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1.
Revista de Investigacion en Agroproduccion Sustentable ; 6(1):1-9, 2022.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2056879

ABSTRACT

Efficiency in shrimp farming is due to the use of an extensive system that includes fewer larvae per pool, which increases productivity, improves financial results, and even the environmental impacts generated during these operations. The objective of this study was to identify the factors that affect supply in the Ecuadorian shrimp sector. To this end, some statistical techniques such as linear regression and hypothesis testing were used. A bibliographic study was carried out regarding shrimp production in Ecuador, taking as reference the data provided by the National Chamber of Aquaculture and public control entities and reviewing the unprecedented impact on the current COVID19 sanitary crisis and the reduction of shrimp demand affecting Ecuador's income. Finally, it was observed that the research variables considered directly impact crustacean production, and a mathematical model was established.

2.
Marine and Life Sciences ; 4(1):35-45, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026831

ABSTRACT

In this study, the effects of the pandemic, which started to affect the world to 2019-December, on the world aquaculture sector were evaluated with SWOT analysis (opportunities, benefits, and threats). Previous studies on this subject were scanned using certain keywords (COVID-19, pandemic, coronavirus, fishing, fisheries), and a total of 33 studies were listed. Previous studies were classified according to the sub-areas (continents) determined by FAO. The effects of the pandemic on the sector were tried to be determined according to the continents. Accordingly, the threats on a global scale were supply-demand imbalances, closure of restaurants, storage inadequacies, plastic pollution, closure of borders, illegal fishing, inequalities in the sector, and curfew restrictions. The opportunities;creation of new supply chains, raising awareness about the seafood that positive effect on health, establishing a supply-demand balance, granting work permits to fishermen during curfews, allocation of funds to be used in extraordinary situations such as pandemics, development of aquaculture, implementation of measures for the continuity of import-export, providing economic aid packages to vulnerable sector workers such as small scale fisheries, limiting the sexist understanding in the sector, and giving more opportunities to women, and cooperation with riparian countries to prevention of illegal fishing. Its benefits are listed as prevention of overfishing in the short term, protection of fish stocks, reduction of industrial pollution in the aquatic ecosystem, adoption of an ecosystem-based fishing approach in small settlements, and an increase in recreational fishing. As a result of this analysis, it has been understood that we may create accurate and fair international cooperation to solve the adverse effects of pandemia. With this gained experience, it is thought that new production strategies should be developed for trustable food supply chains in the changing world.

3.
Alanya Academic Review ; 6(2):2333-2349, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026414

ABSTRACT

The fragility of global food supply chains, which signals food shortages and increases in food prices in recent years, has reached the highest level with the government's lockdown measures during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study aims to highlight the disruptions in global food supply chains brought about by the ongoing COVID -19 pandemic and present the impact of these disruptions on food security. Supply-side and demand-side shocks that bring about deterioration of the flow in food supply chains and disruptions that threaten food security have made access to adequate and nutritious food an issue as significant as the pandemic. In the food supply chain, panic-oriented buying behaviors by consumers, job and income losses due to changes in labor markets and inflation have occurred as demand-side effects. Labor shortages, disruptions in transportation networks, restrictions imposed by countries, the opportunities of digital technology, and the spread of e-commerce have emerged as supply-side effects. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused negative effects on food security, jeopardizing availability, access, utilization, and stability with supply-side and demand-side shocks. In the conclusion part of the study, the resiliency of food systems, automation of food supply chains, the safety of employees and the importance of monitoring supply chain activities in online environments, the social security policies and practices of the state for vulnerable groups experiencing food insecurity, and food sovereignty were discussed.

4.
Pulp & Paper Canada ; 121(2):12-13, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1990122

ABSTRACT

This article talks about the impact of COVID-19 to the Canadian pulp market. The situation surrounding the pulp market is presented, where in 2019, the pulp and paper market in Canada has been tightening due to unexpected downtime and excess inventories returning to a more balanced level. China on the other hand has been slowly getting industrial operations started again after a mandatory quarantine period and travel ban brought the country to a halt. In North America, consumers have been panic buying and stockpiling household products including bath tissue for weeks, leading to shortages at major retailers like Costco and Walmart. While psychologists call the hoarding ritual in times of crisis natural, it's led to empty shelves and frustrated shoppers. Tissue producers are now ramping up to meet the demand - but the extra capacity might be a short-term silver lining. With the news about COVID-19 changing almost hourly, the markets remain uncertain and difficult to predict. Canadian pulp and paper mills, especially those in British Columbia, are particularly challenged during this unprecedented time because of the fibre shortages and very low pulp prices.

5.
Global Oils & Fats: Business Magazine ; 18(4):28-32, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1958437

ABSTRACT

This article looks at the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global palm oil market as well as the post-pandemic outlook for the market. It is indicated that, in the long-term, the post-pandemic outlook for the palm oil industry remains bright. Since the last quarter of 2019, palm oil supply and demand are back in balance, while stocks are declining. Prices have been relatively high for most of 2020 and 2021. Also discussed are the proven benefits of palm oil and the opportunity of the palm oil sector to achieve UN goals.

6.
Geografia. Malaysian Journal of Society and Space ; 18(2):155-171, 2022.
Article in Malay | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1912381

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of Covid-19 has resulted in more significant global problems in terms of food security due to movement control orders (MCO) executed around the world. Malaysia has been affected by the Covid-19 pandemic and has slowed down the activities of economic sectors, including the agriculture sector. Therefore, this paper discussed in depth the impact of the Covid- 19 pandemic on food security in Malaysia, especially in terms of food supply and demand. This study used qualitative method involving analysis of formal and informal documents to obtain information on food security during the Covid-19 pandemic. During the MCO, local farmers faced with agricultural produce dumping due to the close of several support sectors such as retail, transportation, and food services. The agricultural supply chain was also affected due to a lack of agricultural inputs and a shortage of labor. This situation is worsened by the inadequacy of food storage facilities which has caused damage to agricultural produce. The demand for food among the community continued to increase during the MCO due to the panic-buying. This study also highlighted several suggestions toward improving the stability of food security in order for the country to withstand any crisis.

7.
Tourism Economics ; 28(3):665-691, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1902304

ABSTRACT

This study aims to develop a multi-dimensional night-time economy vitality index (NTEVI) to measure the vitality of night-time economic (NTE) activities in Zhejiang Province, China, covering its 11 cities and 90 counties. Comprising 44 supply and demand indicators of the NTE, the index was composed of an overall index and six major sub-indices that measured the vitality of six typical NTE subsectors, including catering, shopping, recreation, accommodation, touring, and fitness. The NTEVI was calculated using a unique multi-source dataset based on hourly online transaction data from a leading Chinese online-to-offline service platform, monthly night-time electricity consumption data, and official statistics from 2019 to 2020. Robustness and sensitivity analyses were conducted to ensure high credibility of the index results. The findings of this study suggested that the NTEVI was highly and significantly correlated with night light indices, economic indicators, and tourism demand measures. By identifying regional and temporal differences across several service sectors over time at the county, city, and provincial levels, the NTEVI serves as a powerful numerical and visual tool: it offers key information to guide policy formulation, resource allocation, and policy evaluation. In the context of COVID-19, the index analyses also reflect the NTE recovery process in Zhejiang Province. Our findings indicate that it is important for the Chinese government, regional authorities, and enterprises to encourage the NTE as a main driver of economic revitalization.

8.
AgroEkonomika ; 51(94):17-27, 2022.
Article in Serbian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1888217

ABSTRACT

The economic crisis caused by the external shock in the form of the COVID-19 pandemic had the character of a systemic risk affecting all markets in the world. Due to high levels of economic integration, negative spillover effects were inevitable. Indirect effects particularly affected the agricultural sector with simultaneous shocks on the supply and demand side. The research includes an analysis of negative distortions of a macroeconomic nature in order to show in the most adequate way the vital importance of the agricultural sector at the level of the European Union (EU). Given the acute nature of the economic crisis, interventions at the EU level (and in countries) targeting exit strategies have a key role to play. The analysis of the implemented strategies in the EU in 2020 indicates that: (a) economic policymakers have minimized the gap in the implementation of measures, by applying generous and prompt programs aimed at the agricultural sector;(b) there is a need to move from urgent rescue programs to "no regrets" programs that can improve the resilience of the agricultural sector to future external shocks in the long run.

9.
Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils ; 8(4):14760-14777, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1864125

ABSTRACT

This research is motivated by the occurrence of inefficiency of the transportation system in the urban area of Sarbagita (Denpasar, Badung, Gianyar, Tabanan) caused by the use of private motorized vehicles. As a limited number of public goods, the efficiency of road space is measured not by the number of vehicles but by the number of people who use the road space. Therefore, the operation of a Mass Public Transportation System (SAUM) which has a large transport capacity optimally is the key to the efficiency of the transportation system in urban areas. This study aims to analyze the variables that affect the optimization of the Mass Public Transport System (SAUM) based on demand and service supply. This research was conducted using quantitative methods. The research location is in the urban area of Sarbagita, an agglomeration area in Bali. The research was conducted in October 2021, during the Covid-19 pandemic. The total population in this study was 14,140 with a sample of 397 passengers on 4 (four) Trans Metro Dewata service routes. Sampling using proportional stratified random sampling. The data used is in the form of a scale of differences in the meaning of attitudes towards an object which is sorted from the number (1) not important;(2) less important;(3) quite important;(4) important;(5) is very important. This research uses multivariate analysis technique with partial least square (PLS) method. The variables used in this research are Service Demand and Service Supply as exogenous variables, Service Certainty and Service Integration variables as intermediate variables and Service Optimization variables as endogenous variables. The results show that the service demand variable has no significant effect on the optimization of SAUM, while the supply, certainty and service integration variables have a positive and significant effect on the optimization of SAUM. The request has no significant effect on the integration of SAUM services. On the other hand, service supply and certainty have a positive and significant impact on the integration of SAUM services. This study also finds that the optimization of SAUM services is most influenced by service integration with a coefficient of 0.403, followed by service offerings with a coefficient of 0.374. Indirectly, the supply and demand variables have a positive and significant effect both on the variable between service integration through service certainty and on the endogenous variable of SAUM optimization through service assurance and service integration variables. The novelty of this research is that the service demand variable which has been used as a direct variable in the provision of transportation services does not have a significant effect on the optimization of SAUM. This research answers the phenomenon of the low loading rate of Trans Metro Dewata services, even though the service is free. This study suggests to the government as an institution providing public services that in an effort to realize the efficiency of the transportation system in urban areas, it is necessary to optimize SAUM services. The SAUM optimization efforts are not only based on demand and service supply but also involve variables between service certainty which include indicators of accessibility, service level and service availability and service integration variables which include indicators of physical integration, network integration and tariff integration. The results of this study are expected to enrich the theoretical repertoire in the field of transportation economics and transportation management science which is currently developing.

10.
International Sugar Journal ; 122(1463):766-771, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1863924

ABSTRACT

Global sugar production in 2020/21 may rise by 16.3 million tonnes on a local crop year basis to 187.1 million. This is 0.8 million tonnes less than in the previous F0 Licht forecast but still the second highest after the record 201.9 million produced in 2017/18. As far as the headline numbers are concerned, a surge in Brazilian production by 10.5 million tonnes and in India by 5.0 million will make up almost the entire increase as the changes elsewhere largely offset each other. Increase in global cane sugar production is mirrored by a drop in global beet sugar output (by 1 million tonnes). Despite the overall increase in sugar output and COVID-l9 related concern over global demand, prices have been rather firm lately as the mood in financial markets was generally positive. Sugar's own fundamental supply and demand situation gives little reason for the current firmness of the market to persist with the two largest producers, Brazil and India, headed for massive increases in output in their local 2020/21 crushing seasons. Making matters worse. Brazilian producers are already in the process of hedging export sales from the 2021/22 and 2022/23 crops as the historically weak Brazilian currency makes even current prices look much better in domestic currency. That possibility should keep global output elevated further down the road.

11.
International Sugar Journal ; 123(1474):670-674, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1863787

ABSTRACT

USA continues to be the largest producer of ethanol globally followed by Brazil. The Covid-I9 pandemic impacted the sector adversely as the rise in unemployment, plus the attendant restrictions on movement resulted in people driving much less (han) before and thereby decreasing demand for transportation fuel. US companies Poet, Valera and ADM will continue to dominate the league table of top producers. The Brazilian company Raizen is expected to move up in rankings (to 4) in 2021/22 following the recent acquisition of the sugar-ethanol producer Biosev.

12.
FAPRI-MU Report - Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute, College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Missouri|2022. (02-22):76 pp. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1848244

ABSTRACT

Unexpected events have caused great uncertainty and volatility in agricultural markets in recent years. Trade disputes, the COVID-19 pandemic and now the war in Ukraine have added to the natural uncertainty caused by weather and other factors. Farm commodity prices and consumer food prices are far higher than would have been expected a few months ago, but so are production expenses. This report summarizes baseline projections for agricultural and biofuel markets prepared using market information available in January 2022. We recognize that much has happened since then, and some of the possible implications are discussed throughout the report and especially in the information on page 4. Macroeconomic assumptions are based on January forecasts by IHS Markit (S&P Global), many of which would be affected by recent events. The baseline reflects current policies, meaning it incorporates programs that had been enacted prior to January 2022, but does not reflect any subsequent policy changes. We use our models to develop a range of projected market outcomes that takes into account some major sources of uncertainty about future supply and demand conditions.In some of the resulting 500 outcomes, prices, quantities and values are much higher or much lower than the averages reported here.

13.
Agricultural Economics ; 15(4), 2022.
Article in Persian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841782

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Covid-19 virus pandemic has affected the entire world and all economic sectors. The agricultural sector has been affected by this crisis from various dimensions, too. The broiler industry is the largest industry in Kurdistan province, which has been affected by this pandemic in various ways, such as supply chain of inputs, changes in supply and demand structures. The broiler industry of Kurdistan province has directly and indirectly created employment for about 14,000 people. Kurdistan province has more than 750 active broiler farms, which use about 15 million broiler chicken pieces in each period and 60 million pieces per year. Kurdistan province produces about 4% of the country's chicken meat. This study aims to investigate and estimate the implications of the Corona pandemic on production, performance and economic efficiency of broiler farms in Sanandaj township, Kurdistan province, Iran. Materials and Methode: Production and performance criteria were extracted from summarizing and comparing data in Excel software. To estimate the efficiency criteria by data envelopment analysis model, DEAP software was used;and in order to evaluate the difference between the means, the matched-pairs t-test was conducted in SPSS software. Necessary data were obtained through a simple random sampling method. The collected data were related to two breeding periods in autumn 2019 before the pandemic, and autumn 2020 after the pandemic. All production, performance and efficiency measures calculated and compared in pre-pandemic and post-pandemic periods. Results and discussion: The results showed that the total number of day-old chicks in pre-pandemic and post-pandemic periods was not significantly different. Total production of small and medium farms decreased slightly in the post-pandemic period;whilst total production in large farms, due to the increase in weight of chickens, not only did not decrease but also increased significantly. The grain-to-chicken conversion ratio increased on all farms, so that more grain was used to produce one kilogram of chicken, in the post-pandemic period. The reason for this could probably be the irregularity in the sales process and the increase in the number of storage days. The age of slaughter increased in all farms in the post-pandemic period, significantly. Due to the increase in slaughter age, the average weight of chickens at slaughter also increased significantly. Furthermore, the percentage of losses in all farms showed a significant increase. Regarding efficiency, no significant difference was found in the average technical efficiency of broiler farms before and after the corona outbreak. Nevertheless, the difference between the average allocation and economic efficiency of the farms in the pre-pandemic and post-pandemic periods were significant;In all three capacity groups, there was a significant decrease in both allocation efficiency and economic efficiency in the post-pandemic period. Suggestion: The results showed a significant decrease in allocative and economic efficiency of the farms in post-pandemic relative to pre-pandemic periods, therefore, more attention is needed by managers and policy makers in the private and public sectors to develop and implement a special and alternative program for emergencies like COVID-pandemic. In order to limit the reduction of allocation and economic efficiency, which play an important role in maintaining the motivation of production and continuity of product supply, it is suggested that broiler farms develop managerial and economic strategies including scheduling and mechanizing the process of supplying inputs and selling the product.

14.
Acta Economica et Turistica ; 7(2):227-243, 2021.
Article in English, Croatian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1837574

ABSTRACT

After the corona virus pandemic is over, we can expect significant changes in management systems due to a further decrease in industrial commodity trade and, simultaneously, an increase in service trade, digital technology services in particular. The consequences of this crisis will be evident in all segments of economy and will relate to globalisation process, production and international trade. Global COVID-19 pandemic has caused a severe supply and demand crisis of both products and services, on local and international markets. In economies, which base their production on low costs and low inventory and on last minute supply of raw materials and spare parts, supply chains have been disrupted and all this has resulted in major disorders on the market. The problem is effusing from one market to another. Reduced production has led to a sharp decrease in consumption, which is a result of decreased profits. In 2020 world trade has fallen by 9%, foreign investments by 40% and service trade by 60%. For these reasons, it is important to look closely into what has been going on, what is going to be happening, and how it is going to affect business organizations, their stability, safety and business performance in the long run. In order to analyse the environment, facts and factors which affect, both directly and indirectly, our business activities in this globalized society and economy, it is crucial to apply well-structured analytical concepts and to conduct them systematically, especially in these difficult periods of crisis. The application of analytical concepts (analyses) enables business organizations to prepare appropriately for the challenges they are going to face. The use of modern analyses like PEST, BCG matrix, VRIO and SWOT provide essential information about the real level of potentials and resources that an organization has at their disposal. Considering the dynamics of technological and techical changes, and trends of consumers' habit and need changes, analyses are becoming increasingly important in terms of monitoring our internal environment, analysing product and service portfolios and analysing value chains. This paper explores the application and results of the use of modern analyses in the business organizations in Croatia, with a focus on use in times of sharp socio-economic changes, which were caused by the recent crisis.

15.
FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Report|2021. (1339):vi + 24 pp. ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1835024

ABSTRACT

This report presents the outcomes of the webinar on "the experience of the aquaculture sector through best practices and mitigation measures facing the COVID-19 crisis" which took place on 1 July 2020 and was conducted over the internet and hosted on the Zoom platform for webinars. It was organized by the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM) of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in cooperation with the Regional Commission for Fisheries (RECOFI). The webinar aimed to address the pandemic's effects on aquaculture production as well as on supply chains, demand, local markets and trade, and to identify best practices and mitigation measures adopted by aquaculture farmers and countries. During the first thematic session, the experts highlighted the difficulties the aquaculture sector faced due to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, several mitigation approaches were pointed out: (i) specific financial support programmes designed through the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund (EMFF);(ii) a strong national aquaculture strategy guaranteeing self-sufficiency along the entire supply chain of shrimp farming in Saudi Arabia;(iii) the issuing of subsidies and credit loans in a timely manner to help producers in Turkey;(iv) the development of an online platform for fish auctioning to boost fisheries supply chain in Oman;(v) companies opening direct communication channels between the government and the farms in the United Arab Emirates;and (vi) solidarity between the sector and consumers, which allowed for the achievement of 50 percent of the programmed goals in the fish feed and larval industry in Tunisia. Other points addressed during the second thematic session included specific measures adopted and proposed, such as the focus on different aquaculture final products (e.g. frozen fish) and the establishment of local hatcheries and fish feed factories. The Q/A session which followed concluded the webinar.

16.
MECAS Studies - International Sugar Organization|2021. ((21)06):ii + 51 pp. ; 2021.
Article in English, French, Spanish, Russian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1786961

ABSTRACT

The global obesity issue is often linked to the use of added sugars, but this relationship is unproven and there is no internationally recognised evidence that points to a direct link between the consumption of sugar and excess weight. However, in the sphere of public opinion, it is perceived as being beyond question. Furthermore, the objective of reducing added/free sugar from our basic diet has taken on a pathway of its own. This view is not supported by scientific research or published guidelines and should be challenged. Governments have largely chosen to target a reduction in the sugar content of soft drinks as a public health objective. This has been done through taxing sales or sugar content. Our analysis finds that there is a statistically significant impact on sugar consumption in some countries, mainly through the voluntary reformulations undertaken by beverage companies. But that this impact is small in terms of the volume of sugar eliminated. The study sees the application of similar taxes on food manufacturing as challenging, as sugar is used as a functional ingredient and food formulations are inherently more complex. From a public heath perspective, the study notes both a lack of historic evidence for a correlation between sugar consumption growth and obesity as well as a divergence between public health objectives and the current use of sugar. The study also considers behavioural aspects for consumers and food and beverage producers, surmising that the tax effect on consumers is partly short term while producers remain broadly focused on sales and marketing objectives, with public health changes seen as an industry-wide issue. More broadly, the study also notes that COVID-19 will skew results for many years to come. The report also considers the supply and demand dynamics of the sugar market in view of slowing demand, partly contributed to by sugar taxes. With low elasticity for both consumption and production, and with limited growth in the former, the implication is volatile world market prices. Sugar industries more than ever before will need to embrace diversification options such as bio energy and other bio products to ensure a sustainable future in a slowing sugar demand growth environment.

17.
U.S.-Mexico agricultural trade in 2020|2022. 44 pp. many ref. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1777270

ABSTRACT

This article reports about the Agricultural trade between the United States and Mexico that underwent many changes in 2020 in the face of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Overall, U.S. agricultural exports to Mexico declined in April 2020 and did not recover until November 2020. Meanwhile, U.S. agricultural imports from Mexico declined in April and May 2020 before resuming their long-term upward trend. Beef and veal, cotton, and pork were the U.S. agricultural exports to Mexico with the largest decreases in export value between calendar years 2019 and 2020. The agricultural imports from Mexico with the largest increases in import value were tequila, fresh tomatoes, and beer. The economic downturn and shift away from food expenditures at hotels, restaurants, and institutional establishments because of the pandemic explain some of these changes. However, a larger set of supply and demand determinants was at play, including conventional factors unrelated to the pandemic, such as the long-term expansion of Mexico's horticultural export sector and year-to-year changes in crop production.

18.
FAPRI-MU Report - Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute, College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Missouri|2021. (05-21):unpaginated. ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1766869

ABSTRACT

Higher commodity prices contribute to a sharp increase in U.S. net farm income in 2021. Under current policies, farm income could drop again in 2022, as government payments decline and production expenses continue to rise. This report utilizes commodity supply, demand and price projections from the FAPRI-MU baseline update released in early September 2021 (FAPRI-MU Report #04-21, available at www.fapri.missouri.edu). Historical data are from USDA and include the revision to farm income accounts released by the Economic Research Service (ERS) on September 2, 2021. These baseline estimates reflect policies in place in late August 2021. It utilizes ERS estimates that farmers will receive about $18 billion in 2021 from pandemic-related programs such as the Coronavirus Food Assistance Program (CFAP), the Pandemic Assistance for Producers (PAP) initiative, and the Paycheck Protection Program (PPP). No further ad hoc assistance is assumed for 2022 and subsequent years, nor do these current-policy projections include any payments that might result from prospective legislation. Given the assumptions of the analysis, here are a few highlights of the results: * Projected 2021 net farm income reaches the highest level since 2013. Relative to 2020, a sharp increase in receipts from sales of crop and livestock products more than offsets the impact of higher production expenses and reduced government payments. * At $122 billion, projected 2021 net farm income exceeds that reported by ERS by several billion dollars. FAPRI-MU and ERS estimates of 2021 livestock sector receipts, government payments and production expenses are similar, but FAPRI-MU estimates higher receipts for corn, soybeans and other crops. * Total projected government spending on farm-related programs reaches a record $52 billion in fiscal year (FY) 2021. Spending on pandemic-related programs accounts for most of the outlays. Spending on 2018 farm bill commodity and crop insurance programs account for less than one-third of total expenditures on the selected programs in FY 2021. * Under current policies, government outlays drop to $22 billion in FY 2022, and government payments to farmers fall from $29 billion in calendar year 2021 to $6 billion in 2022. Conservation programs account for most 2022 government payments. * Projected market prices for several crops peak in the 2021/22 marketing year. As a result, feed grain and oilseed market receipts decline after 2021, but remain well above the levels of 2020. * In contrast, receipts for cattle, dairy and poultry all continue to increase each year. Hog receipts jump in 2021 with sharply higher barrow and gilt prices and then fall back in 2022 as prices moderate. * Higher costs for feed, purchased livestock, fertilizer and other farm inputs raise farm production expenses by $27 billion in 2021, and a smaller increase is projected for 2022. * In 2022, net farm income declines by $23 billion and net cash income falls even more sharply. Reduced government payments and higher production expenses explain the decline, as there is little net change in farm receipts. * In later years, projected net farm income remains fairly steady in nominal terms at just under $100 billion each year. After adjusting for inflation, real net farm income declines each year, and the projected value in 2026 is similar to that in 2019. * Rising asset values and slower growth in debt reduce the sector's debt-to-asset ratio in 2021 and 2022, temporarily reversing the trend of previous years. Lower projected farm income halts the rise in farm real estate values in 2023, and the debt-to-asset ratio again begins to increase. In contrast to the 2021 FAPRI baseline prepared earlier this year, these estimates do not consider market uncertainty. Small proportional changes in market receipts or production expenses can dramatically change the outlook for net income.

19.
Business Inform ; 4:30-36, 2021.
Article in Ukrainian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1727401

ABSTRACT

The article discusses and analyzes the volumes of Ukraine's foreign trade in goods in 2019-2020. A positive trend regarding the foreign trade balance on trade in Ukrainian goods is allocated. It is found that there was a decrease in exports and imports of goods during the researched period. The commodity structure of Ukraine's foreign trade is analyzed. Changes in the commodity export structure in 2020 compared to 2019 have been identified. The main groups of goods that Ukraine exports and imports the most when trading with foreign countries are allocated. The groups of goods whose export and import volumes have undergone the greatest changes in 2020 and as compared to 2019 are allocated. The geographical structure of foreign trade in Ukrainian goods is analyzed. Changes in the geographical structure of exports in 2020 compared to 2019 are determined. It is specified, which countries are the largest importers of Ukrainian goods and from which countries Ukraine imports the most goods. The countries in terms of the largest changes as to the foreign trade with them in 2020 compared to 2019 are allocated. It is determined that the most important reason for changes in the volume of foreign trade in Ukrainian goods in 2020 compared to 2019 was the COVID-19 pandemic. The global impact of the coronavirus pandemic on the world economy and human life in general is noted. The main changes in the economy and society, which caused changes in the volume of foreign trade in Ukrainian goods, as well as the main reasons for the change in supply and demand, which are typical for all countries of the world, are allocated. The main directions of the State's assistance to increase the volume of exports of goods from Ukraine in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic are defined. The negative and positive changes in Ukraine's foreign trade caused by the coronavirus pandemic are characterized.

20.
Listy Cukrovarnick.. a Reparsk ; 137(3):121-127, 2021.
Article in Czech | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1652021

ABSTRACT

Agricultural commodities strengthened their position on the financial and commodity market during the 21st century. At the same time, however, the agricultural-oriented commodity market has been suffering due to a high degree of price fluctuation. Significant price fluctuations are typical in this respect, especially in times of uncertainty and periods of financial market crises. In this sector, sugar belongs among key commodities. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a significant increase in financial market uncertainty, including commodity markets. The new coronavirus affected both supply and demand on the sugar market. Such a situation resulted in significant changes in the area of production offered and especially in relation to the development of available sugar stocks. The aim of the paper is to define the impact of uncertainty on the stock market in relation to sugar price development in the period of COVID-19 crisis. The subject of the analysis is thus the development of sugar price on the one hand in the context of the financial market uncertainty and the development of the COVID-19 pandemic on the other hand. Sugar prices are represented by the S&P GSCI Sugar index, while the VIX index is used to indicate uncertainty in stock markets. To examine the changes in the relationship between sugar prices and stock market uncertainty, a regression model with a sequential Bai-Perron test of structural breaks in a thirty-year perspective is used. The results of the analysis proved the existence of a significant and negative relationship between sugar prices and the expected volatility of stock markets since the global financial crisis. Furthermore, the Granger causality test evaluates the causal relationships between sugar prices and the VIX index during the new coronavirus pandemic. The results of the analysis proved that the uncertainty in the stock market has been negatively affecting sugar prices during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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