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1.
Voprosy Ékonomiki ; (1)2021.
Article in Russian | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1955503

ABSTRACT

Dramas of a unique pandemic of COVID-19, an unparalleled sharp recession and critically important presidential elections have put the difficult choices for the American society in 2020. Socio-economic development of the U.S. in XXI century has come through the series of crises, which had major impacts on the global development. The country has retained the leadership in the developed world by general economic might, innovations and dynamics of upturns. In the last three decades the demographics of the U.S. population have experienced the substantial changes, notably the number of citizens of Asian origin and Hispanic group have increased. The latter has surpassed the Afro-American group by a number of families and by an average income per family. Overall growth of income in the country has not eliminated large income disparities among social strata. Statistics of tax declarations indicate the inequality by social groups and by race. These disparities have probably played an important role in 2020 recession and pandemic development. As far as electoral behavior is concerned, the inequality factor is even more visible.Alternate :Драма уникальной пандемии, небывало острой рецессии и критически важных президентских выборов поставила общество США в 2020 г. перед трудным выбором. В социально-экономическом развитии США в XXI в. произошла серия потрясений, которые оказали огромное влияние на мировое развитие. Страна сохранила положение лидера среди развитых стран по совокупности экономической мощи, инновационному развитию, динамичности подъемов. В последние три десятилетия в США значительно изменился демографический состав населения в пользу граждан азиатского происхождения и испаноязычной группы, которая как по своей численности, так и уровню доходов на семью обогнала афроамериканскую. Общий рост благосостояния не ликвидировал большие диспаритеты по доходам между слоями общества. Статистика налоговых деклараций указывает на неравенство семей как социальное, так и по расовому признаку. По-видимому, оно сыграло значительную роль в 2020 г. и в рецессии, и в пандемии. А в электоральном поведении фактор неравенства виден еще резче.

2.
Doxa Comunicacion ; 2022(35):127-147, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1955466

ABSTRACT

The communication sector and, especially, the media sector suffered severely from the consequences of the economic crisis that began in 2008, and is witnessing, once again, the complicated situation derived from the Covid-19 pandemic. Bad strategic decisions;the decrease in advertising investment;the excessive dependence on the financial sector, or the culture of total free of charge typical of the national idiosyncrasy are some of the causes of the emergency situation that drags written journalism in Spain. Through in-depth interviews, innovative actions related to the organization, financing and the product in the journalist sector of digital media in Spain are analysed. Specifically, the cases of El Salto, CTXT and La Marea are analysed. The results are presented divided into six study variables: historical perspective;financing and participation;income diversification;organizational structure;brand equity, and competition. Although the analyzed examples differ in aspects such as legal personality, all of them coincide in appealing to a traditional, reflective, and with procedural guarantees, they bet on horizontal organizational structures and base their income model on the subscription. The main conclusions show the emergence of initiatives that, faithful to traditional journalistic values, seek to differentiate themselves through strategies and brands whose economic, financial and readership shares are inextricably linked to the concept of niche. © 2022, CEU Ediciones. All rights reserved.

3.
Gesellschaft, Wirtschaft, Politik ; 71(2):192, 2022.
Article in German | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1952160

ABSTRACT

Der Beitrag fasst sozialwissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse zur Impfbereitschaft und Impfung mit einem COVID-19 Vakzin zusammen. Diskutiert werden Impfskepsis und Einflussfaktoren wie Sozialstruktur, Verschwörungsüberzeugungen, kollektive Verantwortung, Einstellungen zu alternativen Heilverfahren und zur Impfpflicht.Alternate :The article summarizes social science findings on vaccination readiness and vaccination with a COVID-19 vaccine. Vaccination skepticism and influencing factors such as social structure, conspiracy beliefs, collective responsibility, attitudes towards alternative healing methods and vaccinations are discussed.

4.
Molecules ; 27(10)2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1953751

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is a global burden on human health and economy. The 3-Chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) becomes an attractive target for SARS-CoV-2 due to its important role in viral replication. We synthesized a series of 8H-indeno[1,2-d]thiazole derivatives and evaluated their biochemical activities against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. Among them, the representative compound 7a displayed inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 1.28 ± 0.17 µM against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. Molecular docking of 7a against 3CLpro was performed and the binding mode was rationalized. These preliminary results provide a unique prototype for the development of novel inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Protease Inhibitors , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Viral Proteins/metabolism
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 890943, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952331

ABSTRACT

B-cell epitopes (BCEs) are a set of specific sites on the surface of an antigen that binds to an antibody produced by B-cell. The recognition of BCEs is a major challenge for drug design and vaccines development. Compared with experimental methods, computational approaches have strong potential for BCEs prediction at much lower cost. Moreover, most of the currently methods focus on using local information around target residue without taking the global information of the whole antigen sequence into consideration. We propose a novel deep leaning method through combing local features and global features for BCEs prediction. In our model, two parallel modules are built to extract local and global features from the antigen separately. For local features, we use Graph Convolutional Networks (GCNs) to capture information of spatial neighbors of a target residue. For global features, Attention-Based Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (Att-BLSTM) networks are applied to extract information from the whole antigen sequence. Then the local and global features are combined to predict BCEs. The experiments show that the proposed method achieves superior performance over the state-of-the-art BCEs prediction methods on benchmark datasets. Also, we compare the performance differences between data with or without global features. The experimental results show that global features play an important role in BCEs prediction. Our detailed case study on the BCEs prediction for SARS-Cov-2 receptor binding domain confirms that our method is effective for predicting and clustering true BCEs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Humans , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Front Chem ; 10: 876212, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952254

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 causing the COVID-19 pandemic, has highlighted how a combination of urgency, collaboration and building on existing research can enable rapid vaccine development to fight disease outbreaks. However, even countries with high vaccination rates still see surges in case numbers and high numbers of hospitalized patients. The development of antiviral treatments hence remains a top priority in preventing hospitalization and death of COVID-19 patients, and eventually bringing an end to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The SARS-CoV-2 proteome contains several essential enzymatic activities embedded within its non-structural proteins (nsps). We here focus on nsp3, that harbours an essential papain-like protease (PLpro) domain responsible for cleaving the viral polyprotein as part of viral processing. Moreover, nsp3/PLpro also cleaves ubiquitin and ISG15 modifications within the host cell, derailing innate immune responses. Small molecule inhibition of the PLpro protease domain significantly reduces viral loads in SARS-CoV-2 infection models, suggesting that PLpro is an excellent drug target for next generation antivirals. In this review we discuss the conserved structure and function of PLpro and the ongoing efforts to design small molecule PLpro inhibitors that exploit this knowledge. We first discuss the many drug repurposing attempts, concluding that it is unlikely that PLpro-targeting drugs already exist. We next discuss the wealth of structural information on SARS-CoV-2 PLpro inhibition, for which there are now ∼30 distinct crystal structures with small molecule inhibitors bound in a surprising number of distinct crystallographic settings. We focus on optimisation of an existing compound class, based on SARS-CoV PLpro inhibitor GRL-0617, and recapitulate how new GRL-0617 derivatives exploit different features of PLpro, to overcome some compound liabilities.

7.
Front Chem ; 10: 861209, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952251

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic continues unabated, emphasizing the need for additional antiviral treatment options to prevent hospitalization and death of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. The papain-like protease (PLpro) domain is part of the SARS-CoV-2 non-structural protein (nsp)-3, and represents an essential protease and validated drug target for preventing viral replication. PLpro moonlights as a deubiquitinating (DUB) and deISGylating enzyme, enabling adaptation of a DUB high throughput (HTS) screen to identify PLpro inhibitors. Drug repurposing has been a major focus through the COVID-19 pandemic as it may provide a fast and efficient route for identifying clinic-ready, safe-in-human antivirals. We here report our effort to identify PLpro inhibitors by screening the ReFRAME library of 11,804 compounds, showing that none inhibit PLpro with any reasonable activity or specificity to justify further progression towards the clinic. We also report our latest efforts to improve piperidine-scaffold inhibitors, 5c and 3k, originally developed for SARS-CoV PLpro. We report molecular details of binding and selectivity, as well as in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) studies of this scaffold. A co-crystal structure of SARS-CoV-2 PLpro bound to inhibitor 3k guides medicinal chemistry efforts to improve binding and ADME characteristics. We arrive at compounds with improved and favorable solubility and stability characteristics that are tested for inhibiting viral replication. Whilst still requiring significant improvement, our optimized small molecule inhibitors of PLpro display decent antiviral activity in an in vitro SARS-CoV-2 infection model, justifying further optimization.

8.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(12): 4658-4668, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954697

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused a global pandemic. Intermediate horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus affinis) are hosts of RaTG13, the second most phylogenetically related viruses to SARS-CoV-2. We report the binding between intermediate horseshoe bat ACE2 (bACE2-Ra) and SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD), supporting the pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 viral infection. A 3.3 Å resolution crystal structure of the bACE2-Ra/SARS-CoV-2 RBD complex was determined. The interaction networks of Patch 1 showed differences in R34 and E35 of bACE2-Ra compared to hACE2 and big-eared horseshoe bat ACE2 (bACE2-Rm). The E35K substitution, existing in other species, significantly enhanced the binding affinity owing to its electrostatic attraction with E484 of SARS-CoV-2 RBD. Furthermore, bACE2-Ra showed extensive support for the SARS-CoV-2 variants. These results broaden our knowledge of the ACE2/RBD interaction mechanism and emphasize the importance of continued surveillance of intermediate horseshoe bats to prevent spillover risk.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Chiroptera , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Protein Binding
9.
4th ACM SIGCAS/SIGCHI Conference on Computing and Sustainable Societies, COMPASS 2022 ; Par F180472:152-164, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1950294

ABSTRACT

Isolation contributes to deteriorating health outcomes during the first 1000 days of a child's life (the period from conception to two years). Mothers and their growing babies are at risk of pregnancy-related complications and malnutrition during this sensitive period due to inadequate information. This study describes how a faith-based organization (FBO) in Cape Town leverages available resources in both physical and virtual spaces to support mothers through antenatal classes. We observed seven small groups in their physical spaces, interviewed seven mothers and analyzed fifteen WhatsApp chat groups to understand the group structure, dynamics, and interactions. When the model was introduced to the mothers in the physical and virtual spaces simultaneously, cohesion was achieved and sustained. However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, where strong indications of stress and isolation were evident, a strange paradox was noted: all groups showed weak ties (with minimal communication among members). It was hard to explain the non-commitment despite efforts from the moderators to encourage sharing among mothers. We identified two underlying causes: a minimal sense of belonging to the group and bandwidth constraints. Further analysis showed that bandwidth constraints digitally excluded some mothers from active participation. These findings indicated the need for HCI and technology designers to design less bandwidth-intensive interactive platforms for inclusivity. © 2022 ACM.

10.
Case Studies in Sport Management ; 11(1):33-37, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1949896

ABSTRACT

Endurance Canada is facing a dire situation. It must turn itself around or face bankruptcy. The problems are piling up for Endurance Canada’s Board of Directors. Over the last 20 years, the Board’s Chair, Bill Fitzpatrick, has seen his sport’s athletes go from winning Olympic medals to not having any medals internationally. Within Endurance Canada, he has seen high staff turnover and burnout, power struggles between the national and provincial/territorial levels, and their revenues have been hit hard. COVID-19 was the proverbial nail in the coffin. Something drastic needs to happen. So, Bill brings in Amanda Tsang, a strategy expert. She has 1 month to come up with a plan to bring Endurance Canada back to life. The case follows Amanda as she reviews the strategy, structure, and governance issues in the organization. This fictional case asks students to (a) develop a strategic plan for Endurance Canada, (b) show how structure and strategy are interrelated, and (c) reflect on governance issues in a multilevel governance system.

11.
2nd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Computer Engineering, ICAICE 2021 ; : 570-574, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1948774

ABSTRACT

The sudden COVID-19 pandemic made us feel the limitations of offline sales. In order to let consumers fully realize the convenience of the Internet era and highlight the advantages of online sales, a personalized online florist system (OFS) is developed. The website takes JSP (JavaServer Pages) + SSM (Spring + SpringMVC + MyBatis) framework as the development technology and based on B/S (Browser/Server) structure, an online florist system based on JavaWeb is designed and implemented. © 2021 IEEE.

12.
2nd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Computer Engineering, ICAICE 2021 ; : 551-555, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1948773

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, countries in the world are increasingly connected, and major emergencies affect the development of various industries, which makes particularly important to measure industry association.In this paper, we extract ordinary period structure before the outbreak of the COVID-19 and explode pharmaceutical biological industry network, then apply convergence cross mapping causal inference to describe the industry network, further establish the network of industry network topology to measure node and industry system risk. Empirical results show that the network structure of the pharmaceutical and biological industry is similar in the normal period and outbreak period before the epidemic, and the association within the industry was relatively stable. When the epidemic hit the network, the linkage of the pharmaceutical and biological industry is significantly enhanced, and the systemic risks and network efficiency are higher than usual. The network of pharmaceutical and biological industry is of strong robustness and strong ability to deal with emergencies, which provides some reference for grasping the stability of industry network structure and industry risk management under sudden shocks in pharmaceutical and biological industry. © 2021 IEEE.

13.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1061(1):012007, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1948118

ABSTRACT

The article discusses the principles for the formation of a sustainable architecture of office spaces in the context of such a global environmental problem as a pandemic. Current trends and general principles of the formation of office spaces in the post-COVID period, the direct relationship between the health of employees, the office ecosystem and the concept of “typology of organizational cultures of the company” are analysed. The main attention is paid to the architectural aspects of organizational models of office objects. The principles and techniques for creating a healthy efficient workspace, which a sustainable office complex should have, are formulated. The reconceptualization of the organization of office activities and methods of adapting traditional office spaces in a pandemic with the prospect of their development in the post-COVID period are considered. The most “viable” types of office spaces and models of workplace organization are singled out in these conditions. It is based on the opinions of business experts related to the further development of office activities, possible changes in internal strategies in the organizational culture of companies. Optimal architectural solutions for the organization of safe and demanded office spaces are proposed.

14.
Social Sciences in China ; 43(2):102-124, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1947818

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, the regulation of real estate, and external uncertainties are the core variables in the recent evolution of China’s financial risks, and overall planning and structural deployment are the key guarantees for China’s financial stability. From an aggregate perspective, China’s systemic financial risk tended to ease overall in 2021, but remained high. The risk profile of China’s financial system in 2021 presented five important features. First, the macro leverage ratio fell slightly, but exposed the hidden dangers of balance sheet recession. Second, there was a certain blockage in the transmission of financial system liquidity to the real economy. Third, the fragility of the financial system was further exposed, the bond default balance reached a new high, the structural differentiation of bonds between state-owned and private enterprises became prominent, and private enterprise default became more serious. Fourth, the contagion effect of domestic cross-market financial risks remained significant. Fifth, the international political and economic situation was volatile, and spillover effects such as the rising prices of raw materials, the inauguration of a new US administration, and the shift of the Federal Reserve’s monetary policy were significantly strengthened. In terms of key risk areas, the risks of the real estate market, hidden government debt, and small- and medium-sized domestic banks were quite prominent. in 2022, pandemic prevention and control, economic recovery, and structural upgrading will remain the main themes of China’s development. China’s financial risks are generally under control, but the country will still face major risks such as a high macro leverage ratio, tight market liquidity, increasing debt vulnerability, significant spillover effects, and rising volatility in the international market.

15.
AIP Advances ; 12(7), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1947749

ABSTRACT

The present paper investigates droplet and aerosol emission from the human respiratory function by numerical and experimental methods, which is analyzed at the worst-case scenario, a violent sneeze without a face covering. The research findings develop the understanding of airborne disease transmission relevant to COVID-19, its recent variants, and other airborne pathogens. A human sneeze is studied using a multiphase Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model using detached eddy simulation coupled to the emission of droplets that break up, evaporate, and disperse. The model provides one of the first experimental benchmarks of CFD predictions of a human sneeze event. The experiments optically capture aerosols and droplets and are processed to provide spatiotemporal data to validate the CFD model. Under the context of large random uncertainty, the studies indicate the reasonable correlation of CFD prediction with experimental measurements using velocity profiles and exposure levels, indicating that the model captures the salient details relevant to pathogen dispersion. Second, the CFD model was extended to study the effect of relative humidity with respect to the Wells curve, providing additional insight into the complexities of evaporation and sedimentation characteristics in the context of turbulent and elevated humidity conditions associated with the sneeze. The CFD results indicated correlation with the Wells curve with additional insight into features, leading to non-conservative aspects associated with increased suspension time. These factors are found to be associated with the combination of evaporation and fluid-structure-induced suspension. This effect is studied for various ambient air humidity levels and peaks for lower humidity levels, indicating that the Wells curve may need a buffer in dry climates. Specifically, we find that the increased risk in dry climates may be up to 50% higher than would be predicted using the underlying assumptions in Wells' model. © 2022 Author(s).

16.
Scripta Materialia ; 219:N.PAG-N.PAG, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1946524

ABSTRACT

Omicron, Ο-Ti 2 NbAl alloys have been under continuous development for more than 40 years as potential materials for the gas turbine engine;however, the crystal structure and phase transformations are still unclear. In this work, we clarified the crystal structure, atom positions and phase transformations of the Ο phase by in-situ neutron diffraction and high-temperature X-ray diffraction methods. From room temperature to the vanishing temperature of the Ο phase, the latter exposes a C m c m structure, with Ti and Nb atoms tending to respectively occupy the 8g and 4c 2 positions, but with a certain disorder, introducing an order parameter. The phase transformation sequences of Ti-24.8Al-24.3Nb alloy are Ο(975 °C) → β o + Ο(997.5 °C) → β o (1165.5 °C) → β. Moreover, we have proven that a distinction of the omicron subvariants Ο1 and Ο2 is crystallographic nonsense as Ο1 must equal to α 2 of P 6 3 /m m c structure, and Ti 2 NbAl is a prototype structure by itself. [Display omitted] [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Scripta Materialia is the property of Pergamon Press - An Imprint of Elsevier Science and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

17.
Energy Nexus ; 6: 100080, 2022 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1946138

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus 2019 is spreading around the world and causing serious concern. However, there is limited information about novel coronavirus that hinders the design of effective drug. Bioactive compounds are rich source of chemo preventive ingredients. In our present research focuses on identifying and recognizing bioactive chemicals in Lantana camara, by evaluating their potential toward new coronaviruses and confirming the findings using molecular docking, ADMET, network analysis and dynamics investigations.. The spike protein receptor binding domain were docked with 25 identified compounds and 2,4-Ditertbutyl-phenol (-6.3kcal/mol) shows highest docking score, its interactions enhances the increase in binding and helps to identify the biological activity. The ADME/toxicity result shows that all the tested compounds can serve as inhibitors of the enzymes CYP1A2 and CYP2D6. In addition, Molecular dynamics simulations studies with reference inhibitors were carried out to test the stability. This study identifies the possible active molecules against the receptor binding domain of spike protein, which can be further exploited for the treatment of novel coronavirus 2019. The results of the toxicity risk for phytocompounds and their active derivatives showed a moderate to good drug score.

18.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 20: 2309-2321, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944736

ABSTRACT

Fentanyl and its analogs are selective agonists of the µ-opioid receptor (MOR). Among novel synthetic opioids (NSOs), they dominate the recreational drug market and are the main culprits for the opioid crisis, which has been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. By taking advantage of the crystal structures of the MOR, several groups have investigated the binding mechanism of fentanyl, but have not reached a consensus, in terms of both the binding orientation and the fentanyl conformation. Thus, the binding mechanism of fentanyl at the MOR remains an unsolved and challenging question. Here, we carried out a systematic computational study to investigate the preferred fentanyl conformations, and how these conformations are being accommodated in the MOR binding pocket. We characterized the free energy landscape of fentanyl conformations with metadynamics simulations, and compared and evaluated several possible fentanyl binding conditions in the MOR with long-timescale molecular dynamics simulations. Our results indicate that the most preferred binding pose in the MOR binding pocket corresponds well with the global minimum on the energy landscape of fentanyl in the absence of the receptor, while the energy landscape can be reconfigured by modifying the fentanyl scaffold. The interactions with the receptor may stabilize a slightly unfavored fentanyl conformation in an alternative binding pose. By extending similar investigations to fentanyl analogs, our findings establish a structure-activity relationship of fentanyl binding at the MOR. In addition to providing a structural basis to understand the potential toxicity of the emerging NSOs, such insights will contribute to developing new, safer analgesics.

19.
J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci ; : 1-9, 2022 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1943171

ABSTRACT

Observational evidence suggests that mask-wearing mitigates transmission of COVID-19; at the same time high respiratory resistance leads to an unwillingness to wear masks. This paper proposed a respiratory drive structure to reduce the air resistance of a mask. This structure provides different shapes during expiration and inspiration while focusing on filtering dust, bacteria, or viruses. Meanwhile, the assembled system on the mask can be disassembled and replaced. Then porous media simulation is used to verify the model effect. Experimental results of a new mask show that the ventilation resistance is reduced by 20%, and the bacterial filtration efficiency meets the requirements of YY 0469-2011.

20.
New Left Review ; - (124):63, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1940289

ABSTRACT

The world has been getting contradictory messages about its class structure. According to one authoritative account, it has reached a 'global tipping point' - 'half the world is now middle class or wealthier'. This was based on figures marshalled by Homi Kharas, a former World Bank chief economist now at Brookings. More excitably, the Economist has hailed the 'relentless rise' of a 'burgeoning bourgeoisie' and trumpeted the arrival of a middle-class world. The new middle-class dream in the Global South had, first and foremost, an Asian setting. It was woven and promoted by figures in the World Bank's orbit, seconded by business consultancies and investment bankers. The covid-19 pandemic is currently shattering the middle-class dream in the South and accelerating the inegalitarian tendencies analyzed above. Where this will lead is still an open question.

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