialistas de todas as regiões do país, além de reflexos na saúde física e mental. Adaptações foram necessárias para manutenção dos atendimentos, além de exploração de novas áreas de atuação para suprir a baixa demanda de cirurgias estéticas durante a crise.


Introduction: Global sanitary crisis caused by the spread of COVID-19 induced many health services to stop performing non-urgent surgical procedures. In the scenario of plastic surgery, where most procedures are elective, socioeconomic consequences are estimated for these specialists. The objective of this study is to measure this impact. Methods: Effects of the pandemic within the clinical practice of Brazilian plastic surgeons were investigated through an online questionnaire addressed to members of the Sociedade Brasileira de Cirurgia Plástica. Results: A survey was applied to 645 surgeons. Most respondents reported operation restrictions on procedures and income reduction, especially in regions severely affected by the pandemic. Plastic surgeons with more than 10 years of experience were the most affected. High contamination rates, mental overload, decreased physical activity, and psychiatric medications have also been reported. Conclusion: COVID-19 pandemic brought changes to the personal and professional life of the Brazilian plastic surgeon. Due to the significant reduction in the workload, there were financial impacts on specialists from all country regions, besides physical and mental health issues. Adaptations were mandatory to maintain services and explore new areas of activity to supply the low demand for cosmetic surgery during the crisis.

2.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 35(4): 686-694, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963336

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 global pandemic has affected all ethnic and minority groups although not equally. The goals of the present study are twofold: describe the diverse COVID-19-related care needs Hispanic patients presenting to a primary care facility and the symptom clusters and socioeconomic factors that may impact their wellbeing. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort of Hispanic patients in an outpatient clinic serving an urban lower socioeconomic demographic, between May 9 and July 31, 2020. COVID-19 infection was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction or rapid antibody test. Student's t-test was used for means and the chi2 was used for comparisons of proportions. RESULTS: A total of 6616 patients visited Alivio, 409 were triaged to a containment area, and 378 were tested for COVID-19; 230 with, 148 without symptoms. Of those tested, 161(42.6%) were positive, representing 2.4% of total patients seen. Age, temperature, and pulse rate were all significantly higher in patients with symptoms compared with those without. Symptoms were grouped into 5 clusters: constitutional, n = 143(62%), respiratory, n = 136 (59%), and somatic, n = 97(42%) were most common. No single cluster was particularly diagnostic of COVID-19, although those with symptoms in multiple clusters were more likely to test positive, P < .001. The majority worked in essential jobs, were uninsured, and had more than half had prolonged symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Hispanic patients have diverse reasons for seeking health care and for testing in a pandemic. COVID-19 is a syndromic disease as evidenced from the clustering of symptoms. Essential workers and uninsured health status may lead to more prolonged disease course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hispanic or Latino , Humans , Pandemics , Primary Health Care , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Health Equity ; 6(1):546-553, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1960966

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The morbidity and mortality of the COVID-19 pandemic have disproportionately burdened Hispanic populations in the United States. While health equity research is typically conducted in populations where Hispanics are the minority, this project analyzes COVID-19 racioethnic transmission trends over the first 6 months of the pandemic within a large majority-minority city in South Texas. Methods: Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 across inpatient, emergency department, and outpatient settings of a large county health system were included in a clinical registry. For 4644 COVID-19-positive patients between March 16 and August 31, 2020, demographic and clinical data were ed from the registry. Race/ethnicity trends over time were compared for patients with and without COVID-19 diagnoses. Logistic regressions identified predictors of inpatient diagnosis by age, race/ethnicity, and testing delay. Results: The proportion of patients with COVID-19 identifying as Hispanic increased rapidly during the pandemic's first months: from 55.6% in March to 85.7% in June. A significantly greater proportion of patients identified as Hispanic within the COVID-19 cohort compared to other diagnoses cohort. Testing delay was 11.6% longer for Hispanic patients, with each day of testing delay associated with 7% increased odds of inpatient COVID-19 diagnosis. Conclusion: These findings highlight the disproportionate impact of COVID-19 on Hispanic populations even within a majority-minority community. In the United States, Hispanic persons are more likely to work frontline jobs, live in multigenerational homes in poverty, and be uninsured. The burden of COVID-19 cases within Bexar County's largest hospital system reflects this systemic inequity. Identifying racioethnic health disparities supports efforts toward mitigating structural factors that predispose minority groups to illness and death.

4.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1064(1):012054, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1960959

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has impacted the socio-economic well-being of people either in urban or rural areas. The Covid-19 cases and fatalities that concentrated in major urban areas in Malaysia. However, as the pandemic progressed, the rural community faced health vulnerability due to the Covid-19 pandemic threat. Among the significant impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic are income generation, economic activity work, and health vulnerability, especially the rural community involved in rural economic activities such as agriculture and fishery. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the socio-economic well-being of rural communities in Malaysia. The case study selection is in Mersing, Pontian and Batu Pahat involving three villages using GIS mapping. The methodology used is quantitative research through a household survey conducted using 182 heads of households based on the economic and social dimensions. The finding reveals that most of the target group experienced a decline in income generation, economic activity restriction, and education issues. Furthermore, there are also decreasing in the economically active population (age 15-60) in the village. As a result, this study is essential in formulating a post-Covid-19 recovery plan regarding socio-economic well-being impacts and the revival of rural community well-being in Malaysia through Geographic Information Systems (GIS) mapping.

5.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(8):1089-1091, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958134

ABSTRACT

t is well established that socioeconomic and demographic factors, such as race and ethnicity, income, and education, are independently linked to health disparities.1 Tools that combine multiple socioeconomic and demographic variables into an overall rank, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), provide a quantitative framework that can be used by policymakers to identify communities that have higher overall social vulnerability with regard to disparate health outcomes and living conditions across multiple factors, and to develop targeted interventions.2 Historically, the SVI and similar frameworks have been crafted for emergency preparedness and response and used for study and practice in more extreme natural and human-caused disaster scenarios. Over the years, the SVI has been used for public health research and practice, communications, and accessibility planning, and to target geographically specific interventions related to natural disasters such as flooding and hurricanes,3, human-caused events such as chemical spills,2 and disease outbreaks like the recent COVID-19 pandemic.4 However, addressing issues of health inequity attributable to environmental injustice is imperative, and should not be restricted to alleviating the impact of event-specific hazards. Environmental injustice in the built environment is often associated with the disproportionate placement of hazardous and industrial sites and polluting transportation infrastructure in socially vulnerable neighborhoods,5 where residents often lack the social or economic capital to influence policy decisions.6 Although existing research links housing and health equity,7 the impact of poor housing conditions and household exposures to lead, pests, and indoor air pollutants on the health and well-being of socially vulnerable populations is an important and often overlooked aspect of environmental injustice.7,8 The Environmental Protection Agency's definition of environmental justice is all-encompassing and espouses the idea that environmental justice is only achieved when "everyone enjoys: The SVI has already been used outside the realm of disaster management to better characterize obesity10 and physical fitness.11 Hollar et al. set a new precedent for the value it may bring to the environmental justice sector, and additional research should be done to understand its utility in identifying communities that may be more likely to experience other socially linked conditions associated with environmental injustice, such as routine exposure to indoor and outdoor environmental pollutants, chronic disease burden, poor working conditions, lack of greenspace, and other issues with the built environment, in addition to housing conditions.

6.
Voprosy Ékonomiki ; (1)2021.
Article in Russian | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1955503

ABSTRACT

Dramas of a unique pandemic of COVID-19, an unparalleled sharp recession and critically important presidential elections have put the difficult choices for the American society in 2020. Socio-economic development of the U.S. in XXI century has come through the series of crises, which had major impacts on the global development. The country has retained the leadership in the developed world by general economic might, innovations and dynamics of upturns. In the last three decades the demographics of the U.S. population have experienced the substantial changes, notably the number of citizens of Asian origin and Hispanic group have increased. The latter has surpassed the Afro-American group by a number of families and by an average income per family. Overall growth of income in the country has not eliminated large income disparities among social strata. Statistics of tax declarations indicate the inequality by social groups and by race. These disparities have probably played an important role in 2020 recession and pandemic development. As far as electoral behavior is concerned, the inequality factor is even more visible.Alternate :Драма уникальной пандемии, небывало острой рецессии и критически важных президентских выборов поставила общество США в 2020 г. перед трудным выбором. В социально-экономическом развитии США в XXI в. произошла серия потрясений, которые оказали огромное влияние на мировое развитие. Страна сохранила положение лидера среди развитых стран по совокупности экономической мощи, инновационному развитию, динамичности подъемов. В последние три десятилетия в США значительно изменился демографический состав населения в пользу граждан азиатского происхождения и испаноязычной группы, которая как по своей численности, так и уровню доходов на семью обогнала афроамериканскую. Общий рост благосостояния не ликвидировал большие диспаритеты по доходам между слоями общества. Статистика налоговых деклараций указывает на неравенство семей как социальное, так и по расовому признаку. По-видимому, оно сыграло значительную роль в 2020 г. и в рецессии, и в пандемии. А в электоральном поведении фактор неравенства виден еще резче.

7.
4th ACM SIGCAS/SIGCHI Conference on Computing and Sustainable Societies, COMPASS 2022 ; Par F180472:490-512, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1950297

ABSTRACT

The recent Covid-19 pandemic elucidates the need for a better disease outbreak analysis and surveillance system, which can harness state-of-the-art data mining and machine learning techniques to produce better forecasting. In this regard, understanding the correlation between disease outbreaks and socioeconomic factors should pave the way for such systems by providing useful indicators, which are yet to be explored in the literature to the best of our knowledge. Therefore, in this study, we accumulated data on 72 infectious diseases and their outbreaks all over the globe over a period of 23 years as well as corresponding different socioeconomic data. We, then, performed point-biserial and spearman correlation analysis over the collected data. Our analysis of the obtained correlations demonstrates that various disease outbreak attributes are positively and negatively correlated with different socioeconomic indicators. For example, indicators such as lifetime risk of maternal death, adolescent fertility rate, etc., are positively correlated, while indicators such as life expectancy at birth, measles immunization, etc., are negatively correlated, with disease outbreaks that affect the digestive organ system. In this paper, we find and summarize the correlations between 126 outbreak attributes derived from the characteristics of the 72 diseases in consideration and 192 socioeconomic factors which is a novel contribution to the field of disease outbreak analysis and prediction. © 2022 ACM.

8.
Ageing and Society ; 42(8):1735-1759, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1947117

ABSTRACT

Evidence that immigrants tend to be underserved by the health-care system in the hosting country is well documented. While the impacts of im/migration on health-care utilisation patterns have been addressed to some extent in the existing literature, the conventional approach tends to homogenise the experience of racialised and White immigrants, and the intersecting power axes of racialisation, immigration and old age have been largely overlooked. This paper aims to consolidate three macro theories of health/behaviours, including Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory, the World Health Organization's paradigm of social determinants of health and Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Service Use, to develop and validate an integrated multilevel framework of health-care access tailored for racialised older immigrants. Guided by this framework, a narrative review of 35 Canadian studies was conducted. Findings reveal that racial minority immigrants’ vulnerability in accessing health services are intrinsically linked to a complex interplay between racial-nativity status with numerous markers of power differences. These multilevel parameters range from socio-economic challenges, cross-cultural differences, labour and capital adequacy in the health sector, organisational accessibility and sensitivity, inter-sectoral policies, to societal values and ideology as forms of oppression. This review suggests that, counteracting a prevailing discourse of personal and cultural barriers to care, the multilevel framework is useful to inform upstream structural solutions to address power imbalances and to empower racialised immigrants in later life.

9.
Webology ; 19(3):1-34, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1940147

ABSTRACT

Cases of intimate partner violence increased manifold across the world during COVID-19. Researchers have been trying to find out indigenous factors leading to such behaviors, especially among men. Using the lens of the exosystem factor model of ecological theory, we designed the current study to identify the socioeconomic factors in deciding on the intensity of intimate partner violence and its subsequent impact on the psychological and physical wellbeing of women. In this regard, financial autonomy and asset ownership status of women, as well as financial issues and drug abuse among men, were studied as major factors. The study also investigated the moderating role of the asset ownership status of women. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to collect data from 1516 females in three waves through trained enumerators. We analyzed the moderated mediation model using the structural equation modeling (SEM) technique in AMOS version 26. Results indicated that financial autonomy and asset ownership status of women are negatively related to intimate partner violence and positively related to the psychological and physical wellbeing of women. Similarly, financial issues and drug abuse among men were found positively related to intimate partner violence and negatively related to the psychological and physical wellbeing of women. The interaction effect of the asset ownership status of women was also significant. Overall, significant moderated mediation was found. The results have several implications for various stakeholders including society, policymakers, and researchers. The study has extended the validity of the exosystem factor model of ecological theory and significantly contributed to the literature on intimate partner violence. Especially the moderating role of the asset ownership status of women based on their inherited assets was a significant contribution, especially in the context of the recent enforcement of "Women's Property Rights Act 2021" by Pakistan.

10.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 125, 2022 Jul 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital diseases of the genitourinary system in children. The European Association of Urology (EAU) Guidelines recommend that children undergoing hypospadias surgery should be between 6 and 18 months. In China, where many children have hypospadias, it remains unknown whether clinical characteristics, socioeconomic factors and COVID-19 were associated with delayed surgery in children with hypospadias. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed children with hypospadias who underwent primary surgery at the Department of Pediatric Urology in Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center between January 2010 and October 2021. Patients who had two-stage surgery or a second round of surgery due to complications were excluded to eliminate data duplication. The clinical characteristics and demographic information were collected. We defined delayed surgery as primary surgery performed after 18 months following the EAU Guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 4439 children diagnosed with hypospadias were included in the study. The median age (29.1 ± 16.7 months) of surgery for hypospadias in our study was much higher than the recommended age reported in the EAU guidelines, and 76.6% of the children underwent surgery after the age of 18 months. Children without comorbidities including cryptorchidism (odds ratio [OR] = 1.562; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.199-2.034; p = 0.001), prostatic cyst (OR = 2.613; 95% CI 1.579-4.324; p < 0.001), penile hypoplasia (OR = 1.778; 95% CI 1.225-2.580; p = 0.002), inguinal hernia (OR = 2.070; 95% CI 1.394-3.075; p < 0.001), and penoscrotal transposition (OR = 4.125; 95% CI 1.250-13.619; p = 0.020) were more likely to receive delayed surgery. Living in a low economic area (OR = 1.731; 95% CI 1.068-2.806; p = 0.026) or not close to a main medical center (OR = 1.580; 95% CI 1.370-1.824; p < 0.001) was highly associated with delayed surgery. The proportion of children undergoing delayed surgery and the median age of surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic were significantly higher than those before the COVID-19 pandemic (p = 0.004 and < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Most children with hypospadias received delayed surgery (surgical age > 18 months). Comorbidities, living in a low economic area, too far from a main medical center and the COVID-19 pandemic were highly associated with delayed surgery. It is vital to improve the public awareness of hypospadias and strengthen the re-education of primary community doctors to reduce delayed surgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypospadias , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Hypospadias/complications , Hypospadias/epidemiology , Hypospadias/surgery , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Socioeconomic Factors
11.
Geo Journal of Tourism and Geosites ; 42:794-803, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1934958

ABSTRACT

Understanding the socio-cultural background and how entrepreneurs perceive and respond to unfavourable environmental conditions is required when investigating the relationship between resilience, sustainability, and entrepreneurship from the perspective of an indigenous community. Taking into the account of theory of planned behaviour, the aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between characteristics of sustainable attitude, sustainability norms, sustainability behaviours, and opportunity recognition with indigenous entrepreneurs' adaptive resilienceThe research design employed in this study was crosssectional and correlational. The most effective approach to use is a quantitative approach to evaluate the impact of sustainable attitudes, sustainability norms, sustainability behaviours, and opportunity recognition on indigenous entrepreneurs' adaptive resilience. A questionnaire survey of 500 respondents from Malaysia's indigenous community was used to gather data. A questionnaire survey of 500 respondents from Malaysia's indigenous community was used to gather data. The findings of this study show that most indigenous groups believe that sustainability in terms of attitudes, behaviour, and opportunity recognition has increased the aim of moving forward in entrepreneurs' adaptive resilience as compared to sustainability norms. Given that resilience is a malleable competency and that there is a positive relationship between sustainable behaviour and resilience, institutional actions are required to reinforce the social esteem of the entrepreneur among indigenous community to cope with environment challenges.

12.
Media and Communication ; 10(2):276-286, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1934776

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 crisis and its aftermath challenged economies and societal sectors globally. Refugees in developing countries are particularly vulnerable to the socio-economic impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic. In Uganda, refugees significantly compose the marginalized urban population, dependent largely on the informal sector, and are severely affected by the crisis amidst limited social protection interventions. This article draws on key informant interviews with refugees and refugee-led organizations to examine the diverse ways through which social capital within refugees and host communities in Kampala enabled and shaped digitally mediated responses to sustain livelihoods, social wellbeing, and access to information and economic resources in the wake of the pandemic. The findings indicate that digitally enabled and mediated social networks and/or connections through bonds, bridges, and links are crucial in supporting refugees to cope with crisis effects. Networks of friends, families, and institutions are sustained by digital spaces that support the everyday lives of urban refugees through communication, social protection, livelihood continuity and recovery, and service improvisation during and after the crisis. The fragmented digital infrastructure, digital divide, limited government support, language barrier, and circulation of fake news challenged the utility of digital social networks in mobilizing support for refugees during the crisis. Digital technologies offer opportunities to strengthen social support and potentially mobilize refugee livelihoods in cities with fluid programs for displaced communities. The best practices around sustained multi-platform communications, technological innovations, data collection, and robust community engagement should be leveraged to garner the opportunities offered by technologies towards stimulating inclusive crisis responses.

13.
4th International Conference on HCI for Cybersecurity, Privacy and Trust, HCI-CPT 2022 Held as Part of the 24th HCI International Conference, HCII 2022 ; 13333 LNCS:492-501, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1930312

ABSTRACT

Since early 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has been significantly changing people’s daily lives as social activities are limited to slow down the spread of the novel coronavirus. New technologies, especially mobiles apps, have been widely applied to help with reducing the spread of the pandemic. However, although these apps bring many benefits, it also raises privacy issues given the amount of user information being collected and shared. The goal of this study is to understand individuals’ attitudes towards the privacy concerns on using COVID-19 apps, and their expectations on the privacy protections. By conducting the survey and collecting responses, results found that majority of the participants expressed privacy concerns on COVID-19 apps, and participants with different socioeconomic status may have different levels of willingness to use the app. Results from this study not only provide guidance for the government and app service providers on the implementation of appropriate safeguards, but also address on the needs of privacy protections for the vulnerable groups. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

14.
e-BANGI ; 19(3):162-178, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1929380

ABSTRACT

This article documents social interaction among rural and urban indigenous communities in Sarawak during the COVID-19 pandemic and their responses to the outbreak at individual, household and community levels. The study on social interaction is crucial to shed light on larger social institutions and to examine how social actions are organized across space and time. The study framed within the symbolic interactionist perspective - emphasize the role of symbols and language as the core elements of social interaction. Research methods used in the study are participant observation and interviews to understand relevant context and process. In participant observation, researchers took part in socio-cultural activities of the community in the villages and their dwellings places in urban areas and participated in social media platforms. Data from observation and interactions (face-to-face or mediated by technology) analysed based on themes and contents. The findings show that social interaction among community members significantly altered during the pandemic in terms of the mode of interactions, frequencies, locations, reasons, duration, types and topics of interactions. These include the shift of face-to-face interactions to digital interactions, reduced numbers of interactions, significant more home-based interactions, and then unequal access to digital interactions. Other findings highlight that cultural themes related to communalism, supernaturalism and family and/or children influenced the community members' engagement in social interactions. The community responses towards the outbreak varied according to the socio-economic background of individuals and households. Through these data the study shed light on how community members interacted during the pandemic;the exchanged of ideas and information, conflict during interactions, responses to the pandemic and the issues surround inequality of access to information and communication technologies.

15.
e-BANGI ; 19(3):33-53, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1929361

ABSTRACT

The study's main issue was the causes of selected conduct disorders among adolescents in school. Adolescent conduct disorders emanate from a variety of factors that include social, economic, school, genetic status and parental factors. The purpose of the study was to explore the causes of selected conduct disorders among adolescents in school. The study was qualitative, explorative and phenomenological in nature. The study participants were parents and teachers. Data were collected using online (WhatsApp) focus group discussions due to restrictions brought about by COVID-19 that made physical interaction risky. Data were analysed in an integrative manner using findings from the two countries from parents and teachers, and thematically using themes generated from the outcomes of the online discussions. Findings indicate that conduct disorders among secondary school adolescents are a result of developmental, parental, school, social and academic factors. The study concludes that conduct disorders are recognised among the secondary school adolescents in Uganda and South Africa and pose a challenge to education and affect the proper functioning of schools. From the findings and conclusions, the researchers recommend hands-on parenting, adolescent psycho-social services, guidance and counseling services in schools, career guidance based on students' needs, academic strengths and aspirations, positive peer groups and moderation of punishment at home and at school. This has implications on the need for dynamics in parenting, teacher-student relationships and psycho-social services that are detrimental in building healthy developmental milestones that have a direct impact on behavior and conduct among adolescents.

17.
Non-conventional in Chinese | WHOIRIS, Grey literature | ID: grc-754494
19.
Non-conventional in Spanish | WHOIRIS, Grey literature | ID: grc-754492
20.
Non-conventional in French | WHOIRIS, Grey literature | ID: grc-754491
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