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1.
Medical Journal Armed Forces India ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2061666

ABSTRACT

SARS-COV2 pandemic has spread like wildfire and has affected all the countries worldwide. The virus mainly affects the lungs and has numerous manifestations. The development of spontaneous pneumatocele and pneumothorax has rarely been reported in the literature, especially in spontaneously breathing patients. We report two cases of COVID-19 patients who developed these complications after discharge from our hospital. These complications are uncommon but can be potentially fatal and the treating physician should keep these complications as differential while managing such cases.

2.
Chest ; 162(4):A2281, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060930

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Impact of Health Disparities and Differences SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Original Inv PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 11:15 am - 12:15 pm PURPOSE: To address rural healthcare disparities by providing access to home based pulmonary rehabilitation (HBPR) program for eligible veterans at the Salem Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) who reside in remote areas or those with barriers of long travel time and transportation hardship. METHODS: The Pulmonary Section at the Salem VAMC received a grant from the Office of Rural Health to establish HBPR program for eligible veterans. Its goal was to improve quality of life and potentially reduce COPD hospitalizations and exacerbations (AECOPD). Under the direction of pulmonologists, the program was run by an exercise physiologist (EP). Referrals were received from inpatient and outpatient providers. After an initial in-person evaluation, weekly telehealth meetings (telephone, video) occurred over 12 weeks. Veterans were provided with the equipment, and an individualized targeted exercise program along with education and counseling on tobacco cessation, nutrition, oxygen compliance, stress management, medication adherence. Follow up appointments were scheduled at 3, 6 and 12 months post completion. RESULTS: Between September 2020 and January 2022, 312 consults were received, 206 consults were scheduled and 175 veterans enrolled. To date, 100 have completed the program with 24 ongoing. 30% declined service, citing: comorbidities, physical debility, difficulty remembering scheduled appointments, lack of motivation, social reasons, worsening health status. Mean age was 71, male predominance (95%). Referral diagnoses included: COPD (86%), chronic hypoxic respiratory failure (55%), COVID-19 (11%), Interstital Lung Diseases (10%). Mean FEV1 was 57% predicted, mean MMRC Dyspnea Scale 2.5, mean BODE score 5. 20% of enrolled veterans were active smokers, 72% were former smokers. 6 minute walk test increased from 156 meters on enrollment to 216 meters on completion. 45 veterans required hospitalization for pulmonary issues during their participation in the program. EP identified on weekly appointments 20 AECOPD that were treated as outpatient, 1 spontaneous pneumothorax that led to hospitalization, and facilitated the refill of inhalers or adjustment of medical regimen. Patient satisfaction score, including perception of benefit post completion was 29.4/30. CONCLUSIONS: HBPR at the Salem VAMC provided access to eligible veterans, overcoming barriers of rurality, transportation hardship and lack of nearby conventional programs. It also offered off business hours PR to veterans who continue to work. It allowed decrease in community care referrals thus establishing useful and cost effective service. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Pulmonary Rehabilitation has been shown to reduce morbidity, improve functional status and have mortality benefit. Healthcare discrepancies and disparities have been a major obstacle for enrollment. HBPR would address these issues and contribute to decreased health service utilization and costs. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Nathalie Abi Hatem No relevant relationships by Brittany Frost No relevant relationships by Mitchell Horowitz No relevant relationships by Deepa Lala

3.
Chest ; 162(4):A2079-A2080, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060895

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Great Procedural Cases: Fire, Ice, Struts, Valves, and Glue SESSION TYPE: Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 11:15 am - 12:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Secondary spontaneous pneumothoraxes commonly occur in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and can be complicated by persistent air leak (PAL) due to bronchopleural or alveolopleural fistula. More recently, bronchoscopic placement of one-way endobronchial valves (EBV) for PAL have been explored. We present the first case series of patients with CF who developed secondary spontaneous pneumothoraxes and were successfully treated with EBV. CASE PRESENTATION: A 30-year-old female with CF (F508del/dupex6B-10) and history of pneumothorax, presented with acute hypoxic respiratory failure. She was found to have a right-sided pneumothorax. A chest tube was placed, with a continuous air leak for 4 days. She was a suboptimal surgical candidate given extensive apical lung disease, making localization of the air leak difficult. In addition, the increased tissue density would have made wedge resection challenging. After multidisciplinary discussion, the patient underwent placement of 5 Zephyr EBV (Pulmonx Inc., Redwood City, CA) for PAL. The lung had re-expanded, but there was still an intermittent air leak. She underwent pleurodesis with betadine. Her chest tube was removed 2 days later, and she was discharged. She was seen in the pulmonary clinic 5 days after being discharged and was noted to have recurrent right pneumothorax. She underwent chest tube placement with flutter valve. The chest tube was removed after 10 days. The patient was scheduled for removal of EBV 6 weeks after placement, but the procedure was delayed to symptomatic COVID-19 infection. EBV were eventually removed 12 weeks after placement. Pneumothorax has not recurred 6 weeks post EBV removal. A 53-year-old female with CF (394delTT/3272-26A-G) and a small right apical secondary spontaneous pneumothorax 3 months prior to hospitalization presented with progressive dyspnea. Imaging showed that the pneumothorax had enlarged. A chest tube was placed with continuous air leak. After a multidisciplinary discussion, 5 Zephyr EBV were placed 2 days later. There was immediate improvement of the pneumothorax, with almost no air leak. Her chest tube was removed 48 hours after placement of EBV, and patient was discharged on day 4. The EBV were removed 8 weeks later with no recurrence of pneumothorax 1 month after valve removal. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge this is the first case series describing the use of Zephyr EBV in CF patients with secondary spontaneous pneumothorax complicated by PAL. Although previous guidelines still recommend surgery and/or pleurodesis for PAL, this may not be the best option for patients with CF who may require lung transplantation. EBV are currently FDA approved for lung volume reduction to treat emphysema, but it is likely a viable non-surgical alternative for PAL. CONCLUSIONS: EBV is a well-tolerated treatment option for PAL due to secondary spontaneous pneumothoraxes. Reference #1: Bongers KS, De Cardenas J. Endobronchial valve treatment of persistent alveolopleural fistulae in a patient with cystic fibrosis and empyema. J Cyst Fibros. 2020 Sep;19(5):e36-e38. doi: 10.1016/j.jcf.2020.03.014. Epub 2020 Apr 18. PMID: 32312675. Reference #2: Travaline JM, McKenna RJ Jr, De Giacomo T, Venuta F, Hazelrigg SR, Boomer M, Criner GJ;Endobronchial Valve for Persistent Air Leak Group. Treatment of persistent pulmonary air leaks using endobronchial valves. Chest. 2009 Aug;136(2):355-360. doi: 10.1378/chest.08-2389. Epub 2009 Apr 6. Erratum in: Chest. 2009 Sep;136(3):950. PMID: 19349382. Reference #3: Dugan KC, Laxmanan B, Murgu S, Hogarth DK. Management of Persistent Air Leaks. Chest. 2017 Aug;152(2):417-423. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2017.02.020. Epub 2017 Mar 4. PMID: 28267436;PMCID: PMC6026238. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Bryan Benn no disclosure on file for Julie Biller;No relevant relationships by Rose Franco Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Biodesix Please note: 2018 - present by Jonathan Kurman, value=Honoraria Consultant relationship with Level Ex Please note: 2018 - present by Jonathan Kurman, value=Consulting fee Consultant relationship with Medtronic Please note: 2020 - present by Jonathan Kurman, value=Consulting fee Consultant relationship with Pinnacle Biologics Please note: 2020 - present Added 04/01/2022 by Jonathan Kurman, value=Consulting fee Consultant relationship with Boston Scientific Please note: 2021 - present by Jonathan Kurman, value=Consulting fee Consultant relationship with Cook Medical Please note: 2021 - present by Jonathan Kurman, value=Consulting fee Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Erbe Please note: 2021 - present by Jonathan Kurman, value=Honoraria research panel relationship with Intuitive Please note: 2020 - present by Jonathan Kurman, value=Honoraria Removed 04/01/2022 by Jonathan Kurman Consultant relationship with Pulmonx Please note: 2020 - present by Jonathan Kurman, value=Consulting fee Travel relationship with Ambu Please note: 2021-present Added 04/01/2022 by Jonathan Kurman, value=Travel Removed 04/01/2022 by Jonathan Kurman Consultant relationship with Ambu Please note: 2022-present Added 04/01/2022 by Jonathan Kurman, value=Consulting fee Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Veracyte Please note: 2021-present Added 04/01/2022 by Jonathan Kurman, value=Honoraria No relevant relationships by Shreya Podder

4.
Chest ; 162(4):A1961-A1962, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060881

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Obstructive Lung Disease Case Report Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Individual cases of pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema have been reported in asthma attacks, but rarely coincide. Pathophysiology is secondary to obstruction in the minor airways leading to air-trapping and barotrauma of distal airways with subsequent alveolar rupture. This case illustrates a case of asthma exacerbation with a synchronous triad of rare complications. CASE PRESENTATION: 65-year-old female with a history of breast cancer, asthma and hypertension presented with shortness of breath, wheezing, and productive cough since four days ago. Vital signs were remarkable for tachypnea and saturation of 91%. Physical examination revealed respiratory distress, and auscultation disclosed diffuse inspiratory and expiratory wheezing. Limited bedside ultrasound showed B-lines compatible for pulmonary edema. Arterial blood gases were compatible with respiratory acidosis and hypoxemia. Laboratories showed leukocytosis, hypotonic hyponatremia, normal brain natriuretic peptide, and negative COVID-19 PCR test. Chest Xray (CXR) demonstrated changes concerning for pneumonia with superimposed pleural effusion. The patient was admitted with the impression of asthma exacerbation versus community acquired pneumonia. Initially, the patient was placed in bi-level positive airway pressure to aid in respiratory discomfort, broad spectrum antibiotic regimen, and diuresis therapy. On follow up, she was found hypoxic with periorbital edema, dyspnea, and subcutaneous emphysema in neck, upper extremities, and thorax for which emergent intubation was performed. CXR and Thoracic CT confirmed pneumomediastinum, large right sided pneumothorax and a moderate left sided pneumothorax requiring tube thoracostomy. At the Intensive Care Unit, treatment included combination therapies with levalbuterol, ipratropium, terbutaline, theophylline, budesonide, IV steroids and magnesium without appropriate response. Mechanical ventilator was set to protective lung parameters to avoid worsening barotrauma. Subsequently, she was paralyzed for 48 hours to aid in synchrony and allow adequate pulmonary gas exchange. Nonetheless, severe bronchoconstriction was persistent along with depressed neurological status. Two months later, the patient passed away. DISCUSSION: We believe our patient developed barotrauma secondary to a cough attack combined with positive airway pressure. Similarities in presentation such as dyspnea, tachycardia, and hypoxia may prove difficult in differentiation. Although each of these pathologies separately can generally be self-limiting depending on size and hemodynamic compromise, the combination can be mortal and clinical suspicion is important in fast diagnosis and treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our case demonstrates the importance of suspicion of barotrauma in patients with asthma attacks not responding adequately to therapy or developing worsening hypoxia which can be detrimental. Reference #1: Franco, A. I., Arponen, S., Hermoso, F., & García, M. J. (2019). Subcutaneous emphysema, pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum as a complication of an asthma attack. The Indian journal of radiology & imaging, 29(1), 77–80. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijri.IJRI_340_18 Reference #2: Zeynep Karakaya, Şerafettin Demir, Sönmez Serkan Sagay, Olcay Karakaya, Serife Özdinç, "Bilateral Spontaneous Pneumothorax, Pneumomediastinum, and Subcutaneous Emphysema: Rare and Fatal Complications of Asthma", Case Reports in Emergency Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 242579, 3 pages, 2012.https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/242579 Reference #3: Subcutaneous Emphysema in Acute Asthma: A Cause for Concern? Patrick D Mitchell, Thomas J King, Donal B O'Shea Respiratory Care Aug 2015, 60 (8) e141-e143;DOI: 10.4187/respcare.03750 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Juan Adams-Chahin No relevant relationships by Gretchen Marrero No relevant relationships by natalia Mestres No relevant relationships by Are is Morales Malavé No relevant relationships by Carlos Sifre No relevant relationships by Paloma Velasco No relevant relationships by Mark Vergara-Gomez

5.
Chest ; 162(4):A1432, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060816

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Problems in the Pleura Case Posters 1 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Severe COVID 19 has now been known to cause devastating damage to the lungs. The manifestations include severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, spontaneous pneumothorax, etc. As we were learning about the pathogenesis of the infection, we were also learning rapidly about the therapeutics targeted against it. A report a case of severe COVID 19 ARDS in a non-vaccinated young male, who later developed empyema during his hospital course. CASE PRESENTATION: A 29-year-old male with no past medical history presented to the emergency department complaining of chest pain and shortness of breath. He was not vaccinated against COVID-19. He was discharged from the hospital on 2 liters of supplemental oxygen two days ago after undergoing treatment for COVID-19 pneumonia with dexamethasone and remdesivir. Physical examination revealed bilateral diminished lung sounds on auscultation. His blood pressure was 112/75 mm Hg, heart rate (HR) 120 per minute, respiratory rate 25 per minute, the temperature of 38.5 Celsius and he was saturating 91% on 15 L of oxygen via a non-rebreather mask. Initial CT scan revealed bilateral ground-glass opacities (figure 1.). Due to high oxygen requirements and CRP of 10.5 MG/DL, the patient was started on Sarilumab. Given his escalating oxygen requirements and worsening respiratory distress, he was intubated and transferred to the intensive care unit. Despite intermittent prone positioning, he became progressively hypoxemic and eventually required Veno-venous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (VV-ECMO). One week later he developed intermittent fever spikes up to 39.5 C with HR of 120 per minute and leukocytosis of 40.8 K/µL. Bedside point of care ultrasound revealed new bilateral complex pleural effusions. Chest CT-scan showed moderate bilateral pleural effusions with new cystic changes and worsening consolidations (figure 2). Pleural fluid analysis showed lactate dehydrogenase of 2798, pH of 7.11, and cell count of 100 with 98% neutrophils. Despite aggressive therapy with chest tube placements and broad-spectrum antibiotics his condition continued to worsen over the next month with the development of hydropneumothoraxes and traction bronchiectasis (figure 3). Given the clinical deterioration despite aggressive care, his family decided to pursue a comfort-oriented treatment approach and he eventually passed away. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 related pleural effusion is a reported complication of COVID-19 pneumonia in up to 2-11% of the cases [1]. Most cases are associated with comorbid conditions, such as heart failure, superimposed bacterial infections, and pulmonary embolism [2]. CONCLUSIONS: Our case indicates that bacterial empyema may complicate COVID-19 pneumonia later in the disease course even in young immune-competent patients, it is unclear if empyema is directly related to the disease process itself r the therapeutic used to treat the COVID 19 infection. Reference #1: Chong WH, Saha BK, Conuel E, Chopra A. The incidence of pleural effusion in COVID-19 pneumonia: State-of-the-art review. Heart Lung. 2021;50(4):481-490. doi:10.1016/j.hrtlng.2021.02.015 Reference #2: Zhang L, Kong X, Li X, et al. CT imaging features of 34 patients infected with COVID-19. Clin Imaging. 2020;68:226-231. doi:10.1016/j.clinimag.2020.05.016 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Rimsha Ali No relevant relationships by Konstantin Golubykh No relevant relationships by Iuliia Kovalenko No relevant relationships by Maidah Malik No relevant relationships by Taaha Mirza No relevant relationships by Navitha Ramesh

6.
Chest ; 162(4):A1418, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060815

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Pneumothorax, Chylothorax, and Pleural Effusion Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: An alveolopleural fistula (APF) is a pathological communication between the pulmonary alveoli and the pleural space. If pneumothorax persists beyond five days, it is labeled as a prolonged air leak (PAL). Herein, we present a patient with respiratory failure, spontaneous pneumothorax with persistent air leak resulting in functional pneumonectomy despite CTS intervention. CASE PRESENTATION: A 60-year-old female with PMH of diabetes, hypertension was initially admitted for right lower extremity cellulitis. About ten days into the admission, patient started becoming progressively hypoxic and was noted to be saturating 82% on room air with crackles noted bilaterally. A CT angiogram showed findings suggestive of multifocal pneumonia. Covid-19 pneumonia was initially suspected despite negative testing and a course of remdesivir and steroids was administered. All other infectious workup returned negative. Patient's oxygenation requirements worsened over the next two weeks eventually requiring intubation. Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage showed growth of stenotrophomonas and patient received a course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Patient was subsequently extubated and transitioned to high flow nasal cannula. Two weeks later, she developed acute respiratory deterioration due to a right sided pneumothorax requiring emergent pigtail placement and subsequent intubation. She was noted to have a persistent airleak from the chest tube and imaging showed a persistent pneumothorax with possible malpositioning of the chest tube. Despite repositioning of the previous chest tube and a second chest tube insertion, patient's PAL persisted and she underwent video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) that showed a large bronchopleural fistula emanating from the right upper and middle lobes requiring stapling and surgical pleurodesis. Bronchoscopy prior to VATS did not show any signs of obstruction. Due to prolonged intubation, she underwent tracheostomy placement followed gradually by chest tube removal when no air leak was appreciated. After the removal of the chest tube, her lung gradually formed multiple bullae with no functional residual lung. Despite this, her respiratory status stabilized and she was discharged to a LTACH. DISCUSSION: The likely cause of APF here was the emergent chest tube insertion. APF and PALs are most seen following pulmonary resection or biopsy but can also be seen following spontaneous pneumothorax or traumatic chest tube insertions. Although an endobronchial valve was entertained, the lung damage was extensive enough to have no change in patient's outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our case demonstrates a rare but complicated hospital course of a patient where a chest tube insertion resulted in non-resolving APF with PAL despite therapeutic interventions in an unfortunate case of "functional pneumonectomy". Underlying pneumonia may have also contributed to the APF resulting in PAL. Reference #1: 1. Liberman M, Muzikansky A, Wright CD, et al. Incidence and risk factors of persistent air leak after major pulmonary resection and use of chemical pleurodesis. Ann Thorac Surg 2010;89:891. Reference #2: 2. DeCamp MM, Blackstone EH, Naunheim KS, et al. Patient and surgical factors influencing air leak after lung volume reduction surgery: lessons learned from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial. Ann Thorac Surg 2006;82:197. Reference #3: 3. Rivera C, Bernard A, Falcoz PE, et al. Characterization and prediction of prolonged air leak after pulmonary resection: a nationwide study setting up the index of prolonged air leak. Ann Thorac Surg 2011;92:1062. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Mohammed Halabiya No relevant relationships by Rajapriya Manickam No relevant relationships by Rutwik Patel

7.
Chest ; 162(4):A843, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060706

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Case Report Posters 3 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: One of the greatest challenges of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has been deciphering its unique properties, such as the propensity to infect and damage lung epithelium, thereby increasing susceptibility to pulmonary complications.(1, 2) A 2020 cohort study comparing patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from COVID-19 and ARDS from other causes showed a significantly higher rate of subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum in the COVID-19 group, suggesting these diagnoses may be due to direct viral damage rather than exposure to positive pressure alone.(3) Presented here is a patient with no underlying lung pathology who was diagnosed with COVID-19 and developed severe subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and pneumothorax. CASE PRESENTATION: A 74 year old male with a history of hypertension presented to the emergency room with a 5-day history of difficulty breathing, cough, fever, chills, and weakness. He tested positive for COVID-19, required non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV), and was started on ceftriaxone, doxycycline, and daily dexamethasone. He received a five-day course of remdesivir and one dose of convalescent plasma. By day 9, a chest x-ray revealed a left apical pneumothorax, bilateral subcutaneous emphysema, and pneumomediastinum. On day 12, his respiratory status deteriorated, necessitating invasive mechanical ventilation. A chest CT showed extensive subcutaneous emphysema involving the chest, supraclavicular and axillary regions, and abdominal wall, as well as extensive pneumomediastinum and a moderate left pneumothorax. A left-sided thoracostomy tube was placed and he was proned per ICU protocol. He required placement of a second left-sided chest tube due to persistent worsening pneumothorax. On day 28, despite all aggressive measures, he expired from acute hypoxemia. DISCUSSION: Although this patient was exposed to NIPPV, the severe degree of lung pathology was inconsistent with the amount of positive pressure administered. Furthermore, he lacked underlying pulmonary disease that would compromise his lung compliance to this magnitude. Combining evidence that COVID-19 can cause epithelial lung damage, the patient's absence of pulmonary risk factors, and his severe degree of lung damage incongruent with his exposure to positive pressure, is reasonable to extrapolate that a significant portion of his lung pathology was a result of direct damage from COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 may be at higher risk for the development of subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and pneumothorax, likely due to direct viral effect. Lung damage seen may be disproportionate to exposure of positive pressure and may also be seen in the absence of any underlying pulmonary comorbidities. Awareness of this observed pathophysiology may help guide clinicians to optimize ventilator management as well as anticipate potential complications. Reference #1: Hu B, Guo H, Zhou P, Shi ZL. Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 [published correction appears in Nat Rev Microbiol. 2022 Feb 23;:]. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2021;19(3):141-154. doi:10.1038/s41579-020-00459-7 Reference #2: Miró Ò, Llorens P, Jiménez S, et al. Frequency, Risk Factors, Clinical Characteristics, and Outcomes of Spontaneous Pneumothorax in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Case-Control, Emergency Medicine-Based Multicenter Study. Chest. 2021;159(3):1241-1255. doi:10.1016/j.chest.2020.11.013 Reference #3: Lemmers DHL, Abu Hilal M, Bnà C, et al. Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema in COVID-19: barotrauma or lung frailty?. ERJ Open Res. 2020;6(4):00385-2020. Published 2020 Nov 16. doi:10.1183/23120541.00385-2020 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Shanaz Azad No relevant relationships by Sarah Monaghan No relevant relationships by Brandon Nance No relevant relationships by Samantha Peterson

8.
Chest ; 162(4):A643, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060657

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Pathologies of the Post-COVID-19 World SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 10:15 am - 11:10 am INTRODUCTION: The development of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax is one of the emerging post-coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19) complications, more so in mechanically ventilated patients, during the acute phase of infection. High airway pressure delivered during respiratory support is commonly recognized as a potential culprit. CASE PRESENTATION: A 57-year-old male was hospitalized for a week for COVID-19 pneumonia with acute hypoxic respiratory failure and treated with oxygen supplementation (required high flow oxygen), remdesivir, and dexamethasone. No mechanical ventilatory support was needed. He had a history of significant smoking cigarettes and marijuana in the past. A week after the discharge, he re-presented to the hospital with complaints of worsening cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing following three episodes of vigorous sneezing. Computed Tomography (CT) chest revealed large left pneumothorax and right lower lobe pneumatocele. Immediate chest tube insertion relieved his symptoms. The final diagnosis of spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to pneumatocele rupture was made in a patient with a history of COVID-19 pneumonia. DISCUSSION: Cystic lesions resulting from alveolar damage (swelling, inflammation, and fibrosis) with parenchymal damage from the virus, along with barotrauma, are thought to cause pneumothorax. Few cases have been reported in patients without mechanical ventilation. High airway pressures delivered by high flow oxygen, fragile airways due to acute COVID-19 infection, and smoking might have predisposed this patient to pneumatocele, with sneezing leading to rupture and pneumothorax. CONCLUSIONS: This case demonstrates pneumatocele as a sequela of COVID-19, with a risk of pneumothorax. Medical professionals should consider pneumothorax in patients who recovered from COVID-19 and present with new respiratory symptoms. Further studies are required to evaluate the need for routine follow-up imaging (CT chest) in post-COVID-19 infection for pneumatocele or pneumothorax. Reference #1: Marzocchi G, Vassallo A, Monteduro FSpontaneous pneumothorax as a delayed complication after recovery from COVID-19BMJ Case Reports CP 2021;14:e243578. Reference #2: Schiller M, Wunsch A, Fisahn J, Gschwendtner A, Huebner U, Kick W. Pneumothorax with Bullous Lesions as a Late Complication of Covid-19 Pneumonia: A Report on Two Clinical Cases. J Emerg Med. 2021 Nov;61(5):581-586. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2021.04.030. Epub 2021 May 9. PMID: 34916057;PMCID: PMC8106878. Reference #3: Nunna K, Braun ABDevelopment of a large spontaneous pneumothorax after recovery from mild COVID-19 infectionBMJ Case Reports CP 2021;14:e238863. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Ziad Alkhoury no disclosure on file for Mostafa Mostafa;No relevant relationships by Roshan Subedi No relevant relationships by Mohammed Syed No relevant relationships by Qi Wang

9.
Chest ; 162(4):A575, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060636

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Uncommon Presentations and Complications of Chest Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 10:15 am - 11:10 am INTRODUCTION: Cryptococcus is a ubiquitous fungus in the environment. Infections can occur in humans when Cryptococcus is aerosolized and inhaled. Severity of clinical presentation varies from asymptomatic pulmonary colonization to disseminated life-threatening infection such as meningitis. These infections usually occur with deficiencies in T-cell-mediated immunity, including those with HIV/AIDS and immunosuppression due to transplantation. Herein we present a case of isolated pulmonary cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent host. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient is a 36-year-old never-smoker male with history of recurrent left spontaneous pneumothorax status post VATS blebectomy, negative for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency and cystic fibrosis. A year later, he presented with fatigue, shortness of breath, and dry cough after a recent trip to Ohio. Viral panel including COVID-19 was negative. A chest x-ray showed a new 4 cm rounded opacity in the right middle lobe (RML). A CT scan of the chest showed 2 mass-like and nodular areas of consolidation with surrounding GGOs within the RML (Figure 1). He underwent navigational bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy (TBBx) of RML, BAL, and EBUS with transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA). Cytology was negative for malignant cells. BAL showed rare yeast. Pathology of the TBBx showed the airway wall with chronic inflammation including granulomatous inflammation, positive for yeast, most consistent with Cryptococcus with positive Grocott methenamine silver (GMS) stain (Figure 2). Culture of the TBNA grew C. neoformans var. grubii. Other cultures were negative. Serum Cryptococcal antigen was positive. HIV test was negative. He started treatment with oral fluconazole with improvement of symptoms. DISCUSSION: Clinical presentation of pulmonary cryptococcosis can include a variety of symptoms in which immune status is critical for determining the course of infection. Infection can vary from asymptomatic infection to severe pneumonia and respiratory failure, and meningitis. Similarly, imaging findings can also vary and be characterized as pulmonary nodules, consolidations, cavitary lesions, and/or a diffuse interstitial pattern. The diagnosis of Cryptococcus is made using histology, fungal cultures, serum cryptococcal antigen, and radiography in the appropriate clinical and radiological context. Treatment recommendations are determinant on immune status of the patient as well as symptoms. Asymptomatic and localized disease in immunocompetent patients can be monitored and mild/moderate disease can be treated with fluconazole. Those with severe or disseminated infection warrant induction therapy with an amphotericin B and flucytosine CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and radiological presentation of cyptococcosis varies depending on immune status. Disease can occur in both immunocompromised and competent hosts. Immune status determines disease course and treatment. Reference #1: Huffnagle GB, Traynor TR, McDonald RA, Olszewski MA, Lindell DM, Herring AC, et al. Leukocyte recruitment during pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Immunopharmacology. 2000 Jul 25;48(3):231–6. Reference #2: Kd B, Jw B, Pg P. Pulmonary cryptococcosis. Semin Respir Crit Care Med [Internet]. 2011 Dec [cited 2022 Apr 2];32(6). Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22167400/ Reference #3: Ms S, Rj G, Ra L, Pg P, Jr P, Wg P, et al. Practice guidelines for the management of cryptococcal disease. Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis Off Publ Infect Dis Soc Am [Internet]. 2000 Apr [cited 2022 Apr 1];30(4). Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10770733/ DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Mina Elmiry No relevant relationships by Brenda Garcia No relevant relationships by Zein Kattih no disclosure on file for Priyanka Makkar;No relevant relationships by Jonathan Moore

10.
Chest ; 162(4):A462, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060600

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Case Report Posters 1 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Mucormycosis is an angio-invasive fungal infection with substantial morbidity and mortality. While diabetes and immune suppression remain well-known risk factors for mucormycosis, COVID-19 is now emerging as its independent predictor. CASE PRESENTATION: A 43-year-old male, with a history of hyperlipidemia and alcoholism, presented to the hospital with complaints of progressive dyspnea on exertion, productive cough, intermittent fever, anorexia, and chest pain over the course of 2 weeks. About 5 weeks prior to the current presentation, he was tested positive for COVID-19 by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based test and remained in quarantine at home. He was not vaccinated against COVID-19. He had no known immunosuppressive disease. On initial examination, he was ill-appearing and had a temperature of 101 F, blood pressure 138/83 mmHg, respiratory rate 22/minute, pulse 102/minute, and saturation of 91% on 2 L nasal cannula oxygen. A computerized tomography (CT) scan of the chest revealed small bilateral pneumothorax (2 cm and 5mm) along with extensive ground-glass opacifications in all lobes. In the next 24 hours, the right-sided pneumothorax progressed to tension pneumothorax requiring pigtail pleural drainage catheter placement. The drained pleural fluid had more than 100,000/uL total nucleated cells (91% neutrophils, 2% lymphocytes, and 1% eosinophils) and ultimately cultures grew Rhizopus spp. He was started on intravenous liposomal amphotericin-B infusion (5 mg/kg daily). On hospital discharge, he was switched to oral posaconazole (started with loading 300 mg delayed-release tablet twice a day, followed by 300 mg dosing of delayed-release posaconazole tablets daily) to complete the long term treatment course. DISCUSSION: Most of the reported cases of mucormycosis in COVID-19 were in patients with either diabetes or receiving steroids. This is a rare presentation of COVID-19–associated pulmonary mucormycosis (CAPM) as spontaneous pneumothorax, in the absence of known immunosuppression history. COVID-19 results in a considerable increase in cytokines, particularly interleukin-6 (IL-6), which increase free iron by increasing ferritin levels due to increased synthesis and decreased iron transport. Also, concomitant acidosis increases free iron by reducing the ability of transferrin to chelate iron and this available iron becomes a considerable resource for mucormycosis. [1] Also, Mucorales adheres to and invades endothelial cells by specific recognition of the host receptor glucose-regulator protein 78 (GRP-78). Acidosis associated with severe COVID-19 triggers GRP-78 and fungal ligand spore coating homolog (CotH) protein expression on endothelial cells, both contributing to angioinvasion, hematogenous dissemination, and tissue necrosis. [2] CONCLUSIONS: Mucormycosis can present as spontaneous pneumothorax after recent COVID-19 and clinicians should be aware of rare clinical presentation. Reference #1: Singh AK, Singh R, Joshi SR, et al. Mucormycosis in COVID-19: A systematic review of cases reported worldwide and in India. Diabetes Metab Syndr Clin Res Rev 2021;15:102146. doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2021.05.019 Reference #2: Baldin C, Ibrahim AS. Molecular mechanisms of mucormycosis—The bitter and the sweet. PLOS Pathog 2017;13:e1006408. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1006408 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Faran Ahmad No relevant relationships by AYESHA BATOOL No relevant relationships by Zachary DePew No relevant relationships by Neil Mendoza

11.
Chest ; 162(4):A387-A388, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060579

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Post-COVID-19 Infection Complications SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has affected over 200 million people worldwide. Clinicians continue to observe unusual manifestations of this disease. In an attempt to improve our understanding of COVID-19 pneumonia, we present the details of one patient who developed large bilateral pulmonary cysts. CASE PRESENTATION: A 40-year-old woman with no known medical problems presented with the chief complaint of fever, nausea, vomiting, generalized weakness followed by difficulty breathing that developed over a few days. Her vital signs on admission included temperature 98.4° F, heart rate 104 beats/minute, respiratory rate 48 breaths/minute, O2 saturation 88 percent on 15 liters of oxygen through a non-rebreather mask, and Body Mass Index 42 kg/m2. The patient tested positive for COVID-19. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest to rule out a pulmonary embolism showed bilateral extensive ground-glass opacities and reticular and nodular opacities. She was intubated for acute hypoxic respiratory failure. Twenty days into the hospital admission, she was noted to have a bulla in the right lower lobe. A repeat CT chest on day 45 revealed an increase in the number and size of cysts bilaterally. Patient was discharged to rehab and later readmitted for worsening respiratory status. This time she tested positive for human metapneumovirus. A CT chest showed increase in the size of the right sided lung cysts;the left sided lung cysts had resolved. DISCUSSION: The first COVID-19 related pulmonary cystic lesions were reported in May 2020(1). Since then, several reports have now established a relationship between an infection and cyst formation. The most common distribution is peripheral in the lower lobes. The pathogenesis remains uncertain, but several mechanisms have been proposed. Microthrombi in the pulmonary circulation could lead to ischemia and subsequent remodeling of interstitial matrix and bronchial obstruction with distal hyperinflation due to check valve mechanism. (1,2). Hamad et al. propose that pneumatoceles are formed by air leaked in to the interstitium which causes stripping and separation of a thin layer of lung parenchyma with further injury to the small blood vessels and bronchioles. The rate of barotrauma in non-COVID-19 related ARDS is 0.5%;the rate in COVID-19 ARDS is 15% (3). This suggests a close relation between COVID-19 pneumonia and subsequent development of pulmonary cysts. Our patient had no preexisting pulmonary disease and was noted to have pulmonary cysts after being on mechanical ventilation for almost 2 weeks. The patient later contracted the human metapneumovirus infection and CT showed that the right-sided lung cysts had become bigger in size. However, the left-sided cysts which had a maximum diameter of 4.8 cm had resolved. CONCLUSIONS: We need to follow patients with COVID 19 induced lung cysts clinically and radiologically to understand the clinical course and best management strategies. Reference #1: Kefu Liu et al. COVID 19 with cystic features on Computed tomography;Medicine (Baltimore) 2020May;99(18): e20175. PMCID: PMC7486878 Reference #2: Galindo J, Jimenez L, Lutz J et al. Spontaneous pneumothorax with or without pulmonary cysts, in patients with COVID 19 Pneumonia. Journal of infections in developing countries 2021;15(10);1404-1407 Reference #3: McGuinness G, Zhan C, Rosenberg N, Azour L, Wickstrom M, Mason DM, Thomas KM, Moore WH. Increased incidence of barotrauma in patients with COVID-19 on invasive mechanical ventilation. Radiology. 2020;297(2): E252–E262. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2020202352 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Arunee Motes No relevant relationships by Kenneth Nugent No relevant relationships by Tushi Singh No relevant relationships by Myrian Vinan Vega

12.
Chest ; 162(4):A302-A303, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060558

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Post-COVID-19 Infection Complications SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Patients with COVID-19 usually recover completely in the acute setting but it has been demonstrated post-infectious complications include continued dyspnea, myalgias, and other long-term complications which are not fully known yet. A case published in the British Medical Journal by Nunna demonstrated the development of a large spontaneous pneumothorax in a middle-aged patient after his Covid-19 infection [1]. Here, we present a 60-year-old female with a history of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and hypothyroidism presenting with recurrent pneumothoraxes as a late complication of COVID-19. CASE PRESENTATION: A 60-year-old female with a history of CVID and COVID-19 pneumonia complicated by chronic hypoxic respiratory failure and a right sided loculated hydropneumothorax diagnosed in December of 2020, on 3 to 5 liters of home oxygen, presents to the emergency department due to dyspnea and left-sided pleuritic chest pain in July of 2021. On presentation, the patient was tachypneic, had labored breathing and was requiring 7 liters of oxygen to saturate adequately. Repeat imaging of the chest showed a large tension pneumothorax on the left side with near complete collapse of the lung and tracheal deviation to the right [figure 1]. At that time, a chest tube was placed to re-expand the lung. After 5 days of treatment, repeat imaging showed marked improvement, with the pneumothorax decreasing significantly [figure 2]. Pulmonary function testing in the outpatient setting showed a moderate restrictive lung defect with sever decrease in diffusion capacity. The patient continued to have dyspnea so, the decision was made for the patient to undergo an open lung biopsy. The pathology report showed noncaseating granulomas with focal interstitial fibrosis and lymphocytic infiltrates consistent with granulomatous lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD), which is a complication of CVID [figure 3]. Roughly 1 in 5 patients with CVID develop histopathological findings consistent with GLILD[2]. We believe these changes were accelerated due to her COVID-19 infection. DISCUSSION: This case habits the importance of continued consideration for long-term complications of COVID-19, especially in patients who are immunocompromised. Reports of diffuse alveolar injury caused by the virus can result in emphysematous changes ultimately leading to alveolar rupture such as in this patient [3]. Although pneumothorax is an uncommon late complication, it should be on the differential diagnosis for COVID-19 patients with sudden respiratory decompensation. As a life-threatening event, it requires prompt recognition and treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who have CVID complicated by GLILD accelerated by COVID-19, are more prone to life-threatening tension pneumothoraxes and they should be encouraged to seek lung transplantation as this could be the only way to stop the formation of these pneumothoraxes. Reference #1: Nunna, K., & Braun, A. B. (2021). Development of a large spontaneous pneumothorax after recovery from mild COVID-19 infection. BMJ Case Reports, 14(1), e238863. Reference #2: Granulomatous and Lymphocytic Interstitial Lung Disease (GLILD): A Spectrum of Pulmonary Histopathological Lesions in Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) - Histological and Immunohistochemical Analysis of 16 cases. (n.d.). Reference #3: Gradica, F. (2020). Spontaneous Pneumothorax in Covid-19 Pneumonia. Case report. Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma Care, 2(1), 01–03. https://doi.org/10.31579/2694-0248/010 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Elizabeth Bankstahl No relevant relationships by Talal Bazzi No relevant relationships by Mujtaba Cherri No relevant relationships by Khairya Fatouh

13.
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; 26:S108, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006400

ABSTRACT

Aim and background: Coronavirus disease 2019 [SARS-CoV-2] is a serious infectious disease which can cause multiple organ failures especially the lungs. Supportive treatment including invasive and non-invasive oxygen support remains a common therapy. High-flow nasal cannula [HFNC], a non-invasive oxygen support method, has emerged as effective treatment option. Despite its significance in SARS-CoV-2 infection, there is a possible adverse effect of pneumothorax. Many cases of pneumothorax are reported as an initial presentation of COVID-19 infection, but in this report, we present two cases of spontaneous pneumothorax on HFNC in COVID-19 infection. Case 1: A 47-year-old patient, known case of hypertension, got admitted for COVID treatment at our hospital. His PaO2/FiO2 index was 47 on admission and the specific treatment started including non-invasive ventilation. Subsequently, he was put on HFNC to maintain oxygen support. He developed newlyonset cough 4 days prior to pneumothorax. After 13 days on HFNC, right-sided spontaneous pneumothorax developed as a complication. Chest X-ray and lung ultrasound were done to confirm pneumothorax, and a tube thoracostomy was done. However, patient had to be intubated the next day because of decreased saturation on NIV and he died after 2 days of intubation. Case 2: A 34-year-old patient got admitted for COVID-19 pneumonia, without any comorbidities. His PaO2/FiO2 index was 86 on admission and the specific treatment started including non-invasive ventilation. Thereafter, he was put on HFNC to maintain oxygen support. The patient developed cough 5 days prior to pneumothorax. After 8 days on HFNC, patient's oxygen saturation dropped suddenly. He was intubated in emergency, however, suffered cardiac arrest, a few minutes after intubation. Chest X-ray done later showed leftsided massive pneumothorax. Conclusion: Patients on mechanical ventilation are at risk of developing spontaneous pneumothorax. However, HFNC may also be associated with higher chances of barotrauma than other low-flow oxygen therapies, especially in addition to cough. Rapid deterioration of oxygen in a patient on HFNC should be vigilantly monitored for pneumothorax.

14.
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; 26:S39, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006339

ABSTRACT

Aim and background: Mechanical Power in ARDS has predictive value for both VILI and mortality. Driving pressure and mechanical power are two new targets in the mechanical ventilation of ARDS patients. COVID-19 pneumonia has two different phenotypes H type and L type which have different lung compliance, elasticity, and recrutability with different ventilatory strategies. We want to observe how Mechanical Power behaves in H type COVID-19 ARDS and its correlation with compliance and driving pressure. Objective: To study the correlation of Mechanical Power with Driving Pressure and Compliance in H type of COVID-19 pneumonia. Materials and methods: It is a prospective observational study conducted in COVID-19 patients admitted to the Medical Intensive Care unit. We included 65 adult COVID-19 patients aged between 18 and 70 years requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hours. Patients who developed spontaneous pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum before initiation of mechanical ventilation were excluded. Patients were categorised to H type based on lung compliance (<40 mL/cmH2O), recrutability, and lung weight. The Mechanical Power was calculated using the following equation, MP = 0.098 × TV × RR (Paw-1/2 ΔP). Paw-peak airway pressure, ΔP-driving pressure, TV-tidal volume, RR-respiratory rate. The variables are taken at 3 different time intervals in the first 24 hours of invasive mechanical ventilation. All patients are ventilated according to ARDSNET protocol. The Driving pressure and compliance were recorded. The correlation of Mechanical Power with Driving pressure and Compliance were analysed using Pearson Correlation. Results: The mean age of the patients was 57.04 ± 13.96 years (mean ± SD), gender distribution 75% were males and 25% were females. A positive correlation was observed between Mechanical power and Driving pressure (Pearson correlation 0.245) which is statistically significant p = 0.049. A negative correlation was observed between Mechanical power and Compliance (Pearson correlation 0.183) which is not statistically significant. Conclusion: The Mechanical Power and Driving pressure the new targets of Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI) and also predictors of mortality in ARDS patients. The positive correlation between Mechanical Power and Driving pressure was observed in H type of COVID-19 patients which behaves similar to other ARDS and independent risk factors of mortality in H type of COVID-19 ARDS too.

15.
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; 26:S39-S40, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006338

ABSTRACT

Aim and background: Mechanical Power in ARDS has predictive value for both VILI and mortality. Driving pressure and mechanical power are two new targets in the mechanical ventilation of ARDS patients. COVID-19 pneumonia has two different phenotypes H type and L type which have different lung compliance, elasticity, and recrutability with different ventilatory strategies. We want to observe how Mechanical Power behaves in H type COVID-19 ARDS and its correlation with compliance and driving pressure. Objective: To study the correlation of Mechanical Power with Driving Pressure and Compliance in H type of COVID-19 pneumonia. Materials and methods: It is a prospective observational study conducted in COVID-19 patients admitted to the Medical Intensive Care unit. We included 65 adult COVID-19 patients aged between 18 and 70 years requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hours. Patients who developed spontaneous pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum before initiation of mechanical ventilation were excluded. Patients were categorised to H type based on lung compliance (<40 mL/cmH2O), recrutability, and lung weight. The Mechanical Power was calculated using the following equation, MP = 0.098 ∼ TV ∼ RR (Paw-1/2 for). Paw-peak airway pressure, for-driving pressure, TV-tidal volume, RR-respiratory rate. The variables are taken at 3 different time intervals in the first 24 hours of invasive mechanical ventilation. All patients are ventilated according to ARDSNET protocol. The Driving pressure and compliance were recorded. The correlation of Mechanical Power with Driving pressure and Compliance were analysed using Pearson Correlation. Results: The mean age of the patients was 57.04 ) 13.96 years (mean ) SD), gender distribution 75% were males and 25% were females. A positive correlation was observed between Mechanical power and Driving pressure (Pearson correlation 0.245) which is statistically significant p = 0.049. A negative correlation was observed between Mechanical power and Compliance (Pearson correlation 0.183) which is not statistically significant. Conclusion: The Mechanical Power and Driving pressure the new targets of Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI) and also predictors of mortality in ARDS patients. The positive correlation between Mechanical Power and Driving pressure was observed in H type of COVID-19 patients which behaves similar to other ARDS and independent risk factors of mortality in H type of COVID-19 ARDS too.

16.
Journal of General Internal Medicine ; 37:S521, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1995801

ABSTRACT

CASE: A 25-year-old homeless male with nonadherent HIV presented with dyspnea on exertion for 4 days, productive cough for 1 week, fevers, chills and night sweats. He arrived hypoxic to 74% requiring 2L O2 and was cachectic on exam. WBC, lactate and procalcitonin were normal. C-reactive protein was 26.7 mg/L, LDH was 686 units/L and COVID-19 was positive. An arterial blood gas showed a primary respiratory alkalosis with a secondary metabolic alkalosis. Computed tomography of the chest, abdomen and pelvis with contrast showed multifocal large thin-walled cavitary lesions throughout the bilateral lungs with subpleural large cystic disease. Dexamethasone, remdesivir and empiric antibiotics were initiated. Absolute CD4 count was 7 cells/uL with HIV-1 RNA load of 139,000 copies/mL. Sputum was positive for Pneumocystis jirovecii (PCP) by DFA and PCR, but no evidence of mycobacterium. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) was added. On hospital day 13, he developed severe right-sided chest pain, dyspnea and required up to 15L O2. A chest x-ray revealed a large right-sided pneumothorax (PTX) and a chest tube was placed. Cardiothoracic Surgery was consulted for consideration of bullectomy with pleurodesis;this was not recommended as the cystic lesions were extensive with some intraparenchymal. His oxygen requirements improved and his chest tube was removed in 6 days. He was discharged on hospital day 21 to begin prophylactic dosing of TMP-SMX until his CD4 count was over 200 cells/uL and to attend his first appointment at an outpatient HIV clinic the following day. IMPACT/DISCUSSION: Secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (SSP) can be a complication of necrotizing pneumonia due to PCP. In one study, in a cohort of 599 patients with HIV infection, only 1.2% developed a PTX. Bilateral PTX is more common with PCP, unlike in our patient. In HIV, the degree of immunosuppression can influence the cause of PTX. Our patient had a PTX with a CD4 count under 200, which is more common with PCP. In addition, SSP as a complication of SARS-CoV-2 is more rare. There are case series that describe COVID-19 patients who develop PTX in the absence of barotrauma secondary to mechanical ventilation. However, this is uncommon as one retrospective study reports PTX occurring in 1% of patients with COVID-19 requiring hospital admission. In this case, it is unclear to what extent the patient's concomitant COVID-19 contributed to the development of a PTX. Our patient was ineligible for definitive intervention to prevent recurrence, thus underwent tube thoracostomy placement which is consistent with the majority of treated patients. While the prognosis of PTX secondary to COVID-19 is generally good, prognosis of cominant co-infection with PCP is an area of further research as the overall mortality of PCP-induced PTX alone can be 23%. CONCLUSION: This case represents a rare occurrence of spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to both PCP and COVID-19. We suggest the incidence to increase as the pandemic continues.

17.
Journal of General Internal Medicine ; 37:S427, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1995750

ABSTRACT

CASE: A 40-year-old man with no significant past medical history presented with acute hypoxemic, hypercarbic respiratory failure and was diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia. He reported that he was unvaccinated against SARSCoV-2. Over the course of two months, he required high-flow nasal cannula, continuous then nocturnal BIPAP for respiratory support and completed appropriate courses of dexamethasone, remdesivir, and baricitinib. He also completed a course of levofloxacin due to concern for superimposed bacterial pneumonia. After finishing the course of dexamethasone, the patient was initiated on a prolonged prednisone taper. His course was complicated by the development of fibroproliferative acute respiratory distress syndrome two months after his initial diagnosis of COVID- 19 requiring continuous followed by nocturnal BIPAP to maintain adequate oxygenation. Subsequently, he developed recurrent bilateral, spontaneous pneumothoraces, which required the insertion of multiple chest tubes due to ongoing air leaks and continued recurrence on removal. IMPACT/DISCUSSION: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) leads to diffuse alveolar damage in the lung and is increasingly being seen as a complication of COVID-19. These patients frequently require steroids along with positive pressure ventilation to maintain adequate oxygenation. Pneumothorax is a common and sometimes fatal complication of positive pressure ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, with some studies quoting an incidence as high as 48%. On the other hand, development of spontaneous pneumothorax in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia is much more rare, with studies showing an incidence of approximately 1% and usually upon the initiation of invasive mechanical ventilation, with collapse due to barotrauma in the setting of cystic and fibrotic changes in the lung parenchyma. However, there are no current case reports citing pneumothoraces as late complications of COVID-19 ARDS, as occurred in our patient two months into his hospitalization, and related solely to BiPAP use in a patient who never previously underwent endotracheal intubation or ventilation. Additionally, since corticosteroids delay wound healing, it is critical to recognize the possibility of developing spontaneous, recurrent pneumothoraces in patients with COVID-19 on prolonged steroid tapers who are initiating any form of positive pressure ventilation, including non-invasive ventilation such as BIPAP. CONCLUSION: Pneumothoraces are rare complications of COVID-19 pneumonia, and are most commonly seen in males who undergo endotracheal intubation. Corticosteroids delay wound healing, and prolonged steroid tapers increase the risk of recurrent pneumothoraces once one develops. Clinicians must be wary of this rare, late complication of patients with COVID-19 ARDS and prolonged steroid exposure and should be extra judicious with the use of positive pressure ventilation.

18.
Polish Annals of Medicine ; 28(2):244-249, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957648

ABSTRACT

I nt r o duc t i o n: First cases of a disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (CO-VID-19), caused by a novel virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) of the coronavirus family, were detected in December 2019. The disease is manifested by a variety of symptoms and can run a different course: from oligosymptomatic or asymptomatic to the development of acute respiratory failure and even death. Ai m: The aim of this paper is to provide critical analysis of the potential pulmonary complications after COVID-19 infection. Ma t e r i a l a nd me t ho ds: We have provided the systematic literature review based on which we have discussed the pathophysiology of COVID-19, its outco-mes, risk factors and pulmonary complications. R e s u l t s a n d d i s c u s s i o n: The organs that are most often affected by a SARS--CoV-2 infection are the lungs. An infection with this virus can lead to a severe respiratory tract illness, both in the acute phase and as a complication after a rela-tively mild case. There are numerous observations of patients convalescing from COVID-19 who suffer from the interstitial pulmonary disease with fibrosis. There are also reported cases of spontaneous pneumothorax after COVID-19. Co nc l us i o ns: It should be borne in mind that other late complications may appear with time.

19.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927911

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19) has presented challenges to hospitals from its initial onset in 2020. Physicians at Lakeland Regional Medical Center (LRH) suspected an increase of spontaneous pneumothorax (PTX) in patients admitted with COVID-19 through the emergency department (LRH has 220,000 ED-visits per year). The suspicion was supported by a small body of literature reporting COVID-19's association with PTX (mainly in the form of small case series or reports). The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that COVID-19 has on PTX incidence on a much larger scale. METHODS : We conducted a retrospective chart review extracting data on admitted patients between March 2020 and December 2021. Data included age, sex, COVID-19 positivity status, intubation (at any time during hospitalization), and PTX occurrence. We compared PTX rates between COVID-19 positive/negative patients and between patients who were intubated or not. A series of chi-square tests (alpha at < .05) were used for comparisons, as well as to calculate odds ratios (OR). Lastly, a binomial logistic regression was conducted to examine the effect of COVID-19 positivity, intubation status, and the interaction of COVID-19 positivity and intubation status, while controlling for age and sex, on odds for developing PTX. RESULTS : There were 50,456 patients included in our analyses. PTX incidence was 2.3% for COVID-19 positive versus 0.62% for COVID-19 negative. There was a significant association (p<0.0001) and 366% increased odds of developing PTX if patients were COVID-19 positive (95% CI [2.99, 4.46]). Intubation in itself had a significant association (p < 0.0001) and OR of 10.35 (95% CI [8.90, 12.04]) for developing PTX, but results of logistic regression revealed a strong interaction between COVIDpositivity and intubation status. Using COVID-19 negative and intubated patients as our reference group, we found that COVID-19 positive and intubated patients were at 6.56 increased odds of developing a PTX. COVID-19 positivity did not appear to have a significant association with PTX in the non-intubated patients. CONCLUSIONS : PTX is a rare, serious potential complication of COVID-19. This complication has considerable morbidity, especially in patients requiring intubation and should require strong clinical suspicion in COVID-19 positive patients. Research is needed to identify other key factors (i.e. underlying pulmonary disease, oxygen requirements, illness severity) that influence outcomes of patients with COVID-19.

20.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927863

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Spontaneous pneumothoraxes in children are uncommon, may be idiopathic or associated with underlying pulmonary disease, and can present management challenges. We present a 12-year-old female with recurrent right sided spontaneous pneumothorax in the setting of an asymptomatic SARS-Co-V2 (COVID) infection and imaging concerning for congenital lobar overinflation (CLO) versus congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM), prompting surgical intervention. Case: A 12-year-old pre-menstrual female with remote history of eczema, asthma, and environmental allergies presented from an outside facility with four-days of progressive chest pain and dyspnea on exertion and diagnosis of right-sided spontaneous pneumothorax, improving after pigtail chest tube placement. Physical exam was significant for tall thin body habitus;family history was significant for paternal spontaneous pneumothorax as an adolescent. She was incidentally found to be COVID positive. Chest plain films (CXRs) showed subcutaneous emphysema and persistent right-sided pneumothorax. Clamping trial failed, prompting removal of the pigtail and placement of 12F chest tube with resultant near complete re-expansion. On serial CXRs, a right hilar cystic lucency was newly identified. Chest CT confirmed the right upper lobe (RUL) air-filled cystic structure and abrupt narrowing of the RUL posterior segmental bronchus, concerning for CLO versus CPAM. Chest tube was successfully removed on day 6, and she was discharged home with planned follow-up. Three months later, she was readmitted for recurrent right-sided spontaneous pneumothorax diagnosed after one day of chest pain, cough, and dyspnea. Laboratory testing revealed mild leukopenia and anemia;she was COVID negative. A chest tube was placed and set to wall suction. Due to persistent pneumothorax, this was replaced with a pigtail drain on day 5. CXRs demonstrated persistent cystic RUL lung mass. With her prior COVID infection now resolved, RUL wedge resection was completed via video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery on day 8. She tolerated the procedure well and was discharged on day 10 with resolving pneumothorax. Tissue for pathology results revealed pleural fibrosis and focal hemorrhage without malignancy, most consistent with a ruptured bleb. At one week follow up, she remained stable without complications. Discussion: Pneumothoraxes in tall, thin adolescents are often categorized as primary spontaneous. Most pneumothoraxes resolve with conservative management and often do not require surgical intervention. Congenital lung malformations are a rare secondary cause in children and may be detected on CXR. Chest imaging should be carefully reviewed for congenital malformations requiring specific surgical intervention. These findings, along with the patient's clinical course, may assist in determining management.

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