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1.
Revista Medica De Rosario ; JOUR(1):7-15, 88.
Article in Spanish | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2081725

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Mental health is a priority public health problem, with medical students being a group susceptible of suffering from mental disorders. Objective: To determine the association between, on the one hand, the presence of depression, stress and/or suicidal ideation and, on the other, the academic performance of medical students from a Peruvian university in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional, analytical and prospective study carried out in 241 students from 1st to 6th year of medicine. Data collection was carried out between March and May 2021. The presence and levels of stress, depression and risk of suicidal ideation were determined using the Perceived Stress Scale-14 (EEP-14), the Zung Scale for Depression (EZ-D) and the Beck Suicidal Ideation Scale (ISB), respectively;on the other hand, academic performance was evaluated with the Reyes Murillo learning assessment scale. A bivariate analysis was performed using the chi square test (significance level of p<0.05) to establish the association between the study variables. Results: Most of the students had an average academic performance (70.12%). The prevalence of depression, stress, and suicidal ideation was 33.61%, 94.19%, and 88.79%, respectively. Academic performance was significantly associated with the presence of depression (p=0.018), but not with the presence of stress (p=0.669), or risk of suicidal ideation (p=0.438). Conclusions: Only depression was significantly associated with academic performance, although its prevalence was much lower than stress or suicidal ideation, so it is necessary for the university to implement strategies aimed at improving the mental health of this population;this will not only improve its quality of life, but also its academic performance.

2.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 123: 106966, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075975

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite their intrinsic strengths and resilience, some American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities experience among the highest rates of suicide of any racial and ethnic group. Caring Contacts is one of the only interventions shown to reduce suicide in clinical trials, but it has not been tested in AI/AN settings. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of Enhanced Usual Care (control) to Enhanced Usual Care augmented with a culturally adapted version of Caring Contacts (intervention) for reducing suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and suicide-related hospitalizations. METHODS: We are implementing a single blind randomized controlled trial of Caring Contacts in five AI/AN communities across the country (South Dakota, Montana, Oklahoma, and Alaska). Eligible participants have to be (1) actively suicidal or have made a suicide attempt within the past year; (2) at least 18 years of age; (3) AI/AN; (4) able to speak and read English; (5) able to participate voluntarily; (6) willing to be contacted by text, email or postal mail; and (7) able to provide consent. Following consent and baseline assessment, participants are randomized to receive either Enhanced Usual Care alone, or Enhanced Usual Care with 12 months (25 messages) of culturally adapted Caring Contacts. Follow-up assessments are conducted at 12 and 18 months. CONCLUSIONS: If effective, this study of Caring Contacts will inform programs to reduce suicide in the study communities as well as inform future research on Caring Contacts in other tribal settings. Modifications to continue the trial during the COVID-19 pandemic are discussed. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT02825771.

3.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 55(5): 455-463, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066726

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Economic hardship has a serious impact on adolescents' mental health. The financial impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was more severe for low-income families, and this also impacted adolescents. This study aimed to examine the associations of economic deterioration (ED) caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and low socioeconomic status (SES) with adolescents' suicidal behaviors. METHODS: This study analyzed data from the 2020 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, which included 54 948 middle and high school students. Odds ratios (ORs) of suicidal ideation, suicidal planning, and suicide attempts related to ED and SES were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. We calculated relative excess risks due to interaction to assess additive interactions. RESULTS: The ORs for suicidal ideation, suicidal planning, and suicide attempts related to combined severe ED and low SES were 3.64 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.13 to 4.23), 3.88 (95% CI, 3.09 to 4.88), and 4.27 (95% CI, 3.21 to 5.69), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: ED and low SES were significantly associated with suicidal behaviors in adolescents. Although no significant additive interaction was found, the ORs related to suicidal ideation, suicidal planning, and suicide attempts were highest among adolescents from low-income families with severe ED. Special attention is needed for this group, considering the increased impact of economic inequality due to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electrolytes , Humans , Internet , Pandemics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Risk-Taking , Social Class , Suicidal Ideation
4.
Archives of Disease in Childhood ; 107(Supplement 2):A412-A413, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064059

ABSTRACT

Aims The COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented impact on the lives of children and young people (CYP);with illness-related anxiety, social/physical distancing, mandatory quarantines, travel restrictions, school closures, isolation and family disruptions having a negative impact on mental wellbeing. While several reports have highlighted high rates of mental health problems and suicidal ideation, few studies have focused on self-harm related hospital attendances by CYP during the pandemic or provided reliable trend analyses in comparison with pre-pandemic data. Our objective was to compare pre-pandemic (2019) and pandemic (2020 and 2021) attendances to the emergency department by CYP, for mental health issues including overdose, self-harm, suicidal ideation/attempt. Methods * Single-centre observation study of CYP of age 8 years to 18 years, attending the emergency department (ED) for overdose, self-harm and suicidal ideation/attempt, from 01/ 01/2019 to 31/12/2021 (36 months). * Eligible patients were identified using discharge diagnostic coding and mental health services database review using search terms including 'overdose', 'deliberate self-harm', 'self-harm', 'self-injury', 'self-injured', 'hurt themselves', 'suicide', 'suicidal', 'suicidal ideation. Results * 1226 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. * Number of CYP attending ED in 2019, 2020 and 2021 were 374, 418 and 434 respectively. * Compared to 2019, in 2021 there is a 16% overall increase in the number of CYP attending ED for mental health issues (figure 1). Of note, 2021's analysis shows that the rate of ED attendance was greater in the first 6 months when compared to the latter 6 months. * The greatest increase from 2019 is seen in CYP attending with suicidal intent and overdose (figure 2). * We will be carrying out further data analysis on our inner-city population evaluating the disparities across age, gender and socio-economic status as well as the care journey of reattenders. In addition, data collection will continue in 2022 to evaluate if this trend continues or stabilises post-removal of pandemic restrictions Conclusion * Continuing incremental trend of ED attendances in 2021 despite the easing of pandemic restrictions in July 2021 and vaccine roll-out for 12-16-year-olds in September 2021 suggest a cumulative impact on mental health from the long course of the pandemic. As noted in figure 2, over 60% of the patients seen in 2021 were in the first half of the year, suggesting that continuing lockdowns may have had an impact in attendance. Further, UK youth surveys report that many CYP found the 2021 lockdown harder than the 2020 lockdowns, possibly due to the prolongation of uncertainty over the future.1 * The short and long-term mental health implications of the pandemic should be seen against the background of worsening mental health morbidity in CYP in the UK over the preceding few years, especially as our data shows a large increase in presentations with suicidal ideation/attempt. This calls for a systematic response to widen access to mental health services in the future. (Figure Presented).

5.
Archives of Disease in Childhood ; 107(Supplement 2):A410-A411, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064057

ABSTRACT

Aims Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE's) are those potentially traumatic events occurring in an individual between birth and 17 years of age.1 The term was first used in the pioneering study published in 1998, which showed causational relationships between ten adverse childhood experiences and negative health outcomes. Since then, a multitude of further research has been conducted in the field. Scientific curiosity led me to research the link between early trauma and physical, mental, and social health. Having conducted and presented the results of a pilot study (pre-pandemic), my passion grew, leading to an in-depth literature review on the relating factors, mechanism and relationship between ACE's and physical and mental health, followed by an extensive undergraduate study, to ascertain the impact of ACE's on medical students, in particular focusing on emotional health, during this pandemic (2021). Methods A sample of 140 students attending the university of medicine and pharmacy 'Grigore T. Popa' were surveyed, collecting demographic, physical, mental, social, and emotional health data by means of an Google Forms questionnaire (including: the Pittsburgh sleep quality Index,2 and WHO ACE-IQ3). Correlations were made between different variables, such as: gender, nationality, self-rated physical health and 'binary ACE score'. Results 61.4% were female, with participants from across the globe. The average age was 23.13 years. A snapshot of the prevalence of ACE's was obtained, 29.3% had an ACE score of 4 or more. Of the categories of ACE's: a quarter having experienced sexual abuse, witnessing physical violence (without objects) in just under a third (31%), and threats or actual abandonment or exclusion from the house in just under 1 in 5 (19%). While data confirmed the findings of previous studies on the impact of ACE's on physical health, the most notable findings were in relation to emotional health. In the past year, 39.3% reported having felt deep sadness more than three times. 47.1% reported feelings of worthlessness more than three times in the past year. 27.1% reported excessive worry, 15% reported thoughts of self-harm. Positive correlations were observed between ACE score, and feelings of deep sadness, feelings of worthlessness, excessive worry, thoughts of self-harm, and suicidal thoughts (see figure 1). Conclusion These findings underline an important issue, equally affecting the future medical professionals. Findings reflect the generation and the world as a whole, with the compounded impact of the SARS-COV-2 pandemic on mental and emotional health. Results suggest, dealing with the effects of 'post-pandemic' stress and ACE will be an issue requiring particular attention. (Figure Presented).

6.
J Psychiatr Res ; 154: 293-299, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061587

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Among patients with mental illness, those with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) showed a significant clinical worsening by the COVID-19 pandemic. The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on OCD have been shown to worsen symptoms severity, with serious clinical consequences. However, the persistence of COVID-19 pandemic in OCD patients has been poorly investigated. The purpose of the present study was to assess the impact of the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in a sample of OCD patients and to compare the results with those obtained during the first wave on the same OCD sample. METHODS: 116 OCD outpatients attending three OCD tertiary clinics in Northern Italy and previously included in a report on the impact of COVID-19, were followed-up in order to investigate sociodemographic and clinical features. Appropriate statistical analyses for categorical and continuous variables were conducted. RESULTS: The 43 OCD patients with a clinical worsening (OW) reported a significant development of new obsessions/compulsions and the recurrence of past OC symptoms, higher rates of psychiatric comorbidities and sleep disturbances compared to patients without symptom worsening. Moreover, an increase in avoidance behaviors, suicidal ideation, Internet checking for reassurance, and job difficulties emerged in OW patients. Also, lower rates of pharmacological stability, and higher rates of therapy adjustment were observed. In terms of sex differences, males showed higher rates of past obsessions occurrence, while females showed a rise in Internet checking behaviors. When comparing OW patients between the first and the second wave, the latter showed significantly higher rates of past obsession occurrence and lower rates of pharmacological stability. Moreover, patients with OW showed a significantly older age during the second wave. CONCLUSION: The persistence of the COVID-19 pandemic showed a globally impaired clinical picture in the analyzed OCD sample. A further worsening between the two waves timepoints emerged, mainly involving older patients with OCD. The concordance between our results and those existing in literature highlights the importance of an accurate long-term monitoring of OCD patients in light of COVID-19 pandemic persistence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Pandemics , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
7.
JMIR Form Res ; 6(9): e37746, 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Suicide is a leading cause of death in the United States, and suicidal ideation (SI) is a significant precursor and risk factor for suicide. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the impact of a telepsychiatric care platform on changes in SI over time and remission, as well as to investigate the relationship between various demographic and medical factors on SI and SI remission. METHODS: Participants included 8581 US-based adults (8366 in the treatment group and 215 in the control group) seeking treatment for depression, anxiety, or both. The treatment group included patients who had completed at least 12 weeks of treatment and had received a prescription for at least one psychiatric medication during the study period. Providers prescribed psychiatric medications for each patient during their first session and received regular data on participants. They also received decision support at treatment onset via the digital platform, which leveraged an empirically derived proprietary precision-prescribing algorithm to give providers real-time care guidelines. Participants in the control group consisted of individuals who completed the initial enrollment data and completed surveys at baseline and 12 weeks but did not receive care. RESULTS: Greater feelings of hopelessness, anhedonia, and feeling bad about oneself were most significantly correlated (r=0.24-0.37) with SI at baseline. Sleep issues and feeling tired or having low energy, although significant, had lower correlations with SI (r=0.13-0.14). In terms of demographic variables, advancing age and education were associated with less SI at baseline (r=-0.16) and 12 weeks (r=-0.10) but less improvement over time (r=-0.12 and -0.11, respectively). Although not different at baseline, the SI expression was evident in 34.4% (74/215) of the participants in the control group and 12.32% (1031/8366) of the participants in the treatment group at 12 weeks. Although the participants in the treatment group improved over time regardless of various demographic variables, participants in the control group with less education worsened over time, after controlling for age and depression severity. A model incorporating the treatment group, age, sex, and 8-item Patient Health Questionnaire scores was 77% accurate in its classification of complete remission. Those in the treatment group were 4.3 times more likely (odds ratio 4.31, 95% CI 2.88-6.44) to have complete SI remission than those in the control group. Female participants and those with advanced education beyond high school were approximately 1.4 times more likely (odds ratio 1.38, 95% CI 1.18-1.62) to remit than their counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the efficacy of an antidepressant intervention in reducing SI, in this case administered via a telehealth platform and with decision support, as well as the importance of considering covariates, or subpopulations, when considering SI. Further research and refinement, ideally via randomized controlled trials, are needed.

8.
Int J Cogn Ther ; 15(3): 321-335, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048713

ABSTRACT

Suicide is a public health concern which warrants considerable attention, especially with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. The current study sought to examine the relationship between behavioral, psychological, and economic impacts of COVID-19 on suicidal ideation severity in a sample of 90 undergraduate students who completed a comprehensive survey on mental health in January 2020 and were re-assessed in April, June, and July of 2020. Multiple regression analyses showed that changes in experience of loneliness, loneliness due to social distancing, pandemic-related concerns, COVID contagion anxiety, and quarantining alone positively and significantly correlated with peri-pandemic suicidal ideation severity after accounting for pre-pandemic suicidal ideation and sexual orientation, while time spent talking to romantic partner and time spent talking to friends and family were negatively correlated. Findings provide insights into the psychological and behavioral effects of social distancing measures and the pandemic, but further research is needed to generalize findings. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s41811-022-00140-2.

9.
J Korean Acad Nurs ; 52(4): 464-475, 2022 Aug.
Article in Korean | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040074

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify the mediating effects of depression amid the influence of fear and social distancing arising from Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Korean women's suicidal ideation. METHODS: A descriptive correlation study was conducted. Study participants, recruited by Hankook Research from March 2 to March 5, 2021, included 300 women aged 19 to 49 living in South Korea, and 100 people were randomly allocated and enlisted for each age group out of 700,000 Hankook Research Panels recruited in advance from 17 cities and provinces nationwide. Data were collected through a self-reported questionnaire and analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient and Hayes' Process Macro Model 4 with 95% bias-corrected bootstrap confidence interval via SPSS statistics 27.0. RESULTS: Suicidal ideation was significantly correlated with fear of COVID-19 (r = .16, p = .006) and depression (r = .65, p < .001). The mediation effect of depression in the relationship between the fear of COVID-19 and suicidal ideation was found to be significant (B = 0.40, boot 95% CI: 0.21~0.61). However, social distancing did not significantly affect suicidal ideation via depression (B = -0.79, boot 95% CI: -1.94~0.26). CONCLUSION: It is necessary to develop and apply interventions to prevent depression and suicidal behaviors by continuously observing and reducing the negative psychological responses caused by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicidal Ideation , Depression/psychology , Fear , Female , Humans , Physical Distancing
10.
Psychiatry Res ; 317: 114837, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031635

ABSTRACT

Current suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among psychiatric patients during the COVID-19 pandemic were studied through systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched the following electronic databases using the relevant search terms: Medline, Embase, PubMed and Web of Science, with the search time as of January 31,2022. Forest plots were obtained using Stata statistical software and a random-effects model was used to conduct a meta-analysis of the prevalence of suicidal ideation. We found 21 eligible studies, 11 of which provided suitable data for meta-analysis. 10 studies explored current suicidal ideation and reported a pooled prevalence of 20.4% (95%CI 14.0-26.8). Six studies examined suicide attempts, with a pooled prevalence of 11.4% (95%CI 6.2-16.6). The prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts varied by the study method used and by the study sites. This work highlights the need for real-time monitoring of suicidal ideation and suicide in psychiatric patients during the covid-19 pandemic r to inform clinical practice and help identify research questions for future epidemiological studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide, Attempted , Humans , Suicide, Attempted/psychology , Suicidal Ideation , Pandemics , Prevalence
11.
Annals of Clinical Psychiatry ; 34(3):10-11, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2030804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Self-mutilating behavior in the pediatric population is associated with psychiatric and psychosocial factors. Autosarcophagy, or self-cannibalism, is an extremely rare form of self-mutilation and is predominantly seen with psychosis or substance use.1 We report a case of oral autosarcophagy in a pediatric patient in the absence of substance use or psychosis. OBJECTIVE: To learn about autosarcophagy and its treatment in the pediatric population and to explore other neuropsychiatric disorders in which it is a predominant manifestation. METHODS: Review of a case using electronic medical records and relevant literature. Key terms: 'autosarcophagy,' 'body focused repetitive behavior,' 'oral self injury,' 'pediatric self-mutilation' using Medscape and Google Scholar. RESULTS: We present a 14-year-old female with history of seizure disorder in full remission, depression, self-cutting behavior, and suicidal ideation with 2 psychiatric hospitalizations, who presented to the pediatric emergency department with oral bleeding after eating one-third of her tongue over the course of a month. Evaluation was notable for poverty of speech and constricted affect. Patient stated she was 'trying to remove an infection' and alleviate discomfort. She denied that this behavior was an attempt to end her life but endorsed past suicidal ideations and cutting behavior. History revealed emergency room evaluation for aggressive behavior and episodes of volitional enuresis. We diagnosed major depressive disorder, recurrent episode in remission without psychosis. Drug screen, complete blood count, complete metabolic panel, COVID-19, urinalysis, thyroid-stimulating hormone, head computed tomography, and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin were negative. Patient continued home oral medications aripiprazole 10 mg daily, fluoxetine 30 mg daily, and levetiracetam 500 mg twice daily and was discharged the next day. CONCLUSIONS: Self-harm is observed in 17.2% of adolescents, 13.4% of young adults, and 5.5% of older adults.2 Cases of self-mutilation in pediatric patients typically present as cutting, burning, or head banging.3 Our differential diagnoses include borderline personality disorder due to repeated impulsivity and self-harm, and body focused repetitive behavior disorder (obsessive-compulsive disorder-related disorder), which presents with repetitive strain injuries and dental malocclusions. Treatment of self-mutilation involves treating the underlying psychiatric condition with psychotropic medications.4,5 In pediatric patients, dialectical behavioral therapy has been shown to reduce parasuicidal behaviors after 1 year of therapy.6 Our patient, under constant 24-hour observation, was cleared by medical, psychiatric, and dental teams. The patient followed up with outpatient psychotherapy and psychiatry. We are presenting this rare case for clinicians to identify and manage pediatric patients presenting with unique forms of self-harm tendencies.

12.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-343310

ABSTRACT

Background: Caring Contacts can effectively reduce suicide ideation, attempts, and death. In published clinical trials, messages were sent by specialists who knew the recipient. At scale, Caring Contacts programs rarely introduce the recipient and sender. It is not known whether receiving Caring Contacts from someone unknown is as effective as messages from someone the recipient knows. Methods: Pragmatic single masked randomized controlled trial with 1:1 allocation to Caring Contacts with (CC+) versus without an introductory phone call (CC). Recruitment occurred January-July 2021, with outcomes assessed at 6 months. Participants were healthcare providers/staff and primary care patients at a not-for-profit health system in Idaho, United States reporting adverse mental health outcomes on a qualifying survey. CC+ calls focused on connection and were semi-structured. All participants were sent 11 standardized caring text messages over 6 months;when participants replied, they received personalized unscripted responses. The primary outcome was loneliness (NIH Toolkit). Findings: Among patients, 165 were randomized to CC+ (mean (SD) age: 46.7 (15.7), 79.4% female), and 166 were randomized to CC (mean (SD) age: 44.3 (17), 78.3% female). Among providers/staff, 167 were randomized to CC+ (mean (SD) age: 40.1 (11.4), 89.8% female), and 168 were randomized to CC (mean (SD) age: 41.6 (12.2), 83.3% female). There were no significant differences in loneliness at 6 months by treatment arm in either stratum. In patients, mean (SD) loneliness was 61.9 (10.7) in CC, and 60.8 (10.3) in CC+, adjusted mean difference of -1.0 (95% CI: -3.0, 1.0);p-value=0.31. In providers/staff, mean (SD) loneliness was 61.2 (11) in CC, and 61.3 (11.1) in CC+, adjusted mean difference of 0.2 (95% CI: -1.8, 2.2);p-value=0.83. Interpretation: Including an initial phone call added operational complexity and cost without significantly improving the effectiveness of a Caring Contacts program. Trial Registration: The Mental Health Among Patients, Providers, and Staff (MHAPPS) Trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04700137), with the following identifier: NCT04700137.

13.
Practising Midwife ; 25(8):20-24, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-2026915

ABSTRACT

The Scottish Government released the Mental Health Strategy to improve mental health services. With one-in-five pregnant women being identified as having a mental health condition, it is a prevalent issue for midwives. There are obstacles in midwifery to being able to meet the expectations of the aims of the Mental Health Strategy. These include accessing services, mental health stigma, organisational challenges, training and the impact of COVID-19. Solutions such as The Best Start and continuity of care within midwifery, appropriate referral process, training and education, and increased awareness can help midwives achieve the Scottish Government's aims. This is the final article in the series.

14.
Computer Systems Science and Engineering ; 45(1):247-261, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026577

ABSTRACT

During Covid pandemic, many individuals are suffering from suicidal ideation in the world. Social distancing and quarantining, affects the patient emotionally. Affective computing is the study of recognizing human feelings and emotions. This technology can be used effectively during pandemic for facial expression recognition which automatically extracts the features from the human face. Monitoring system plays a very important role to detect the patient condition and to recognize the patterns of expression from the safest distance. In this paper, a new method is proposed for emotion recognition and suicide ideation detection in COVID patients. This helps to alert the nurse, when patient emotion is fear, cry or sad. The research presented in this paper has introduced Image Processing technology for emotional analysis of patients using Machine learning algorithm. The proposed Convolution Neural Networks (CNN) architecture with DnCNN preprocessing enhances the performance of recognition. The system can analyze the mood of patients either in real time or in the form of video files from CCTV cameras. The proposed method accuracy is more when compared to other methods. It detects the chances of suicide attempt based on stress level and emotional recognition. © 2023 CRL Publishing. All rights reserved.

15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023671

ABSTRACT

Suicide is a major public-health problem that exists in virtually every part of the world. Hundreds of thousands of people commit suicide every year. The early detection of suicidal ideation is critical for suicide prevention. However, there are challenges associated with conventional suicide-risk screening methods. At the same time, individuals contemplating suicide are increasingly turning to social media and online forums, such as Reddit, to express their feelings and share their struggles with suicidal thoughts. This prompted research that applies machine learning and natural language processing techniques to detect suicidality among social media and forum users. The objective of this paper is to investigate methods employed to detect suicidal ideations on the Reddit forum. To achieve this objective, we conducted a literature review of the recent articles detailing machine learning and natural language processing techniques applied to Reddit data to detect the presence of suicidal ideations. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we selected 26 recent studies, published between 2018 and 2022. The findings of the review outline the prevalent methods of data collection, data annotation, data preprocessing, feature engineering, model development, and evaluation. Furthermore, we present several Reddit-based datasets utilized to construct suicidal ideation detection models. Finally, we conclude by discussing the current limitations and future directions in the research of suicidal ideation detection.


Subject(s)
Social Media , Suicide , Humans , Machine Learning , Natural Language Processing , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide/prevention & control
16.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 15: 2291-2301, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022230

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly affected people's mental health. The direct and indirect pathways between social support and suicidal ideation in the period are still unclear. This study explores the pathways from social support to suicidal ideation through resilience and depressive symptoms among undergraduates during the COVID-19 campus lockdown. Methods: During two weeks of the COVID-19 campus lockdown, a total of 12,945 undergraduates at a university in eastern China completed the questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics, suicidal ideation, social support, resilience, and depressive symptoms. A structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was used to analyze the direct and indirect pathways from social support to suicidal ideation via the mediators of resilience and depressive symptoms. Results: Of the 12,917 undergraduates included in this study, 7.4% (n = 955) reported they sometimes had suicidal ideation, 0.8% (n = 109) reported they often had suicidal ideation, 0.9% (n = 122) reported they always had suicidal ideation, and 13.2% (n = 1704) reported they had depressive symptoms. Social support exerted significant direct (ß = -0.058), indirect (ß = -0.225), and total (ß = -0.283) effects on suicidal ideation; 20.5% of the total effect was direct, and 79.5% was indirect. Social support predicted suicidal ideation through resilience (ß = -0.038), and depressive symptoms (ß = -0.087), explaining 13.4%, and 30.7% of the total effect, respectively. Social support predicted suicidal ideation through the sequential mediation of resilience and depressive symptoms (ß = -0.099), explaining 35.0% of the total effect. Conclusion: This is the first study to provide the evidence of pathways from social support to suicidal ideation through resilience and depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 campus lockdown among undergraduates in China. Both direct and indirect pathways from social support to suicidal ideation were identified as intervention targets to reduce suicidal ideation.

17.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; : 99228221120288, 2022 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020694

ABSTRACT

This mixed-methods survey study aims to describe the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of a sample of 571 children and adolescent seeking psychiatric emergency care. The study was conducted from July to October 2020 at a large Midwestern academic center. Among the respondents, there were significant increases in mental health symptoms attributed to the COVID-19 pandemic, including anxiety (71% of respondents), depression (66%), suicidal thoughts or behaviors (45%), and aggression (31%). There were significant differences in reported increases in symptoms by age and gender. In addition, 38% of participants reported that the pandemic led to a change or closure of their health care treatment, including mental health providers, with 22% reporting that reduced treatment access led to their emergency visit. Further research is indicated to assess other, more diverse populations, as well as the longer-term mental health impacts of the pandemic.

18.
Crisis ; 2022 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016567

ABSTRACT

Background: Research indicates that the COVID-19 pandemic caused increases in psychological distress and suicidal ideation. Aims: To describe the ways suicidal callers to the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline (Lifeline) perceived COVID-19 to have impacted them and assess whether these callers perceived COVID-19-related stress as contributing to their suicidal thoughts. Method: Telephone interviews were conducted with 412 suicidal callers to 12 Lifeline centers. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between demographic factors and individual COVID-19 stressors and to determine whether callers who endorsed COVID-19-related stress as contributing to their suicidal thoughts differed from those who did not regarding demographics, current suicide risk, history of suicidality, Lifeline use, or individual COVID-19 stressors. Results: Over half of callers reported that COVID-19-related stress contributed to their suicidal ideation (CRSSI). Callers who endorsed CRSSI had higher odds than those who did not of mentioning financial difficulties when asked how COVID-19 impacted them. The two groups of callers did not differ on the other factors examined. Limitations: Interviewed callers may not be representative of all Lifeline callers. Conclusion: Despite the subjective burden of COVID-19-related stress on suicidal Lifeline callers, this was not associated with new suicidality or heightened suicide risk.

19.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 2022 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2014171

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, increases in suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in adolescents have been registered. Many adolescents experiencing suicidal ideation turn to online communities for social support. In this retrospective observational study, we investigated the communication-language style, contents and user activity-in 7975 unique posts and 51,119 comments by N = 2862 active adolescent users in a large suicidal ideation support community (SISC) on the social media website reddit.com in the onset period of the COVID-19 pandemic. We found significant relative changes in language style markers for hopelessness such as negative emotion words (+ 10.00%) and positive emotion words (- 3.45%) as well as for social disengagement such as social references (- 8.63%) and 2nd person pronouns (- 33.97%) since the outbreak of the pandemic. Using topic modeling with Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), we identified significant changes in content for the topics Hopelessness (+ 23.98%), Suicide Methods (+ 17.11%), Social Support (- 14.91%), and Reaching Out to users (- 28.97%). Changes in user activity point to an increased expression of mental health issues and decreased engagement with other users. The results indicate a potential shift in communication patterns with more adolescent users expressing their suicidal ideation rather than relating with or supporting other users during the COVID-19 pandemic.

20.
Psychology of Men & Masculinities ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2016591

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is causing extensive job loss leading to a loss of social status in many men. Endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology may render some men particularly sensitive to status loss and thereby to an increased risk for suicidality. In this anonymous online survey conducted in German-speaking European countries, 490 men completed questionnaires regarding loss of social status due to the COVID-19 pandemic, past-month and lifetime suicide attempt and suicidal ideation. Furthermore, endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology and prototypical and male-typical externalizing depression symptoms were measured. Out of a total of 490 men, 14.7% of men reported experiencing status loss due to the pandemic. These men were more than four times as likely to have attempted suicide in the past month (OR = 4.48, 95% CI [1.72, 11.67]) and more than twice as likely to report suicidal ideation during the past 2 weeks (OR = 2.47, 95% CI [1.42, 4.28]), than men not reporting status loss. Status loss, but not endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology, was associated with suicide outcomes. However, when male-typical externalizing depression symptoms and prototypical depression symptoms were included in the models, they exhibited the only direct associations with suicide outcomes (e.g., for past-month suicide attempt: male-typical externalizing depression symptoms OR = 2.18, 95% CI [1.31, 3.62], prototypical depression symptoms OR = 2.41, 95% CI [1.13, 5.12]). A significant interaction between status loss and endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology further suggests an enhancing moderating effect of traditional masculinity on the relationship between status loss and past-month suicide attempts (OR = 3.27, 95% CI [1.16, 9.27]). Status loss due to the COVID-19 pandemic emerges as risk factor for suicide in men. Men who experience status loss due to the COVID-19 pandemic while concomitantly exhibiting strong endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology have an additional increased risk of suicide. Public Significance Statement Status loss due to the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly among men with strong endorsement of traditional masculinity ideologies, may play a critical role in understanding the elevated suicide rates in the aftermath of the most acute phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Health care policy should specifically target men with experienced status loss due to the COVID-19 pandemic in suicide prevention programs and swiftly design mental health care campaigns tailored to the group of men with strong endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology.

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