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1.
Respir Care ; 2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761000

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, 60-80% of patients admitted to ICU require mechanical ventilation for respiratory distress. We aimed to compare the frequency of postextubation stridor (PES) and to explore risk factors in COVID-19 subjects compared to those without COVID-19. METHODS: We performed an observational retrospective study on subjects admitted for severe COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation > 48 h during the first and second waves in 2020 and compared these subjects to historical controls without COVID-19 who received mechanical ventilation > 48 h between 2016-2019. The primary outcome was the frequency of PES, defined as audible stridor within 2 h following extubation. RESULTS: Of the 134 subjects admitted with severe COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation, 96 were extubated and included and compared to 211 controls. The frequency of PES was 22.9% in the COVID-19 subjects and 3.8% in the controls (P < .001). Factors independently associated with PES were having COVID-19 (odds ratio 3.72, [95% CI 1.24-12.14], P = .02), female sex (odds ratio 5.77 [95% CI 2.30-15.64], P < .001), and tube mobilization or re-intubation or prone positioning (odds ratio 3.01 [95% CI 1.04-9.44], P = .047) after adjustment on Simplified Acute Physiology Score II expanded). During the first wave, PES was significantly more common in subjects with a positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test on tracheal samples on the day of extubation (73.3% vs 24.3%, P = .018). CONCLUSIONS: PES affected nearly one-quarter of subjects with COVID-19, a proportion significantly higher than that seen in controls. Independent risk factors for PES were COVID-19, female sex, and tube mobilization or re-intubation or prone positioning. PES was associated with persistent viral shedding at the time of extubation.

2.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 1455613221083822, 2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759605

ABSTRACT

Tracheobronchopathia osteoplastica (TO) is a rare, benign disease of unknown etiology, primarily affecting the major tracheobronchial tree, characterized by irregular nodular calcifications of the cartilaginous component of the inner wall of the tracheobronchial tree while sparing the posterior wall, leading to progressive narrowing of the airway. We report the case of a 60-year-old male otherwise healthy nonsmoker, who complained of chronic breathing discomfort and recurrent chest infections and was found to have TO according to radiographic, microlaryngoscopic, and biopsy findings. He experienced a flare up with worsening of disease progression after years of being in stable condition, after his infection with SARS-CoV-2.

3.
Cogent Medicine ; 8, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1617064

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Respiratory tract diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. This study aimed to compare respiratory illness rates and aetiology requiring hospitalization in 2019 (pre-COVID lockdown in Ireland) and 2020 (during COVID lockdown in Ireland). Methodology: Data from medical admissions were retrospectively collected from the emergency department admissions record of a Tertiary Paediatric Hospital in Dublin, Ireland. This study focused on September, October and November in 2019 and 2020. The documented reason for admission in each case was noted;these were transcribed and grouped into categories. Reasons for admission under the category of respiratory included: bronchiolitis, lower respiratory tract infection, upper respiratory tract infection, wheeze, stridor and exacerbation of asthma. Rates of admission in this category were compared from 2019 versus 2020. Rates of investigative nasopharyngeal swabs for these admissions were documented, as well as the resultant viruses isolated. The results were compared across 2019 and 2020. Results: 1040 admission were included in the study. Of these, 620 were in 2019 and 420 in 2020. This alone shows a decrease of 32% in the admissions rate to Temple Street Children's hospital during COVID-19 restrictions. Of the 620 admissions across September, October and November 2019, 265 were attributed to respiratory illnesses (42.77%). In the same time period of 2020, only 67 admissions were attributed to respiratory causes (15.95%). This shows a dramatic decrease in the number of paediatric respiratory illnesses requiring hospital admission. There was a decrease in the number of respiratory panel nasopharyngeal swabs taken in 2020 compared to 2019, although 89% of respiratory admissions were swabbed for Sars-CoV-2 in 2020. Respiratory syncytial virus accounted for 54.60% of respiratory admissions swabbed in 2019 versus a 0% isolation rate in 2020. The table below further outlines virology differences between 2019 and 2020. (table) Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 pandemic related social restrictions dramatically interfered with the seasonality of childhood respiratory illnesses. This was reflected in the unexpected reduction in the number of hospitalizations in the paediatric population during this period. There is also an obvious stark contrast in the viruses isolated in children presenting with respiratory illnesses in 2019 and 2020. This study raises serious questions and concerns regarding paediatric immunity to respiratory illnesses and begs the question: will we experience a more severe respiratory season in 2021?

4.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 1455613211070896, 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582723

ABSTRACT

Laryngeal tuberculosis is the most frequent granulomatous disease of the larynx and it is prone to be diagnosed as cancer. COVID-19 pandemic caused considerable disruption in tuberculosis service provisions both in the primary care and hospital settings. This report describes a rare case of life-threatening stridor in a patient who presented with an ulceroproliferative laryngeal mass later confirmed as laryngeal tuberculosis. Urgent tracheostomy was performed. The patient's sputum and the computed tomography of the chest revealed a pulmonary, as well as laryngeal tuberculosis. The patient was commenced on a 24 week course of anti-tuberculous treatment which was interrupted because of a mild course of hospital-acquired coronavirus infection. 3 months after initial treatment for tuberculosis, his sputum cultures became negative. Flexible laryngoscopy was performed at our department 4 months after commencement of treatment, demonstrating complete regression of the lesion and symmetrical laryngeal mobility, hence the patient was successfully decannulated and discharged to be followed up to his community hospital. In the time of COVID-19 pandemic, we should never underestimate other severe infectious diseases.

5.
Am J Emerg Med ; 43: 287.e1-287.e3, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326885

ABSTRACT

We describe three previously healthy children, admitted from our emergency department (ED) to our free-standing children's hospital, as the first documented cases of croup as a manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. All three cases (ages 11 months, 2 years, and 9 years old) presented with non-specific upper-respiratory-tract symptoms that developed into a barky cough with associated stridor at rest and respiratory distress. All were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction testing from nasopharyngeal samples that were negative for all other pathogens including the most common etiologies for croup. Each received multiple (≥3) doses of nebulized racemic epinephrine with minimal to no improvement shortly after medication. All had a prolonged period of time from ED presentation until the resolution of their stridor at rest (13, 19, and 21 h). All received dexamethasone early in their ED treatment and all were admitted. All three received at least one additional dose of dexamethasone, an atypical treatment occurrence in our hospital, due to each patient's prolonged duration of symptoms. One child required heliox therapy and admission to intensive care. All patients were eventually discharged. Pathogen testing is usually not indicated in croup, but with "COVID-19 croup," SARS-CoV-2 testing should be considered given the prognostic significance and prolonged quarantine implications. Our limited experience with this newly described COVID-19 croup condition suggests that cases can present with significant pathology and might not improve as rapidly as those with typical croup.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Croup/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
7.
Ear Nose Throat J ; 100(2_suppl): 122S-130S, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971773

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the number of patients with idiopathic subglottic stenosis (iSGS) who have contracted coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the impact of the pandemic on patients' attitudes on seeking help and attending hospitals, as well as the delays in the offer of treatment from the local health care systems. METHODS: A 29-question survey was distributed to an international mailing list of patients with subglottic stenosis to assess the patient experience during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 543 patients with iSGS participated. Fewer than 1 in 10 patients with iSGS have experienced COVID-19 symptoms, which were predominantly mild to moderate, with only 2 hospitalizations. Most patients with iSGS (80.0%) have not been advised they are high risk for COVID-19, despite 36.5% of patients with iSGS being obese (body mass index of 30+). Delays to surgeries and in-office procedures have impacted 40.1% of patients currently receiving treatment, with 38.8% of patients increasingly struggling to breathe as a result. Anxiety and stress are increasing among patients, with 3 in 4 (75.2%) reporting they are anxious about travelling by public transport, contracting the virus in hospital and infecting loved ones (69.0% and 71.9%, respectively). Of greater concern is that 23.1% with increasing dyspnea state they are staying away from hospital despite their deteriorating health. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on the physical and psychological health of patients with iSGS. Surgeons managing cases of laryngotracheal stenosis need to offer appropriate support and communication to these high risk patients. During the pandemic, this should include self-isolation if they are dyspneic or on treatments that may have reduced their immunity. In addition, they should offer safe clinical pathways to airway assessment and treatments, if they become necessary. To minimize unnecessary travel, much of the clinical monitoring can be carried out remotely, using telephone or video-based consultations, in conjunction with local health professionals.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Laryngostenosis/physiopathology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Management , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Laryngostenosis/epidemiology , Laryngostenosis/psychology , Laryngostenosis/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Patient Education as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Help Groups , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine , Time-to-Treatment
8.
Cureus ; 12(5): e8196, 2020 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-348024

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has prompted new interest among anesthesiologists and intensivists in controlling coughing and expectoration of potentially infectious aerosolized secretions during intubation and extubation. However, the fear of provoking laryngospasm may cause avoidance of deep or sedated extubation techniques which could reduce coughing and infection risk. This fear may be alleviated with clear understanding of the mechanisms and effective management of post-extubation airway obstruction including laryngospasm. We review the dynamic function of the larynx from the vantage point of head-and-neck surgery, highlighting two key concepts: 1. The larynx is a complex organ that may occlude reflexively at levels other than the true vocal folds; 2. The widely held belief that positive-pressure ventilation by mask can "break" laryngospasm is not supported by the otorhinolaryngology literature. We review the differential diagnosis of acute airway obstruction after extubation, discuss techniques for achieving smooth extubation with avoidance of coughing and expectoration of secretions, and recommend, on the basis of this review, a clinical pathway for optimal management of upper airway obstruction including laryngospasm to avoid adverse outcomes.

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