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1.
J UOEH ; 44(2): 151-159, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879641

ABSTRACT

This study aims to clarify the impact of COVID-19 on the mental health of users with mental illness of home visit nursing services. We sent a questionnaire to 1,740 home visit nursing station managers, 374 (21.5%) of whom responded. The total number of valid responses was 328, which amounted to 87.7% of the returned surveys. In total, 103 (31.4%) stations reported that their users' mental health deteriorated owing to the spread of COVID-19. Eighty-nine (86.4%) stations reported that their users' anxiety increased. More than 80% of the stations explained infection control measures to their users, but 194 (59.1%) stations answered that their users found it challenging to practice cleanliness. A total of 207 (63.1%) stations answered that the promotion of strategies for coping with stress is necessary for their users. Users with mental illness are vulnerable to stress and have a higher risk of death due to COVID-19. Thus, they should be carefully observed and referred to facilities if required. Home visit nursing staff have an important role to play in the preservation of the well-being of their users with mental illness during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Nursing Services , House Calls , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pandemics
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 814328, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879479

ABSTRACT

The implementation of timely COVID-19 pan-India lockdown posed challenges to the lifestyle. We looked at the impact of lifestyle on health status during the lockdown in India. A self-rated scale, COVID Health Assessment Scale (CHAS) was circulated to evaluate the physical health or endurance, mental health i.e. anxiety and stress, and coping ability of the individuals under lockdown. This is a pan-India cross-sectional survey study. CHAS was designed by 11 experts in 3 Delphi rounds (CVR = 0.85) and was circulated through various social media platforms, from 9th May to 31st May 2020, across India by snowball circulation method. CHAS forms of 23,760 respondents were downloaded from the Google forms. Logistic regression using R software was used to compare vulnerable (>60 years and with chronic diseases) with non-vulnerable groups. There were 23,317 viable respondents. Majority of respondents included males (58·8%). Graduates/Postgraduates (72·5%), employed (33·0%), businessmen (6·0%), and professionals (9·7%). The vulnerable group had significantly (OR 1.31, p < 0.001) higher representation of overweight individuals as compared to non-vulnerable group. Regular use of tobacco (OR 1.62, p = 0.006) and other addictive substances (OR 1.80, p = 0.039) showed increased vulnerability. Respondents who consume junk food (OR 2.19, p < 0.001) and frequently snack (OR 1.16, p < 0.001) were more likely to be vulnerable. Respondents involved in fitness training (OR 0.57, p < 0.001) or did physical works other than exercise, yoga, walk or household activity (OR 0.88, p = 0.004) before lockdown were less likely to be vulnerable. Majority had a very good lifestyle, 94.4% never smoked or used tobacco, 92.1% were non-alcoholic, 97.5% never used addictive substances, 84.7% had good eating habits, 75.4% were vegetarians, 82.8% had "good" sleep, 71.7% did physical activities. Only 24.7% reported "poor" coping ability. Depression with somewhat low feeling were more likely to be vulnerable (OR 1.26, p < 0.001). A healthy lifestyle that includes healthy eating, proper sleep, physical activeness and non-addictive habits supports better coping ability with lesser psychological distress among Indian population during lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Status , Humans , India/epidemiology , Life Style , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Future Sci OA ; 8(5): FSO797, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879356

ABSTRACT

Vinpocetine (VPN) is an alkaloid derivative of vincamine inhibits phosphodiesterase type 1 that increase cyclic guanosine monophosphate and cyclic adenosine monophosphate. VPN have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects with suppression release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, VPN mitigates oxidative stress (OS) and inflammatory reactions through inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Therefore, VPN may decrease hyper-inflammation-induced acute lung injury in COVID-19 through modulation of NF-κB pathway. Taken together, VPN has pulmonary and extra-pulmonary protective effects against COVID-19 through mitigation of OS and hyperinflammation. In conclusion, VPN has noteworthy anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects through inhibition of NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway so, it may reduce SARS-CoV-2-induced hyper inflammatory and OS.

4.
Psychol Psychother ; 2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879099

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively affected the lives of millions of individuals physiologically, behaviorally, socially, and/or psychologically. Moreover, there is now much empirical evidence that mental health problems have increased during the pandemic period and these problems have various consequences. The changes in the mood states of individuals due to the pandemic underpins the rationale of the present study. The aim of the study was to identify the cross-sectional associations between fear of COVID-19, stress, anxiety, and depression by using two stage-meta-analytic structural equation modeling (TS-MASEM). DESIGN: This is a meta-analytic structural equation modelling study. METHOD: A systematic literature review initially identified 4840 studies. As a result of applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 25 studies comprising 28 samples (reporting 120 effect sizes) were eligible for inclusion in the current TS-MASEM (N = 16,452). RESULTS: The results showed significant associations between fear of COVID-19, stress, anxiety, and depression. Additionally, the mediation role of anxiety in the association between depression and fear of COVID-19 and stress was explored. CONCLUSIONS: Although the results did not allow for causal inferences regarding depression, they provide insight into the possible consequences of fear of COVID-19 and comorbid problems for clinicians and researchers.

5.
J Food Biochem ; : e14259, 2022 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879059

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection has now become the world's most significant health hazard, with the World Health Organization declaring a pandemic on March 11, 2020. COVID-19 enters the lungs through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors, alters various signaling pathways, and causes immune cells to overproduce cytokines, resulting in mucosal inflammation, lung damage, and multiple organ failure in COVID-19 patients. Although several antiviral medications have been effective in managing the virus, they have not been effective in lowering the inflammation and symptoms of the illness. Several studies have found that epigallocatechin-3-gallate and melatonin upregulate sirtuins proteins, which leads to downregulation of pro-inflammatory gene transcription and NF-κB, protecting organisms from oxidative stress in autoimmune, respiratory, and cardiovascular illnesses. As a result, the purpose of this research is to understand more about the molecular pathways through which these phytochemicals affect COVID-19 patients' impaired immune systems, perhaps reducing hyperinflammation and symptom severity. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Polyphenols are natural secondary metabolites that are found to be present in plants. EGCG a polyphenol belonging to the flavonoid family in tea has potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties that helps to counter the inflammation and oxidative stress associated with many neurodegenerative diseases. Melatonin, another strong antioxidant in plants, has been shown to possess antiviral function and alleviate oxidative stress in many inflammatory diseases. In this review, we propose an alternative therapy for COVID-19 patients by supplementing their diet with these nutraceuticals that perhaps by modulating sirtuin signaling pathways counteract cytokine storm and oxidative stress, the root causes of severe inflammation and symptoms in these patients.

6.
Appl Psychol Health Well Being ; 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878998

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, physical distancing measures to prevent transmission of the virus have been implemented. The effect of physical distancing measures on loneliness especially for vulnerable groups remained unclear. Thus, we aimed to investigate loneliness in relation with depressive symptoms among lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, inter, asexual, and queer (LGBT) persons compared with cis-heterosexual persons during the pandemic. We conducted an online survey during the first two waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. The survey contained self-categorizations regarding sexual orientation and gender identity, questions on loneliness, social contacts, depressive symptoms, and healthcare. Descriptive and regression analysis and propensity score matching across cohorts was conducted using R; 2641 participants took part in first wave of the survey and 4143 participants in the second wave. The proportion of lonely people was higher in the second wave compared with the first wave. LGBT persons were more lonely than cis-heterosexual persons. In both waves, being LGBT was associated with depressive symptoms, but loneliness mediated the effect, even when adjusting for social contacts. Psychologists and other practitioners should be aware that LGBT clients might have an increased risk for loneliness and depressive symptoms and of the potential burden of the pandemic measures.

7.
Occup Med (Lond) ; 2022 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878815

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The education sector has been heavily impacted by COVID-19. While the impact on school-aged children has received much attention, less attention has focused on the experiences of educators. AIMS: To compare various dimensions of the psychosocial work environment and health outcomes between educators engaged in online learning to those engaged in in-person learning in the Canadian province of Ontario. METHODS: Responses from 5438 educators engaged in either online or in-person learning were collected between 23 November and 21 December 2020; three months after the start of the 2020/21 academic year in September 2020. Psychosocial outcomes included quantitative demands, work pace, predictability, role conflicts, and social support from supervisors and co-workers; assessed using an abbreviated version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included burnout and sleep troubles. Ordinary Least-Squares regression models examined adjusted mean differences in the levels of outcomes for respondents in in-person versus online learning, after adjustment for a variety of covariates. RESULTS: Compared to respondents engaged in in-person learning, respondents engaged in online learning reported less predictability, higher role conflicts and less support from supervisors and co-workers. Statistically significant differences in work pace, burnout and sleep troubles were also observed across learning modes, although these differences did not exceed previously suggested thresholds for minimum important differences. CONCLUSIONS: Important differences in the psychosocial work environment were observed between respondents engaged in in-person learning versus online learning. Addressing these differences is required, given the potential continued importance of online learning within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.

8.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-8, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878670

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Among older adults, anxiety is a likely risk factor for COVID-19-related distress, whereas psychological resilience may attenuate the negative impact of the pandemic. In this longitudinal study, we hypothesized that pre-pandemic anxiety would predict higher COVID-19-related distress, whereas resiliency would predict lower distress. Further we hypothesized that resilience would moderate the association between anxiety and distress. METHODS: Pre-pandemic data (July 2018) was obtained from a community sample of older adults and included measures of anxiety and resiliency. We conducted a follow-up survey (n = 571) during the pandemic (June 2020) and evaluated COVID-19-related distress. We used OLS regression to test our hypotheses. RESULTS: Anxiety symptoms predicted higher COVID-19-related distress; resiliency predicted lower distress. Resiliency did not moderate the association between anxiety and distress. High levels of resiliency, compared to low levels, attenuated the influence of anxiety on COVID-19-related distress, but only among those with low-to-moderate levels of anxiety. CONCLUSION: Older adults with anxiety may be more susceptible to COVID-19 related distress. Interventions that increase resilience, may mitigate distress, and promote healthy aging for those with low-to-moderate anxiety. Further research, however, is needed to help those older adults with high anxiety contend with such adverse experiences and build on psychological resources.

9.
Management : Journal of Contemporary Management Issues ; 27(1):123-150, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1879793

ABSTRACT

Ovaj rad istražuje vezu izmeðu neplaćenog rada, financijskog blagostanja i razine stresa meðu ženama tijekom pandemije COVID-19. Pandemija je izazvala pad u gospodarstvima zemalja diljem svijeta te dovela do neizvjesnosti i promjena, koje su stvorile uvjete za povećanu razinu stresa i narušenu dobrobit. Osim socijalnog distanciranja i izolacije, kao mjera za suočavanje s virusom, rad i školovanje kod kuće, skrb za bolesne i starije članove obitelji te financijski problemi predstavljali su dodatni teret i pokazali se kao dodatni osobni i obiteljski izvori stresa. Rezultati ovog istraživanja temelje se na online anketi, provedenoj meðu ženama, tijekom druge karantene u Hrvatskoj. Dodatni neplaćeni rad i niža razina financijskog blagostanja utječu na povećani stres, koji žene osjećaju tijekom pandemije. To je posebno izraženo kod žena koje se više bave plaćenim radom. Tijekom pandemije, dodatni neplaćeni rad, povećana uključenost u plaćeni posao i ugroženo financijsko blagostanje su bili izvori stresa za žene. Naši rezultati jasno ukazuju na važnost slobodnog vremena žena za dobrobit sebe i obitelji.Alternate :This study examines the relationship between unpaid care work, financial well-being, and stress levels among women during the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic caused downturns in the economies of countries worldwide and led to uncertainties and changes that created conditions for increased stress levels and consequently impaired well-being. In addition to social distancing and lockdown measures to cope with the virus, working from home, home schooling, caring for sick and older family members, and financial problems have added burdens and have proven to be additional personal and family stressors. The findings are based on an online survey conducted among women during the second lockdown in Croatia. Additional unpaid care work and lower financial well-being affect the increased stress felt by women during the pandemic. This is especially pronounced among women who are more involved in paid work. During the pandemic, additional unpaid care work, increased involvement in paid work, and jeopardized financial well-being were stressors for women. Our results indicate the importance of women s free time for their own and their families 'well-being.

10.
International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management ; 34(7):2535-2558, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1878891

ABSTRACT

Purpose>The COVID-19 pandemic intensifies the high turnover rate in the restaurant industry. Applying the conservation of resources (COR) theory, this study aims to examine the factors influencing US restaurant frontline employees’ organizational and occupational turnover intention with an emphasis on the three-way interactions between job stress, fear of COVID-19 (FC) and resilience.Design/methodology/approach>A sample of 243 US restaurant frontline employees participated in this study. PROCESS macro was used for hypothesis testing.Findings>Organizational turnover intention fully mediated the relationship between job stress and restaurant employees’ occupational turnover intention. FC intensified the positive relationship between job stress and organizational turnover intentions. Job stress, FC and resilience interacted to affect restaurant frontline employees’ organizational turnover intention such that when resilience is high, FC strengthened the positive relationship between job stress and organizational turnover intention, and the indirect effect of job stress on occupational turnover intention via organizational turnover intention.Practical implications>Restaurants should take measures to reduce frontline employees’ fear and continue implementing practices to alleviate job stress during a crisis to reduce employees’ turnover intentions. Training on building employee resilience could also be provided by restaurant operators.Originality/value>This study added to the limited knowledge of factors that are associated with restaurant employees’ organizational and occupational turnover intentions in the context of a global crisis and expanded the current knowledge of how fear and resilience may impact restaurant employees’ behavioral intentions.

11.
J Am Coll Health ; : 1-8, 2022 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878615

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of perceived stress [PS] with physical activity [PA] and sitting time [ST], before and during COVID-19 among US college students. Participants: 592 students from a large Western university (19.08 ± 4.62 years, 76.69% female, 79.39% White) were recruited. Methods: Self-reported online survey was completed in June-December 2020. Analysis included paired T-tests for continuous variables, Pearson Correlation the relationship between PSS, PA, and sitting time before and during COVID-19, and linear mixed models examined the association of outcome variables with PSS, time, and PSS × time. Results. Vigorous, moderate, and light PA decreased by 40%, 35% and 19%, sitting time increased by 52%, and PSS increase by 42% from before to during COVID-19. Conclusions: The perceived stress during COVID-19 may have influenced physical activity and sitting time. Effective health promotion programs and coping strategies are needed to protect college students as campuses reopen during COVID.

12.
J Am Coll Health ; : 1-8, 2022 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878610

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between COVID-19-related living arrangements and sexual and gender minority (SGM)-related stressors (ie, identity concealment and familial rejection). PARTICIPANTS: N = 478 SGM university students (Mage = 22 years, SD = 4.00). METHODS: SGM university students were surveyed cross-sectionally between May and August 2020 regarding SGM-related stressors and living arrangements since the start of COVID-19. RESULTS: Approximately half (48.7%) of the sample reported a living rearrangement to their parents' home due to COVID-19. Living rearrangement to parents' homes was associated with an increased degree of identity concealment (ß [95% C.I.] = 0.62 [0.10, 1.15]; p = .020) and familial rejection (ß [95% C.I.] = 1.56 [0.72, 2.41]; p < .001) since the start of COVID-19 compared to stably living without parents (34.3%). Stably living with parents (17.0%) was not associated with increased degree of SGM-related stressors compared to experiencing a living rearrangement. CONCLUSIONS: Stakeholders must consider the unique identity-related vulnerabilities of SGM students living with parents and who experience living rearrangements due to COVID-19.

13.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-22, 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878446

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: According to a WHO report, the number of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has reached 456,797,217 worldwide as of 15 March, 2022. In Wuhan, China, large teams of healthcare personnel were dispatched to respond to the COVID-19 emergency. This study aimed to determine the sociodemographic and psychological predictors of resilience among frontline nurses fighting the current pandemic. METHODS: A total of 143 nurses were recruited from February 15 to February 20, 2020 to participate in this study. The 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale were used to estimate the participants' resilience and mental wellbeing. RESULTS: Results showed that the nurses displayed a moderate resilience level. Their median depression, anxiety, and stress scores were 1, 2, and 3, respectively, which were negatively correlated with resilience. Female gender, being dispatched to Wuhan, and depression levels were the significant predictors of resilience. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that particular attention should be given to female nurses who were dispatched to Wuhan and who exhibited depression symptoms, and appropriate measures should be taken to boost their resilience.

14.
Sleep Epidemiol ; 1: 100007, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878383

ABSTRACT

Objective: As the COVID-19 pandemic brings widespread changes in families, the sociology of sleep becomes noticeable. Yet, the socio-contextual determinants of a biopsychosocial phenomenon as sleep are poorly investigated. We examine changes concomitantly occurring in the child's sleep per familial and community stressors. Methods: During the pre-COVID-19 outbreak period, in 24 minority children (5.4 ± 1.7 years old, 54.2% girls), sleep was objectively measured 24 h for two consecutive weeks, and this was repeated three times over the study period of three months. The caregiver filled out questionnaires surveying sociodemographic, community and family aspects. Results: Children went to bed at 22:26 and woke up at 07:04, with each a variability of about 50 min. Money and time were revealed as related key stressors to sleep. Five dimensions best fitted their association. In general, concurrent changes within the individual child indicate that mean sleep variables seem to relate to predominantly features of the stressors (explained variance of 34.7 to 56.7%), while variability of sleep tends to associate to situational aspects of the stressors (explained variance of 30.4 to 61.8%). Associations were best explained in terms of the 24 h dimension, particularly exposing sleep variability. Conclusion: Individual variabilities in a child's sleep are associated with familial resources, such as caregiver's time to self, money and basic needs. Time spent in bed, a modifiable factor by society and shaper of sleep quantity and quality, plays a key role in stressor-sleep associations. Insights from biopsychosocial perspectives may be valuable for understanding COVID-19 sleep studies, and the development of (post-) COVID-19 sleep recommendations.

15.
Saudi Pharm J ; 2022 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878301

ABSTRACT

Background: The study aimed to assess burnout, resilience, and levels of depression, anxiety, stress and fear among community pharmacists during the pandemic, and examine if fear of COVID-19 is associated with these outcomes of interest. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists in Qatar was conducted. Pharmacists' burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory: Human Services Survey for Medical Personnel (MBI-HSS™ for MP-Mindgarden). Resilience was assessed using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-10 (CD-RISC-10). Depression, anxiety, and stress were measured by the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Fear of COVID-19 was assessed by the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S). Results: 256 respondents completed the survey and were included in the final study analysis (response rate: 42.7%). Overall, participants reported a moderate level of burnout as illustrated in the mean scores of the three burnout dimensions; 20.54 (SD=12.37) for emotional exhaustion, 6.76 (SD=6.22) for depersonalization, and 36.57 (SD=9.95) for personal accomplishment. Moreover, depression, anxiety and stress were reported by 44.8%, 53.2% and 25.4% of particiants respectively. Participants had shown moderate resilience (mean score: 27.64 (SD=8.31)) and their mean score fear of COVID19 was 15.67 (SD=6.54). Fear of COVID-19 was a statistically significant and an independent predictor of depression, anxiety, and stress levels. Conclusions: The pharmacists experienced moderate burnout but moderate resilience, which indicates their potential to overcome difficulties. Future interventions at the personal, national and organizational levels are required to enhance the pharmacists' wellbeing by decreasing stress, improving self-efficacy and resilience, and preventing burnout.

16.
Complement Ther Med ; 68: 102832, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878115

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lavender is considered as one of the medicinal plants to manage stress. Although many preliminary studies evaluated the effect of lavender on individuals' stress level, to the best of our knowledge, we did not find a study that summarizes the results. Therefore, the present study aimed to estimate the Pooled effect of lavender on the stress level of individuals using systematic review and meta-analysis. METHOD: A systematic literature review based on PRISMA 2020 was performed on the SID, MagIran, Embase, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science (WoS) databases, and Google Scholar motor engine using related MeSH/Emtree and Free Text words, including "Lavender*", "Lavandula*", "Stress*", "Stress Disorders, Traumatic", and "Stress, Psychological" with no time limitation until August 2021: We also searched two Iranain free local resourses including MagIran https://www.magiran.com and Scientific Information Database (SID) https://www.sid.ir. The quality assessment of studies was performed using JBI checklist. Heterogeneity among studies was quantified using I2 index and Random Effects model was used to combine the data and perform the meta-analysis. RESULTS: In the initial search, 1520 articles were found. After excluding the irrelevant studies, finally, 21 articles with a sample size of 791 in the intervention group and 804 in the control group were included in the meta-analysis. As a result of combining the studies, stress score after using lavender in the intervention group showed a significant decrease of 0.63 ± 0.13 (95% CI) more than that in the control group (P < 0.001). The results of subgroup analysis demonstrated that the highest standardized mean difference (SMD) before and after the intervention in the intervention group compared to the control group was related to L. angustifolia species with 0.73 ± 0.22, student groups with 2.27 ± 1.34, and diagnostic tool of Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) with 0.82 ± 0.42, indicating that the difference between the groups was statistically significant (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The pooled estimation of this systematic reiew and meta-analysis revealed that lavender significantly reduces individuals' stress. Therefore, it seems that the use of lavender can be considered as a part of a stress management programs, especially in student groups.


Subject(s)
Lavandula , Plants, Medicinal , Sudden Infant Death , Humans , Psychotherapy
17.
Ann Med Psychol (Paris) ; 2022 May 13.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878046

ABSTRACT

Objectives: In France, during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, all care workers have been mobilized. Despite this, the strong demand for care has put the health system under great strain. To overcome this overload of world, 86 medical students of Paris-Saclay University came to help some hospital services. They replaced caregivers, nurses or stretcher bearers under "degraded care" conditions. At the university level, the closure of the faculty due to generalized lockdown disrupted the training of these future doctors who were in second, third or fourth year of training (pre-clinical). This exploratory study proposes to collect the impact of the experience of these students during the first wave of the pandemic in order to better understand the difficulties they encountered, as well as the resources they exploited during this period. Materials and methods: Using a mixed approach, both quantitative on the one hand and qualitative on the other hand, medical students from Paris-Saclay were interviewed through a retrospective questionnaire distributed in December 2020. The quantitative part of the questionnaire assessed their psychological distress (6-item Kessler scale) and their resilience (Brief Resilience Scale). The qualitative part of the questionnaire included various open questions concerning the motivations to participate, the difficulties encountered, the impact of the situation on their interpersonal relationships or their university course. Results: A total of 46 responses from medical students from the University of Paris-Saclay were collected. This constitutes a response rate of 55%. Half of them were second or third year medical students. They were assigned to emergency departments, resuscitation or units dedicated to the care of patients with COVID-19. The average psychological distress score is 7.13. The average resilience score is 3.14. From these results, several categories of students were analyzed according to the elements found in their answers to the open questions. Almost all the students reported wanting to contribute to the collective effort and help hospital services. For some students, it was also a way of making themselves useful while escaping lockdown. The students were exposed to difficult working conditions, the distress of families and the deaths of numerous patients. Their involvement also had an impact on their relationships with their families: they could feel more isolated, or be afraid of infecting them. Their university work was very disrupted by their investment in the hospital: fatigue, concentration problems, lack of motivation could lead them to a form of dropping out of university. Conclusions: The results of this study are part of the context of a particular health crisis. They show medical students exposed to significant psychosocial risks in a period of stress. It seems important to identify what leads some students to develop good resilience capacities. The COVID-19 pandemic acts as an indicator of difficulties that were already present but that it is exacerbating: the link between the faculty, the student and the hospital, mentoring, supervision, support, university workload, hospital working conditions, psycho-pedagogical support for students and support for most struggling students… These results invite us to rethink the educational engineering of medical studies so that they make it possible, even in a health crisis, to ensure the quality of training and the quality of life of medical students.

18.
J Child Fam Stud ; 31(6): 1558-1569, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877885

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had substantial health, social, and economic effects on families. Consequent lockdowns and school closures heightened the burden on parents of school-age children. Many parents, while working from home, had to care for their children with restricted access to caregiver resources and to support their children's education through homeschooling or remote learning provided by their schools. These duties created challenges and pressures on parents. Using online survey data collected from 197 parents of school-age (Prek-12) children during the first three months of the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S., this preliminary study examined the relations among COVID-19-related stressors, including fear of COVID-19 and problems associated with school closures, parenting stress, and parental psychological well-being. Fear of COVID-19 and various issues associated with school closures were related to parenting stress and parental well-being. Parents with less instrumental and emotional support reported higher levels of parenting stress and lower levels of psychological well-being. The results of hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that parenting stress was the strongest predictor of parental psychological distress. Social support was associated with parental well-being but did not mediate the relation between parenting stress and parental well-being. The findings suggest that parenting stress during the COVID-19 lockdowns might take a toll on the mental health of parents of school-age children. Parents of school-age children need multiple layers of support, including targeted support addressing stressors related to school closures and parenting under quarantine.

19.
Inflammopharmacology ; 2022 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Melatonin is an indole hormone secreted primarily by the pineal gland that showing anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic capacity. It can play an important role in the pathophysiological mechanisms of various diseases. In this regard, different studies have shown that there is a relationship between Melatonin and Multiple Sclerosis (MS). MS is a chronic immune-mediated disease of the Central Nervous System. AIM: The objective of this review was to evaluate the mechanisms of action of melatonin on oxidative stress, inflammation and intestinal dysbiosis caused by MS, as well as its interaction with different hormones and factors that can influence the pathophysiology of the disease. RESULTS: Melatonin causes a significant increase in the levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione and can counteract and inhibit the effects of the NLRP3 inflammasome, which would also be beneficial during SARS-CoV-2 infection. In addition, melatonin increases antimicrobial peptides, especially Reg3ß, which could be useful in controlling the microbiota. CONCLUSION: Melatonin could exert a beneficial effect in people suffering from MS, running as a promising candidate for the treatment of this disease. However, more research in human is needed to help understand the possible interaction between melatonin and certain sex hormones, such as estrogens, to know the potential therapeutic efficacy in both men and women.

20.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 2022 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877813

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has affected the world's health systems for more than two years. This disease causes a high mortality rate followed by cytokine storm-induced oxidative stress and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Therefore, many drugs have been considered with emphasis on their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in controlling the consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Icariin is a major bioactive pharmaceutical compound derived from Epimedium plants, which is known due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Additionally, the protective effects of icariin have been studied in different pathologies through modulating intracellular pathways. In addition to the potential effect of this compound on inflammation and oxidative stress caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, it appears to interfere with intracellular pathways involved in viral entry into the cell. Therefore, this paper aims to review the molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of icariin, and hypothesizes its potential to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells through modulating the intracellular pathways.

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