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1.
Med Trop Sante Int ; 2(3)2022 09 30.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091754

ABSTRACT

The authors report on their experience of managing COVID-19 at the Regional hospital of Lambaréné, capital of the Moyen-Ogooué province in central Gabon.The infectious diseases department was the referral and follow-up site for COVID-19, with an intervention team to follow up outpatients. The department followed national recommendations for overall management with mild cases receiving vitamin therapy, moderate cases hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, severe cases azithromycin, another antibiotic and oxygen.Over 1 year in 2020, 495 cases (RT-PCR +) were recruited; 92 were hospitalized (comorbidities or severe signs). The average duration of hospitalization was 21 +/- 3 days.These 92 cases are composed of 38 mild cases all cured by symptomatic treatments; 32 moderate cases treated and cured; and 26 severe cases treated with azithromycin plus a second antibiotic with 24 cured without sequelae, 1 with sequelae and 1 death (co-infected with HIV).The 399 cases followed up in the outpatient department all recovered and are distributed as follows: 199 asymptomatic and without co-morbidity, untreated; 102 with mild signs under vitamins; 98 with moderate signs treated with azithromycin + HCHQ + vitamins.In total, all 495 cases recovered without sequelae except for 1 patient with sequelae and 1 death; 199 received no treatment. However, 6 deaths occurred before the diagnosis was made. This strategy encountered difficulties in terms of overloading the carers and feeding the patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Gabon , Treatment Outcome , Hospitals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Vitamins , Oxygen
2.
Med Trop Sante Int ; 2(3)2022 09 30.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091751

ABSTRACT

The concept of "health literacy" has been widely used in English-speaking countries for about 20 years. However, its meaning has evolved since its first definition as "cognitive and social skills which determine the motivation and ability of individuals to gain access to, understand and use information in ways which promote and maintain good health", to be most often centered on the narrower meaning of "functional health literacy", which is the ability to read and understand written medical documents. This narrow definition excludes illiterate populations and don't take into consideration the social skills. Moreover, it doesn't take into consideration the barriers erected by the culture. Working in the field of health communication, we propose the broadest concept of "health culture", which encompasses health literacy as well as all the representations that influence people decisions about their health. The health culture approach makes it possible to base strategies, messages and communication tools on the representations of the target populations, in order to sensitize them to the behavioral changes promoted by this communication. We show some examples of its application in public health programs in sub-Saharan Africa: breastfeeding, pregnancy support, Ebola virus disease, HIV testing, tuberculosis, and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Communication , Health Literacy , Population Health , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Africa South of the Sahara
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1969, 2022 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089186

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Handwashing is fundamentally an inexpensive means of reducing the spread of communicable diseases. In developing countries, many people die due to infectious diseases that could be prevented by proper hand hygiene. The recent coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is a threat to people who are living in resource-limited countries including sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Effective hand hygiene requires sufficient water from reliable sources, preferably accessible on premises, and access to handwashing facility (water and or soap) that enable hygiene behaviors. Therefore, this study aims to determine the prevalence of limited handwashing facility and its associated factors in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) were used, which have been conducted in 29 sub-Saharan African countries since January 1, 2010. A two-stage stratified random cluster sampling strategy was used to collect the data. This study comprised a total of 237,983 weighted samples. The mixed effect logistic regression model with a cluster-level random intercept was fitted. Meta-analysis and sub-group analysis were performed to establish the pooled prevalence. RESULTS: The pooled prevalence of limited handwashing facility was found to be 66.16% (95% CI; 59.67%-72.65%). Based on the final model, household head with age group between 35 and 60 [AOR = 0.89, 95% CI; 0.86-0.91], households with mobile type of hand washing facility [AOR = 1.73, 95% CI; 1.70-1.77], unimproved sanitation facility [AOR = 1.58, 95% CI; 1.55-1.62], water access more than 30 min round trip [AOR = 1.16, 95% CI; 1.13-1.19], urban residential area [AOR = 2.08, 95% CI; 2.04-2.13], low media exposure [AOR = 1.47, 95% CI; 1.31-1.66], low educational level [AOR = 1.30, 95% CI; 1.14-1.48], low income level [AOR = 2.41, 95% CI; 2.33-2.49] as well as lower middle-income level [AOR = 2.10, 95% CI; 2.14-2.17] and households who had more than three children [AOR = 1.25, 95% CI; 1.20-1.31] were associated with having limited handwashing facility. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: The pooled coverage of limited handwashing facility was high in sub-Saharan Africa. Raising awareness of the community and promoting access to handwashing materials particularly in poorer and rural areas will reduce its coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Disinfection , Child , Humans , Multilevel Analysis , Prevalence , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Family Characteristics , Water
4.
Lancet Hiv ; 9(7):E506-E516, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2081748

ABSTRACT

The Middle East and north Africa is one of only two world regions where HIV incidence is on the rise, with most infections occurring among key populations: people who inject drugs, men who have sex with men, and female sex workers. In this Review, we show a trend of increasing HIV prevalence among the three key populations in the Middle East and north Africa. Although the epidemic continues at a low level in some countries or localities within a country, there is evidence for concentrated epidemics, with sustained transmission at considerable HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs and men who have sex with men in over half of countries in the region with data, and among female sex workers in several countries. Most epidemics emerged around 2003 or thereafter. The status of the epidemic among key populations remains unknown in several countries due to persistent data gaps. The HIV response in Middle East and north Africa remains far below global targets for prevention, testing, and treatment. It is hindered by underfunding, poor surveillance, and stigma, all of which are compounded by widespread conflict and humanitarian crises, and most recently, the advent of COVID-19. Investment is needed to put the region on track towards the target of eliminating HIV/AIDS as a global health threat by 2030. Reaching this target will not be possible without tailoring the response to the needs of key populations, while addressing, to the extent possible, the complex structural and operational barriers to success.

5.
African Journal of Reproductive Health ; 26(8):9-12, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2067583

ABSTRACT

In sum, the totality of the available evidence suggests that there is currently limited research data relating to the pathogenesis, consequences, and outcomes of pregnancy in African women infected with new viral illnesses such as COVID-19, Lassa fever, and Ebola virus disease. World Health Organization (2020) Ebola virus disease. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ebolavirus-disease 7. In Guidelines for screening and caring for pregnant women with Ebola virus disease for health care providers in US hospitals. Jamieson DJ, Uyeki TM, Callaghan WM, Meaney-Delman D, Rasmussen SA. What obstetrician-gynecologist should know about Ebola: a perspective from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

6.
Soc Indic Res ; 162(3): 1149-1175, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013001

ABSTRACT

Although most studies on disease emergencies underscore the need for household readiness for shocks associated with disease outbreaks, no study to date has provided a holistic measure for profiling households based on their readiness toward disease outbreaks. This paper introduces a novel Disease Outbreak Resilience Index (DORI) using a multidimensional approach that draws on the Alkire-Foster methodology. DORI measures disease outbreak resilience in four dimensions: (a) water and hygiene, (b) physical distancing, (c) energy and communication, and (d) economic security and resilience. The paper details the development of DORI and its use by presenting findings from ten countries in sub-Saharan Africa using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program. In addition to serving as a resilience index, we illustrate how DORI can be used to produce a disease outbreak vulnerability index (DOVI). As a versatile index, the indicators under each dimension can be tailored to meet country- and region-specific contexts based on indicators appropriate to each context.

7.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1605113, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065662

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This cross-sectional survey explored COVID-19 vaccine acceptability among public healthcare facility workers in Kambia (Sierra Leone), Goma (Democratic Republic of Congo) and Masaka (Uganda). Methods: Questionnaire-based interviews conducted between April-October 2021 explored participants' knowledge and perceptions of, and attitudes towards, the COVID-19 pandemic and COVID-19 vaccines, as well as COVID-19 vaccine acceptability (defined as uptake of ≥1 dose or intent to get vaccinated). Results: Whilst most (n = 444; 81.8%) of the 543 participants had one or more concerns about COVID-19 vaccines, 487 (89.7%) nonetheless perceived that they were important for pandemic control. Most participants from Kambia or Masaka either were vaccinated (n = 137/355; 38.6%) or intended to get vaccinated (n = 211/355; 59.4%) against COVID-19. In Goma, all 188 participants were unvaccinated; only 81 (43.1%) participants intended to get vaccinated, and this was associated with positive perceptions about COVID-19 vaccines. In Goma, the most common reasons for not wanting a COVID-19 vaccine were concerns that the vaccines were new (n = 75/107; 70.1%) and fear of side effects (n = 74/107; 69.2%). Conclusion: Reported COVID-19 vaccine acceptability was high among healthcare facility workers in Kambia and Masaka. The lower vaccine acceptability in Goma may highlight the importance of social mobilisation and accurate, accessible information that addresses specific concerns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Democratic Republic of the Congo , Humans , Pandemics , Sierra Leone , Uganda , Vaccination
9.
International Journal on Food System Dynamics ; 13(4):470-474, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2056664

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic, global trends, and technological advancements lead to the perception that digitalization is about the most sustainable means of growing Africa’s agribusiness and food supply chains. Many global agribusinesses have successfully integrated digital technologies to enhance operational efficiencies and business relations with their upstream and downstream actors. However, evidence is scant on the uptake of digital technologies among small and medium agribusiness firms in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Against this backdrop, this review paper identifies research gaps regarding the adoption and implication of digitalization in building sustainable food systems for African economies. Our preliminary finds show some sustainable practices in the SSA food supply chains by adopting specific technologies related to production, grain storage, food waste management, and warehouse management but very low adoption of food processing technologies and digital marketing platforms. Most importantly, the application of the Internet of Things, Big data, Artificial Intelligence, Blockchain and/or Business Analytics is very rare. Most of the digitalization process tends to be mobile-based. © 2022, International Journal on Food System Dynamics. All Rights Reserved.

10.
J Public Health Afr ; 13(3): 1616, 2022 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055661

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of COVID-19 disease and rapid spread of the virus outside China led to its declaration as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) in January 2020. Key elements of the early intervention strategy focused on laboratory diagnosis and screening at points of entry and imposition of restrictions in crossborder activities. Objective: We report the role the Medical Research Council Unit, The Gambia (MRCG) played in the early implementation of molecular testing for COVID-19 in The Gambia as part of the national outbreak response. Methods: Laboratory staff members, with experience in molecular biology assays, were identified and trained on COVID-19 testing at the Africa CDC training workshop in Dakar, Senegal. Thereafter risks assessments, drafting of standard operating procedures (SOPs) and inhouse training enabled commencement of testing using commercial RTPCR kits. Subsequently, testing was expanded to the National Public Health Laboratroy and also implemented across field sites for rapid response across the country. Results: Capacity for COVID-19 testing at MRCG was developed and can process aproximately 350 tests per day, which can be further scaled up as the demand for testing increases. Conclusion: The long presence of the Unit in The Gambia and strong collaborative relationship with the National Health Ministry, allowed for a synergistc approach in mounting an effective response that contributed in delaying the establishment of community transmission in the country.

11.
Ambio ; 50(4): 794-811, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048616

ABSTRACT

Like the rest of the world, African countries are reeling from the health, economic and social effects of COVID-19. The continent's governments have responded by imposing rigorous lockdowns to limit the spread of the virus. The various lockdown measures are undermining food security, because stay at home orders have among others, threatened food production for a continent that relies heavily on agriculture as the bedrock of the economy. This article draws on quantitative data collected by the GeoPoll, and, from these data, assesses the effect of concern about the local spread and economic impact of COVID-19 on food worries. Qualitative data comprising 12 countries south of the Sahara reveal that lockdowns have created anxiety over food security as a health, economic and human rights/well-being issue. By applying a probit model, we find that concern about the local spread of COVID-19 and economic impact of the virus increases the probability of food worries. Governments have responded with various efforts to support the neediest. By evaluating the various policies rolled out we advocate for a feminist economics approach that necessitates greater use of data analytics to predict the likely impacts of intended regulatory relief responses during the recovery process and post-COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Africa , Anxiety , Communicable Disease Control , Developing Countries , Economics , Food Security , Food Supply , Humans , Policy , SARS-CoV-2
12.
129th ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition: Excellence Through Diversity, ASEE 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2046943

ABSTRACT

The massive disruption to the global education system caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has garnered educational research communities' attention by illuminating the need to investigate the pandemic's immediate and long-term effect on education. However, less is known about its impact on engineering education in developing countries such as Liberia. Guided by the Technology Acceptance Model (Davis and Bagozzi, 1989), our research is the first step in understanding Liberian engineering students' perception of the impact of COVID-19 on their learning experiences. This work-in-progress paper presents preliminary results from 3 of the 18 participants of this study. This study focuses on the impact of the abrupt transition from face-to-face to online learning due to COVID-19 and particularly on undergraduate engineering students' learning experiences at a public university in Liberia. The research design employed to achieve this goal is a qualitative phenomenological research approach using semi-structured interview methods. Findings from our study reveal a potential two-fold challenge that needs to be addressed: Psychosocial challenges and technical challenges. Our future work will unpack these and other challenges across the other 15 participants in the study. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2022.

13.
Case Studies on Transport Policy ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031232

ABSTRACT

The development of coastal shipping (CS) in Africa has been identified as a way to bolster the continent’s freight transport network. Thus, our study examined the recent CS experiences of three regional shipping lines in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)—Ocean Africa Lines, Adom Mbroso Transport and United Africa Feeder Line—operating respectively in Southern, West and East Africa. We employed an in-depth case-study approach involving semi-structured interviews with senior managers, which enabled us to discover and understand the real-life phenomenon of successfully operating CS services in SSA today and how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the three companies. Our study revealed gaps that need to be addressed in order to develop maritime transport in Africa’s subregions, namely by clarifying the predicted appropriateness and credibility of different policies and which elements are more likely to generate positive behavioural change in regional shipping lines. It also revealed major barriers for CS, including customs, a lack of intra-regionally traded cargo and high tariffs and low efficiency at port. Although the establishment of the Africa Continental Free Trade Area and 2050 Africa’s Integrated Maritime Strategy have clearly had positive effects, African states need to implement the policies in concert as well as improve the performance of ports. Last, concerning the pandemic, COVID-19-related restrictions have decreased transport demand for CS in SSA and limited crew changes, shore leaves and cargo operations. Although business viability has been negatively affected as a consequence, freight rates have increased across SSA and thus improved the sustainability of CS.

14.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English, Fr de | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-343242

ABSTRACT

English Abstract:  The EU is one of the three largest economies in the world. But its economy, which is still suffering from the COVID-19 pandemic and the negative effects of the Russian war in Ukraine, faces a bleak outlook. Inflation, or even stagflation, is a major concern as it reflects cost pressures from disrupted supply chains and tight labor markets. The war in Ukraine could also lead to a sustained stop in European gas supplies from Russia. Fitch Ratings therefore forecast the likelihood of a technical recession in the euro zone due to ongoing gas rationing. Apparently the EU is at the mercy of two unpredictable powers, Putin and the weather. China is also affected by global imbalances, and when China coughs, Europe catches the flu. However, the risks are greatest in sub-Saharan Africa. Its global growth spillovers come mainly from the EU and the BRICS countries. In addition to its strong demographic growth, the continent is already suffering from climate change, including prolonged droughts, and political destabilization, particularly in the Sahel, Horn of Africa and East Africa. The two major African powers, Nigeria and South Africa, are currently going through major socioeconomic crises. Many sub-Saharan African countries are heavily dependent on energy and food imports, particularly wheat from Russia and Ukraine. For the approximately 30 million African poor, this means an increase in inequality. A recession in Europe would amplify external pressures and growth challenges. In addition, the emerging sub-Saharan markets bear the greatest export risk to the EU. The debt problem is also looming again, because lower global commodity prices slowed down economic growth. French Abstract:  L'impact d'une récession européenne induite par l'énergie sur l'Afrique subsaharienne]. L'UE est l'une des trois plus grandes économies du monde. Mais leur économie, qui souffre toujours de la pandémie de COVID-19 et des effets négatifs de la guerre russe en Ukraine, fait face à de sombres perspectives. L'inflation, voire la stagflation, est une préoccupation majeure, car elle reflète les pressions sur les coûts des chaînes d'approvisionnement perturbées et des marchés du travail tendus. La guerre en Ukraine pourrait également entraîner un arrêt durable des approvisionnements européens en gaz depuis la Russie. Fitch Ratings prévoit donc une récession technique dans la zone euro en raison de la poursuite du rationnement du gaz. Apparemment, l'UE est à la merci de deux puissances imprévisibles, Poutine et de la météo. La Chine est également touchée par les déséquilibres mondiaux, et quand la Chine tousse, l'Europe attrape la grippe. Cependant, les risques sont les plus grands en Afrique subsaharienne. Ses retombées sur la croissance mondiale proviennent principalement de l'UE et des pays BRICS. Outre sa forte croissance démographique, le continent souffre déjà du changement climatique, notamment de sécheresses prolongées, et de déstabilisation politique, notamment au Sahel, dans la Corne de l'Afrique et en Afrique de l'Est. Les deux grandes puissances africaines, le Nigeria et l'Afrique du Sud, traversent actuellement des crises socio-économiques majeures. De nombreux pays d'Afrique subsaharienne sont fortement dépendants des importations d'énergie et de denrées alimentaires, en particulier du blé en provenance de Russie et d'Ukraine. Pour les quelque 30 millions d'Africains pauvres, cela signifie une augmentation des inégalités. Une récession en Europe amplifierait les pressions externes et les défis de la croissance. En outre, les marchés subsahariens émergents supportent le plus grand risque d'exportation vers l'UE. Le problème de la dette se profile également à nouveau, car la baisse des prix mondiaux des matières premières a ralenti la croissance économique. German Abstract:  Die Auswirkungen einer energiebedingten EU-Rezession auf Subsahara-Afrika]. Die EU gehört zu den drei größten Volkswirtschaften der Welt. Doch ihre Wirtschaft, die immer noch unter der Corona-Pandemie und den negativen Auswirkungen des russischen Krieges in der Ukraine leidet, sieht sich düsteren Aussichten gegenüber. Inflation oder sogar Stagflation geben Anlass zu großer Sorge, da sie den Kostendruck durch unterbrochene Lieferketten und angespannte Arbeitsmärkte widerspiegeln. Der Krieg in der Ukraine könnte zudem zu einem anhaltenden Stopp der europäischen Gaslieferungen aus Russland führen. Fitch Ratings prognostizierte daher eine technischen Rezession in der Eurozone aufgrund der anhaltenden Gasrationierung. Offenbar ist die EU der Gnade zweier schwer einzuschätzender Mächte ausgesetzt, Putin und dem Wetter. Auch China ist von globalen Ungleichgewichten betroffen, und wenn China hustet, bekommt Europa die Grippe. In Subsahara-Afrika sind die Risiken jedoch am größten. Seine globalen Wachstums-Spillover-Effekte kommen hauptsächlich aus der EU und den BRICS-Staaten. Neben seinem starken demografischen Wachstum leidet der Kontinent bereits unter dem Klimawandel, einschließlich anhaltender Dürren, sowie politischer Destabilisierung, insbesondere in der Sahelzone, am Horn von Afrika und in Ostafrika. Die beiden afrikanischen Großmächte, Nigeria und Südafrika, durchleben derzeit große sozioökonomische Krisen. Viele afrikanische Länder südlich der Sahara sind stark abhängig von Energie- und Lebensmittelimporten, insbesondere von Weizen aus Russland und der Ukraine. Für die rund 30 Millionen afrikanischen Armen bedeutet dies eine Verschärfung der Ungleichheit. Eine Rezession in Europa würde externe Belastungen und Wachstumsherausforderungen verstärken. Darüber hinaus tragen die aufstrebenden Subsahara-Märkte das größte Exportrisiko in die EU. Auch die Schuldenproblematik droht erneut, denn niedrigere globale Rohstoffpreise bremsten das Wirtschaftswachstum.

15.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 14(1): e1-e3, 2022 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024679

ABSTRACT

After four decades of the HIV epidemic, women from sub-Saharan Africa remain at a differentially high risk of acquisition. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) statistics show that the majority of HIV infections occur in this population and region. Evidence from previous humanitarian crises demonstrated adverse maternal consequences as a result of neglect for the provision of essential maternal, sexual and reproductive health services. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has had a similar effect, including an additional risk of HIV acquisition amongst women in sub-Saharan Africa. The COVID-19 pandemic has aggravated the risk of sub-Saharan Africa women to HIV infection because of a multitude of factors including child marriages, teenage pregnancies, dropping out of school, increase in incidence of sexual and gender-based violence and reduced access to preventive and treatment services for HIV and sexually transmitted infections. These include provision of care for rape and sexual and gender-based violence victims and provision of pre-exposure and postexposure prophylaxis for HIV and other STIs. Failure to urgently restore and maintain robust HIV prevention and treatment during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic poses a risk of reversing the gains made over the years in reducing the incidence and morbidity from HIV amongst the population of sub-Saharan Africa women. There is need for an urgent and robust discourse to formulate effective interventions for protecting women and girls living in sub-Saharan Africa from an aggravated risk of HIV infection during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and other future humanitarian crises.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy
16.
Sustainability ; 14(16):10304, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024153

ABSTRACT

The poor in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are in a worse predicament than their counterparts in other regions. The goal of this study was to establish the key drivers of poverty in SSA by looking at how economic variables affect growth and poverty. Data from ten SSA nations—upper-middle-income countries (UMIC), lower-middle-income countries (LMIC), and low-income countries (LIC)—were analyzed based on historical values from 2015 to 2019. From the six economic variables studied, the best model reveals that 78% of the differences in poverty can be accounted for using a methodical, statistical approach. Poverty and unemployment rates have a substantial positive relationship (p = 0.001662). The gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate and poverty have a slight link, which is significant at the 10% level (p = 0.067) but is not a significant contributor to poverty alleviation. The secondary school enrolment rate has no bearing on poverty variation (p = 0.33). Increased GDP does not necessarily correspond to poverty reduction. Unemployment, on the other hand, is a major contributor to poverty in the region. Moreover, education (secondary school ennoblement) plays a less important role in reducing poverty, whereas per capita personal consumer spending and GDP growth rate have a bigger impact on poverty reduction. The proposed theoretical and numerical model works on general indicators and trends;it does not guarantee that people in the UMIC, LMIC, and LIC countries may not fall below the international poverty line ($1.90 per day). The poverty rates are predicted to climb by more than 2% by 2030, postponing poverty elimination in the SSA region by almost five years. This signifies that more than half of the SSA population will remain poor.

17.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 937723, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022907

ABSTRACT

Background: Globally, adolescents are vulnerable to mental health problems, particularly those from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) due to impoverished living conditions and a higher prevalence of chronic conditions such as HIV/AIDS in the region. The COVID-19 pandemic has further exacerbated this risk. This calls for an urgent need for evidence-based adolescent mental health interventions to reduce the risk and burden of mental health problems in SSA. The review aims to identify and characterize existing adolescent mental health interventions in SSA, as well as to evaluate their implementation strategies and effectiveness. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, African Index Medicus, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and CINAHL databases for relevant articles. Furthermore, we searched gray literature databases, including Think Tank search, open gray, NGO search engine, and IGO search engine for additional relevant articles. The scoping review was conducted to identify original research articles on mental health interventions among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa published from database inception to 31 December 2021. We carried out a narrative synthesis to report our findings. Results: Our literature search generated 4,750 studies, of which 1,141 were duplicates, 3,545 were excluded after screening, and 64 articles met the inclusion criteria. The 64 studies describe a total of 57 unique mental health interventions comprising 40,072 adolescents. The nature of these interventions was diverse, encompassing various implementation strategies such as economic-based, family strengthening, psychoeducation, interpersonal psychotherapy, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, and resilience training, among others. Most of the interventions were selective interventions that targeted adolescents at high risk of developing mental health problems including adolescents living with HIV, war-affected adolescents, orphans, adolescents from poorer backgrounds, and survivors of sexual violence. Half of the interventions were delivered by lay persons. Sixty-two of the eligible studies examined the effectiveness of the mental health interventions, of which 55 of them reported a positive significant impact on various mental health outcomes. Conclusions: The review findings show that there exist several diverse interventions that promote mental health among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. These interventions can be implemented in diverse settings including schools, communities, health facilities, and camps, and can be delivered by lay persons.

18.
Archives of Disease in Childhood ; 107(Suppl 2):A23, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2019817

ABSTRACT

1075 Figure 1Map showing travel areas for children who were subsequently tested for malarin ED, UK[Figure omitted. See PDF] 1075 Figure 2Dicharge diagnoses for children who underwent screening for malariain the ED, n=1,472 (LRTI – Lower Respiratory Tract Infection;PUO – Pyrexia of Unknown Origin;URTI – Upper respiratory Tract Infection;UTI – Urinary Tract Infection;HIV – Human Immunodeficiency Virus)[Figure omitted. See PDF]ConclusionNearly a quarter of children presenting to a UK ED with fever and a tropical travel history have a tropical infection if gastroenteritis is included. Travel patterns are linked to historical, language and travel ties (3), but given higher numbers of tropical diagnoses in adult studies (1) and lack of a diagnosis in a quarter of cases in this study, tropical infections such as Dengue are likely not being tested for and missed.ReferencesGrobusch MP, Weld L, Goorhuis A, Hamer DH, Schunk M, Jordan S, et al. Travel-related infections presenting in Europe: A 20-year analysis of EuroTravNet surveillance data. The Lancet Regional Health - Europe. 2021 Feb;1:100001.Naudin J, Blondé R, Alberti C, Angoulvant F, de Lauzanne A, Armoogum P, et al. Aetiology and epidemiology of fever in children presenting to the emergency department of a French paediatric tertiary care centre after international travel. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2012 Feb 11;97(2):107–11.Tatem AJ, Jia P, Ordanovich D, Falkner M, Huang Z, Howes R, et al. The geography of imported malaria to non-endemic countries: a meta-analysis of nationally reported statistics. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2017 Jan 1;17(1):98–107.

19.
International Journal of Educational Research ; 115, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2015396

ABSTRACT

Remote learning programs were rapidly implemented throughout the COVID-19 pandemic during school closures. We drew on an ongoing longitudinal study of a cohort of children in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana to survey children (N = 1,844), their caregivers, and teachers to examine learning experiences during the ten months of school closures in Ghana in 2020. We documented inequalities in remote learning opportunities offered by public and private schools, as well as who accessed remote learning and the quality of learning opportunities. In addition, controlling for pre-pandemic learning outcomes, we documented learning gaps, with food insecure, low socioeconomic status, and public-school children performing significantly worse than their peers (0.2–0.3 SD gap). Results highlight pandemic-related inequalities in a cohort of Ghanaian primary schoolchildren. © 2022

20.
SciDev.net ; 2020.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2011441

ABSTRACT

According to Aisha Karim, a science journalist with South Africa-based Bhekisisa Centre for Health Journalism, many journalists had little knowledge on how to unravel and communicate the science about the virus in an effective manner. According to the UN Secretary-General’s initiative on big data and artificial intelligence, Global Pulse, online Coronavirus information has been shared and viewed 270 billion times in the 47 WHO Africa region countries between February and November this year. Benjamin Gyampoh, a lecturer at Ghana’s Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, told participants that social media has played a key role as a science communication channel but what is shared is insufficient and not an adequate representation of COVID-19 research across Africa.

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