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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 943234, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043529

ABSTRACT

More than 405 million people have contracted coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide, and mycotic infection may be related to COVID-19 development. There are a large number of reports showing that COVID-19 patients with mycotic infection have an increased risk of mortality. However, whether mycotic infection can be considered a risk factor for COVID-19 remains unknown. We searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases for studies published from inception to December 27, 2021. Pooled effect sizes were calculated according to a random-effects model or fixed-effect model, depending on heterogeneity. We also performed subgroup analyses to identify differences in mortality rates between continents and fungal species. A total of 20 articles were included in this study. Compared with the controls, patients with mycotic infection had an odds ratio (OR) of 2.69 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.22-3.26] for mortality and an OR of 2.28 (95% CI: 1.65-3.16) for renal replacement therapy (RRT). We also conducted two subgroup analyses based on continent and fungal species, and we found that Europe and Asia had the highest ORs, while Candida was the most dangerous strain of fungi. We performed Egger's test and Begg's test to evaluate the publication bias of the included articles, and the p-value was 0.423, which indicated no significant bias. Mycotic infection can be regarded as a risk factor for COVID-19, and decision makers should be made aware of this risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Europe , Humans , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors
2.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 35(3): 249-259, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1744333

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A possible benefit has been suggested for early treatment of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with remdesivir. The efficacy of this drug is controversial and could significantly influence the efficiency in healthcare systems. The objective is the methodological interpretation of subgroup analyzes according to starting of remdesivir treatment with respect to symptom onset of COVID-19. METHODS: A search in Pubmed® database was performed. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with subgroup analysis regarding early and late use of remdesivir were selected. All endpoints were assessed using two methodologies. First methodology considered statistical interaction, pre-specification, biological plausibility, and consistency of results. Second methodology was a validated tool with preliminary questions to discard subset analysis without relevant minimum conditions, and a checklist with recommendations for applicability. RESULTS: A total of 54 results were found and five RCTs were selected. According first methodology, consistent heterogeneity was only found in time to clinical improvement and better clinical status score at day 15 for patients with severe COVID-19 and <7 days of symptoms. About second methodology, these results about early use of remdesivir may be applied to clinical practice with caution. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a systematic search and application of an established methodology for interpretation of subgroup analysis about early use of remdesivir. Results in severe COVID-19 suggested that early use of remdesivir provides a greater benefit in <7 days of symptoms for time to clinical improvement and better clinical status score at day 15. Future studies could use 7-day cut-off of symptoms to evaluate remdesivir.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans
3.
Ther Adv Chronic Dis ; 12: 20406223211041924, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398819

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused outbreaks worldwide, and the number of cases is rapidly increasing through human-to-human transmission. Because of the greater transmission capacity and possible subsequent multi-organ damage caused by the virus, it is crucial to understand precisely and manage COVID-19 patients. However, the underlying differences in the clinical features of COVID-19 with and without comorbidities are not fully understood. AIM: The objective of this study was to identify the clinical features of COVID-19 patients with and without complications to guide treatment and predict the prognosis. METHOD: We collected the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with and without different complications, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Next, we performed a baseline comparison of each index and traced the dynamic changes in these factors during hospitalization to explore the potential associations. RESULT: A clinical index of differential expression was used for the regression to select top-ranking factors. The top-ranking clinical characteristics varied in each subgroup, such as indices of liver function, renal function and inflammatory markers. Among them, the indices of renal function were highly ranked in all subgroups and displayed significant differences during hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Organ functions of COVID-19 patients, particularly renal function, should be cautiously taken care of during management and might be a crucial factor for a poor prognosis of these patients with complications.

4.
Blood Cells Mol Dis ; 88: 102548, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086789

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Convalescent plasma (CP) is being used as a treatment option in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Till date, there is conflicting evidence on efficacy of CP in reducing COVID-19 related mortality. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of CP on 28-day mortality reduction in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We did a multi-centre, retrospective case control observational study from 1st May 2020 to 31st August 2020. A total of 1079 adult patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 requiring oxygen, were reviewed. Of these, 694 patients were admitted to ICU. Out of these, 333 were given CP along with best supportive care and remaining 361 received best supportive care only. RESULTS: In the overall group of 1079 patients, mortality in plasma vs no plasma group was statistically not significant (22.4% vs 18.5%; p = 0.125; OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.94--1.72). However, in patients with COVID-19 admitted to ICU, mortality was significantly lower in plasma group (25.5% vs 33.2%; p = 0.026; OR = 0.69, 95%CI: 0.50-0.96). This benefit of reduced mortality was most seen in age group 60 to 74 years (26.7% vs 43.0%; p = 0.004; OR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.29-0.80), driven mostly by females of this age group (23.1% vs 53.5%; p = 0.013; OR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.09-0.78). Significant difference in mortality was observed in patients with one comorbidity (22.3% vs 36.5%; p = 0.004; OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.31-0.80). Moreover, patients on ventilator had significantly lower mortality in the plasma arm (37.2% vs 49.3%; p = 0.009; OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.42-0.89); particularly so for patients on invasive mechanical ventilation (63.9% vs 82.9%; p = 0.014; OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16-0.83). CONCLUSION: The use of CP was associated with reduced mortality in COVID-19 elderly patients admitted in ICU, above 60 years of age, particularly females, those with comorbidities and especially those who required some form of ventilation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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