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1.
UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal ; 26(1):59-72, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2045923

ABSTRACT

Home field advantage has been a commonly discussed and researched topic in sports. How much of this advantage is due to the home team's supporters' physical attendance at the game where they might encourage their team, intimidate the opponent, and influence game officials? We utilize the unique natural experiment of the COVID-19 pandemic and consider the case of American professional (NFL) and collegiate (NCAA) football to examine this question. We measure how typical spreads, relative to home teams, changed in the 2020 season compared to their historical levels, and we determine that roughly half of what football fans and analysts consider to be home field advantage emanates from spectators. Generally, the betting market was rather accurate in its predictions of how football game results would change in 2020, during the pandemic, so that wagering strategies failed when based on the betting market possibly underappreciating or overcorrecting for home field advantage without fans.

2.
Independent Journal of Management and Production ; 13(4):s560-s568, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025737

ABSTRACT

Public demand in recent decades for healthy lifestyles, improving its quality and preservation of active longevity has found an echo in the form of the dynamic development of the global fitness industry. Our country is no exception and since the 1990's, domestic fitness has made a rapid spurt from zero position: according to the national community of professional participants of sport and fitness industry, fitness in Russia engages regularly up to 7 million people. The paper presents the author's statement of possible scenarios for the development of the fitness industry highlighting the factors that can transform consumer demands in post-covid economy. The hypothesis is put forward that the competitiveness and economic stability of fitness clubs in the medium term will be determined by the level of customer retention rate and by increasing their loyalty, the effective formation of which is possible by stimulating through marketing communications a positive mental and emotional response in target audiences to the potential and actual satisfaction of certain primary biological needs through fitness services. To prove the hypothesis the corresponding methodology of fitness club brand design based on the emotional approach of M. Lindstrom and K. Roberts was developed. Its verification and testing was carried out. The results obtained testify to the correctness of the author's statements and actualize the continuation of research in the field of emotional branding.

3.
Qatar Med J ; 2022(3): 31, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elite professional sports events involving mass gatherings carry a high risk of viral transmission during the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We describe the potential impact of resuming professional football leagues involving international participants adhering to a strict Bio-secure bubble protocol and investigate the consequences of spectators/fan attendance at such mass events during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic in Qatar. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive cohort study involving football players, referees, match officials, local organizing committee (LOC) members, hotel and security staff working in close coordination, and over 10,000 spectators from the Asian Football Confederation (AFC) Champions League (East) and the final match. The study covered almost four weeks of the event (November 19 to December 19, 2020) under a robust Bio-secure bubble protocol. It included extensive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) every 3-6 days and clinical symptom monitoring on and off the field. Target variables included positive RT-PCR results and clinical symptom monitoring among participants, and rapid antigen testing for fan attendance to examine their safe return to the stadiums. RESULTS: A total of 12,250 RT-PCR tests involving 3158 individuals in the Bio-secure bubble were done over one month for all the AFC (East) matches, including the final match. Overall, 44 matches involving 16 teams were played. During the championship, only five individuals (three LOC members and two match officials) returned positive for COVID-19 infections. Four individuals (three team staff/officials and one person outside the Bio-secure bubble) had reactive results. None of the players tested positive for COVID-19 infection. All individuals testing positive were asymptomatic or had mild symptoms, with no one requiring hospitalization other than symptomatic treatment. The overall positivity rate was 0.15% for the entire duration of the AFC (East) Champions League. For the final match, a total of 10,320 rapid antigen tests were done for spectators, of which only one test was positive for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: This report shows a very low incidence rate of COVID-19 infections during mass gathering events at the international level. For the resumption of football with spectators, careful mitigation strategies should be considered to reduce the risk of transmission to a sufficiently safe level. This may require proper coordination and measures (i.e., physical distancing, testing, entry, and exit routes in the stadium, and seating arrangement inside the stadium with limited attendance). Based on this, during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, the supervised and controlled resumption of football matches with spectators can be done safely provided that a strict Bio-secure bubble protocol has been implemented.

4.
Journal of Physical Education and Sport ; 22(7):1761-1771, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1994475

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Τhe possible audience effect on basketball game-related statistics in a natural setting has not been itself investigated. The EuroLeague Basketball, began the 2020-21 season with restrictions on audience attendance at the games, depending on national and/or local health guidelines, due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Αs a consequence, these extreme conditions provided the rare opportunity to explore the possible effect of home-audience advantage (HAA) on the most important basketball game-related statistical indexes of team technical performance (Team Performance Indicators – [TPIs]) during the last two regular seasons (2019-21) with an audience and with no audience in a natural setting. Material and Methods: The TPIs (e.g., Points, Rebounds, Fouls) derived from the same 17 teams and 112 games that took place in each season based on predefined inclusion-exclusion criteria and provided by EuroLeague’s official site. Home advantage (HA) of the included teams was calculated as the number of home wins expressed in a percentage (%) of the total number of games included for analysis in each season (i.e., N=112). It was assumed that, except of the possible audience effect, the interaction of various factors which could impair HA would be equal in both seasons and all teams;thus, HAA per se would be reflected in the difference of home advantage between the two seasons. Results: The home teams won significantly more games with an audience (69) in comparison to away teams (43), whereas with no audience they did not. In the season 2019-20 the HA was 61.60%, 4.46% of which corresponds to HAA. Most TPIs were not affected by the presence or absence of an audience and were not different between home and away teams. However, home teams with an audience committed significantly (p<0.05) fewer Turnovers (11.92±1.95) in comparison to home teams without an audience (13.33±1.26). Discussion: Our findings confirmed, not only the existence of the HAA, but also the significant interaction of HAA on HA phenomenon and revealed that audience support was a necessary precondition for the HA when the away team was not equally familiar with the stadium as the home team in EuroLeague’s regular season. This knowledge of the teams’ performance may help teams’ personnel, psychologists, and coaches to develop proper game strategies, training and mental practices which may further improve the teams’ technical performance. Conclusions: Findings supported the notion that HAA has a strong effect on winning frequency and on reducing Turnovers of home teams. © 2022, JPES.

5.
Sci Med Footb ; : 1-10, 2022 Aug 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984986

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We sought to assess the risk of COVID-19 and seasonal flu including respiratory syncytial (RSV) and influenza viruses during the FIFA Arab Cup 2021 in Qatar with full capacity of spectators. We also, evaluated the post-event attitude toward resumption of mass football events. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in which spectators (age ≥ 18 years) were invited for reverse-transcription PCR testing for COVID-19 and seasonal flu. At the same time, between 7 and 14 days after the event, the participants completed a self-administered questionnaire regarding their concerns during the tournament. RESULTS: The tournament included 16 international football teams from the Arab countries. As per the study protocol, 10,000 spectators were approached and 6,475 participated. Among the participants, 4,195 (65.1%), 2,253 (34.9%) and 27 (0.4%) were vaccinated with 2 doses, vaccinated with 3 doses, and recovered from SARS-Cov-2 infection, respectively. There were 61 (0.9%), 41(0.6%) and 11(0.2%) participants who tested positive for COVID-19, RSV and influenza (A/B), respectively. The average cycle threshold (Ct) value for COVID-19 positive cases was 26.1±7.3. Among those who were electronically approached, 6,102 completed the survey whereas 373 had incomplete survey. Overall, 2069 (33.9%) participants reported symptoms that theoretically could be related to COVID-19, of them 39 had positive PCR test (1.9%). Spectators (94.3%) were optimistic about returning sport events to the pre-pandemic status. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant increase in the daily COVID-19 cases during FIFA Arab Cup 2021 with a full capacity of spectators. Therefore, upcoming mass football events can be held safely.

6.
Revista Brasileira De Futsal E Futebol ; 14(57):119-129, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1912999

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the COVID-19 (absence of spectators) on the results of football teams in 5 popular leagues in the world (English Premier League, Italian Serie A, Spanish LaLiga, German Bundesliga and French Ligue 1). This research was descriptive-comparative. Therefore, the results of football teams were analyzed from the 2015/16 season to the middle of the 2019/20 season (before COVID) and the continuation of the 2019/20 season to the 2020/21 season (after COVID). The number of matches analyzed was 10,853, including 2,546 after COVID matches. The variables that were analyzed were: home Advantage, ratio of goals scored (HGSR) and ratio of goals conceded (HGCR) in home games. The results of t-test showed a significant decrease in home advantage (p=0.044) only in the German Bundesliga. In addition, in the EPL, none of the variables showed a significant difference. In the Italian, German and French leagues, HGCR increased significantly after COVID pandemic (p<0.04). In the Spanish league, HGSR showed a significant decrease (p<0.04). In this study, only the absence of spectators over home advantage was examined. Although spectators may influence the results, teams still perform better at home in the COVID pandemic duration. So, we can conclude the location of the events can be important. Also, the referees can be unfairly biased in favor of one side or another by the presence of crowds. Hence, future research may examine other factors.

7.
European Sport Management Quarterly ; 22(1):1-138, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904356

ABSTRACT

This second volume of the 'Sport and COVID-19' special edition expands upon the themes of the first. Topics covered by the six papers include: corporate social irresponsibility's impact on a sporting goods brand;virtual sport behaviour of event participants;sport media coverage during the pandemic;and sport brand involvement and fan well-being during the pandemic.

8.
Journal of Museum Education ; 46(4):399-546, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904315

ABSTRACT

The 11 papers in this issue document how museum educators adapted, connected, communicated, and worked with one another and with audiences in the midst of two global crises: the COVID-19 pandemic and the racial reckoning reignited by the murder of George Flyod. Several papers capture the migration to online platforms and the ways educators and audiences engaged with digital programmes.

9.
Economic and Social Development: Book of Proceedings ; : 97-101, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1887542

ABSTRACT

Some previous studies suggest that fans have a positive influence on the home teams and the result of competition. The primary goal of this paper is to test the hypothesis of the positive influence of fans on players and referees on the football field. We used the term "home field advantage", meaning that the fans bring the home team an advantage at the game. The study sample consists of seasons 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 in the 1st Croatian league. The variables in the study are points won, shots on target, yellow cards, red cards, fouls and fans attendance. Due to the situation with the COVID-19 pandemic during the 2019/2020 season, almost all matches were played without spectators, which allowed us to test the hypothesis of the connection between the "home field advantage" and the presence of fans on the stands. Statistically significant differences were detected in the variable's points won by the host, free kicks by hosts and guests and shots on target by hosts. Statistical analysis indicated that with the presence of spectators, the home team won 1.76 points, while in the period without the fans it was 1.44 per game. The results of this study confirm that audience contributes to the performance of the home team and inferior performance of visiting team, also on performance and decision-making of referees.

10.
African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure ; 11(SpecialEdition):525-540, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1876567

ABSTRACT

Events offer destinations the opportunity to showcase unique local resources and despite the challenges posed to this niche market, it can serve as part of post-COVID-19 recovery. Music events present experiences centred around unique local culture and serve the trend toward growth in domestic tourism. However, there is a dearth of literature on music event tourism from the Continent despite Africa being known for its rich cultures and popularity of music. Although a globally popular musical style, choir events are also underrepresented in the literature. This article describes local spectator segments of the World Choir Games held in South Africa, a first for the African continent, to identify the factors that drive positive perceptions of the host as a music event tourism destination. Data was collected from 350 spectators and segmentation carried out using cluster analysis. Results indicated two groups of spectators: Avid Exploring Supporters and Experienced Particular Supporters. Though the groups differ in motivations and experiences, both can contribute to sustaining this niche © 2022 AJHTL /Author(s)

11.
International Journal of Sport and Health Science ; 19:81-86, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841647

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to explore spectators' worries and attitudes during the COVID-19 pandemic and to compare them by age group. The survey was conducted with spectators at a home match for Victorina Himeji, a professional women's volleyball club in Japan. Two hundred and seventeen spectators rated their worries about becoming infected with COVID-19 after being in the arena as well as their attitudes during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results reveal that spectators visiting the arena had significant levels of worry related to the attendees (e.g., "Gathering crowds of people in the arena" and "Possibility that someone in the arena is infected with COVID-19"). Furthermore, younger people were more worried about COVID-19 infection than other age groups, although no significant difference in attitudes appeared among the age groups. The findings of this study suggest the importance of practicing social distancing in the arena as well as measuring spectators' body temperature before they enter the arena. Furthermore, sport event organizers may need to implement the strategy of infection prevention based on spectators' age groups and other personal attributes.

12.
European Sport Management Quarterly ; 22(1):120-138, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1839943

ABSTRACT

Research question: This paper examines how displaying fans in the stadium using different types of visual content (pictures and videos) influences media consumers' responses to sport leagues previously unknown to them. Specifically, we investigate how high versus low displays of social atmospherics in pictures and videos affect consumers' cognitive (attributions of attractiveness to the league) and affective (emotional arousal) responses. In addition, we analyze how these responses transfer to intentions to watch future broadcasts. Research methods: The hypotheses are tested in two online experiments using one-factorial (social atmospherics: high versus low) between-subjects designs. The research context is German sport media consumers and promotional material of the Australian Football League (AFL). Results and findings: The findings suggest that displaying high (versus low) social atmospherics in pictures can increase the perceived attractiveness that consumers attribute to a new sport league, while such content in videos increases consumers' emotional arousal. These cognitive and affective processes transfer to intentions to view future broadcasts of the league. Implications Our findings imply that while on-site fans are declining in relative numbers in media-dominated professional team sport markets, these fans are highly relevant for the success of team sport-related media offers and the attraction of new consumers.

13.
European Sport Management Quarterly ; 22(1):92-119, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1839942

ABSTRACT

Research Question: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for a transformative perspective on the role of sport brands in promoting fans' psychological well-being. Drawing upon attachment theory, the current research explores how individuals' involvement with sport brands may contribute to their psychological well-being in the wake of COVID-19. Research Methods: Data were collected from sport fans (n = 770) in mainland China through an online survey. Machine learning-based model selection algorithms were used to optimize the balance between the predictive power and parsimoniousness of the empirical model. Bayesian structural equation modeling was performed to examine the effects of sport brand involvement (SBI), crisis management performance, and perceived togetherness (PT) on fans' sense of hope and emptiness. Results and Findings: The results indicate that fans' involvement with sport brands was positively associated with fans' psychological well-being. SBI mitigated fans' perceived emptiness. This relationship was partially mediated by PT but not by crisis management performance. Furthermore, sport brands' crisis management performance and PT fully mediated the positive relationship between SBI and hope. Implications: This research contributes to theorizing the transformative role of sport brands in enhancing fans' psychological well-being. We offer an alternative view of sport branding literature by moving beyond fans' contributions to business outcomes to explore how sport brands may benefit fans' well-being. Findings highlight the importance of the transformative power of 'we' in unifying sport brands and fans amid the uncertainty of the COVID-19 pandemic.

14.
European Sport Management Quarterly ; 22(1):72-91, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1839938

ABSTRACT

Research question: The business of sport has been radically challenged by the COVID-19 pandemic, impelling a rapid reassessment of practices to survive the disruption. One stakeholder comprehensively impacted has been the media, whose investments in augmenting sport's commercial appeal have been immense. The media will need to rethink their strategies to adequately leverage their connections to sport products. Similarly, sport properties and content providers will need to reconsider their mediated offerings and how fan relationships can be sustained. In response, this article outlines a pathway to superior fan activation and engagement, noting the accelerated transformation of sport arising in consequence of the pandemic.

15.
Journal of Museum Education ; 46(4):481-492, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1839844

ABSTRACT

This article considers the inequities of digital museum programming during the COVID-19 pandemic and their alignment with audiences historically excluded from access to STEAM learning opportunities, primarily communities with low incomes and people of color. We employ an ecosystem framework to assert the critical role museums can play within communities to address these issues during and after pandemic circumstances. We describe a case study from a STEAM-oriented children's museum where staff provided out-of-school-time learning through reciprocal and collaborative community partnerships.

16.
Journal of Museum Education ; 46(4):417-429, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1839839

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic brought unprecedented changes to the museum field in 2020. Significant among these changes are losses in museum education. Using data collected from museum educators and museum directors, the authors document and contextualize what they consider incongruous, detrimental impacts on museum education. Most troubling, when examined in the context of pre-pandemic trends, the losses in education suggest a paradox of sorts. Prior to the pandemic, museum education was taking an increasingly prominent role in the museum field with audience engagement becoming an increasing priority. So, how could museums reduce education departments and their resources at a time when serving audiences is paramount? Ultimately, the losses in museum education reveal its vulnerability. Museum leadership asserts the importance of museum education, but when push comes to shove, makes significant cuts to museum education departments.

17.
Museological Review ; 25:80-90, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1837266

ABSTRACT

In the peri-pandemic 'new normal,' museums occupy physical and online spaces. One consequence of this change is that previously location-based museum programmes are suddenly more accessible to global publics: worldwide populations of cultural heritage stakeholders, defined more by common interest than geographic location. This paper demonstrates how three American museums, each with different relationships to their publics, have engaged new audiences through online programming during COVID-19. As museums continue to adapt to additional, unprecedented challenges, continual re-evaluation of how the field defines publics will help cultural institutions adapt to fulfil their mandates in an ever-more globalised world.

18.
Museological Review ; 25:26-37, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1837151

ABSTRACT

As COVID closures persist among cultural heritage institutions, the rapid 'pivot to digital' has necessitated new approaches to present cultural heritage collections to the public. Museums have presented content in various ways onsite to target specific audiences, but when moving to a digital-only format many lost this nuanced approach to content creation due to limited resources, lack of staff availability, or tight timelines. This paper advocates for diversifying the experiences and delivery methods for content to maximize engagement and reach, also suggesting these methods can benefit institutions even outside a pandemic year. In this paper, we present a series of case studies involving the Celestial Cartography Collection at the Adler Planetarium. The authors deploy an action research methodology to this paper;it is performed to identify solutions for a specific problem within the Adler, but it also documents a progressive process of problem-solving with a focus on reflection and iteration (Pringle, 2020). The case studies will examine how the Celestial Cartography materials were incorporated across Adler audience-driven programming in YouTube-hosted content and virtual exhibitions, as well as digitally-enabled participation through volunteer crowd sourcing efforts.

19.
Spor Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi ; 6(2):521-534, 2021.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1819037

ABSTRACT

Covid-19, which first appeared in Wuhan, China, and caused the death of many people, caused the structures within the sports industry to change as well as in all industries. In this period, sports organizations try to use social media tools effectively in order to stay in touch with their fans. Purpose of this research is to analyze the post of the most followed clubs and their fans on Twitter about Covid-19 in the Turkish Football Federation Super League. The study, a total of 2,971 hashtags related to Covid-19 were analyzed. The number of posts and percentages of tweets by fans and football clubs about Covid-19 was also included in the analysis. In this way, the contents of the Twitter posts of both fans and football clubs regarding Covid-19 were determined. The netnography method was used as the working method. The hashtags performed by the fans on Twitter were analyzed by the content analysis method. According to the findings, Fenerbah..e SK and its followers have become the football club that produced the most content (80.46%) regarding the Covid-19 outbreak. Although Galatasaray SC fans have produced the most hashtags, Galatasaray SK (16.5%) has produced the least amount of content about the epidemic. As a result, in the period of the Covid-19 epidemic, while it is seen that football fans unite in a common culture by posting similar hashtags about the Covid-19 epidemic on Twitter, it is seen that football clubs post less place to content related to the epidemic less than fan groups.

20.
Ricyde-Revista Internacional De Ciencias Del Deporte ; 18(68):72-85, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1811090

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 forced Chinese Football Association to adopt a special format for the 2020 Chinese Football Super League (CSL) after 5-month suspension. All 160 matches (decreased from 240) were divided into two stages (round robin;two-legged knockout) and played behind closed doors in two neutral cities (Suzhou and Dalian). The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of absence of spectators and format change on teams' winning percentage and match performance. Technical-tactical and event data of all 400 matches during 2019 and 2020 seasons played by 18 teams were collected. A total of 26 performance indicators were extracted and standardized from the original data. The independent t-test results showed that there were statistically significant differences in 13 performance indicators between 2019 season home win and 2020 season win: shot, shot not on target, simple pass, pass, pass accurate, key pass, corner, corner accurate, dribble and take on (p<0.025, absolute ES: 0.28-0.74) for player performance as well as defensive fouls, defensive third foul and yellow cards for referee decision-making (p=0.001, absolute ES: 0.42-0.45). And there were statistically significant differences in 16 performance indicators between 2019 season home not win and 2020 season not win: shot, shot not on target, touch, simple pass, pass, pass accurate, key pass, corner, corner accurate, dribble, defensive duel, penalty shot and clearance for player performance (p<0.04, absolute ES: 0.21-0.93) as well as defensive third foul, defensive foul and yellow card for referee decision-making (p<0.015, absolute ES: 0.29-0.43). The findings implied that the change of match locations and absence of team supporters led to a decrease in teams' match performance and an increase in referees' decision. Although top-ranked teams seemed to be unaffected and the low-ranked teams showed an increase in winning percentage, the fairness of such tournament format needs to be reconsidered.

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