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1.
Science of The Total Environment ; : 158396, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2004491

ABSTRACT

Billions of disposable face masks (i.e., single-use masks) are used and discarded worldwide monthly due to the COVID-19 outbreak. The immethodical disposal of these polymer-based wastes containing non-biodegradable constituents (e.g., polypropylene) has provoked marked and severe damage to the ecosystem. Meanwhile, their ever-growing usage significantly strains the present-day waste management measures such as landfilling and incineration, resulting in large quantities of used face-covering masks landing in the environment as importunate contaminants. Hence, alternative waste management strategies are crucially demanded to decrease the negative impacts of face mask contamination. In this venue, developing high-yield, effective, and green routes toward recycling or upcycling face mask wastes (FMWs) into value-added materials is of great importance. While existing recycling processes assist the traditional waste management, they typically end up in materials with downgraded physicochemical, structural, mechanical, and thermal characteristics with reduced values. Therefore, pursuing potential economic upcycling processes would be more beneficial than waste disposal and/or recycling processes. This paper reviews recent advances in the FMWs upcycling methods. In particular, we focus on producing value-added materials via various waste conversion methods, including carbonization (i.e., extreme pyrolysis), pyrolysis (i.e., rapid carbonization), catalytic conversion, chemical treatment, and mechanical reprocessing. Generally, the upcycling methods are promising, firming the vital role of managing FMWs' fate and shedding light on the road of state-of-the-art materials design and synthesis.

2.
J Hosp Infect ; 115: 64-70, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271691

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is difficult to make a lace-up surgical mask fit tightly to the face with conventional wearing methods because of the strings' poor tension, resulting in some air flowing through the gap. We introduced two feasible new wearing methods and obtained satisfactory experimental results. METHODS: The wearing of surgical masks by staff was investigated through observation and interview in operation rooms. The required time to don, close-fitting rates, and satisfaction of the conventional method and the two new recommended methods were counted and compared, according to the subjects' experience. The differences between the three wearing methods on the microbial contamination of the sterile area were explored in a mock operation. RESULTS: In the subjects' experience, the close-fitting rates were 47.0%, 92.0% and 100.0% in the conventional, Three Knots, and Elastic Band groups, respectively (P<0.001); the satisfaction scores evaluated by numerical rating scale from 0 to 10 were 5.06 ± 2.22, 6.89 ± 1.86 and 7.10 ± 1.72, respectively (P<0.001); the required times were 14.32 ± 2.20, 25.76 ± 5.13 and 27.37 ± 5.11 s, respectively (P<0.001). In the mock operation, there were significant differences between the conventional and Three Knots groups (37.5 (13) vs 18 (8) cfu, P<0.001), as well as between the conventional and Elastic Band groups (37.5 (13) vs 17(10) cfu, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The recommended new wearing methods had the advantages of closer fit, higher satisfaction rates, were more comfortable, and resulted in lower contamination of the sterile area; however, the recommended two methods required more time.


Subject(s)
Masks , Operating Rooms , Humans
3.
Am J Infect Control ; 2022 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1976959

ABSTRACT

Evaluating the impact of surgical masks' conservation practices during the Coronavirus Disease pandemic in the bioburden of the operating room seems imperative, as they play a critical role against this pandemic. We demonstrate that surgeons' masks tend to be contaminated due to the conservation techniques to maximize protection equipment during the pandemic. Health institutions should highlight the importance of surgical mask exchange to avoid increments in surgical mask contamination.

4.
Appl Acoust ; 197: 108940, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956084

ABSTRACT

With the COVID-19 pandemic, the usage of personal protective equipment (PPE) has become 'the new normal'. Both surgical masks and N95 masks with a face shield are widely used in healthcare settings to reduce virus transmission, but the use of these masks has a negative impact on speech perception. Therefore, transparent masks are recommended to solve this dilemma. However, there is a lack of quantitative studies regarding the effect of PPE on speech perception. This study aims to compare the effect on speech perception of different types of PPE (surgical masks, N95 masks with face shield and transparent masks) in healthcare settings, for listeners with normal hearing in the audiovisual or auditory-only modality. The Bamford-Kowal-Bench (BKB)-like Mandarin speech stimuli were digitally recorded by a G.R.A.S KEMAR manikin without and with masks (surgical masks, N95 masks with face shield and transparent masks). Two variants of video display were created (with or without visual cues) and tagged to the corresponding audio recordings. The speech recording and video were presented to listeners simultaneously in each of four conditions: unattenuated speech with visual cues (no mask); surgical mask attenuated speech without visual cues; N95 mask with face shield attenuated speech without visual cues; and transparent mask attenuated speech with visual cues. The signal-to-noise ratio for 50 % correct scores (SNR50) threshold in noise was measured for each condition in the presence of four-talker babble. Twenty-four subjects completed the experiment. Acoustic spectra obtained from all types of masks were primarily attenuated at high frequencies, beyond 3 kHz, but to different extents. The mean SNR50 thresholds of the two auditory-only conditions (surgical mask and N95 mask with face shield) were higher than those of the audiovisual conditions (no mask and transparent mask). SNR50 thresholds in the surgical-mask conditions were significantly lower than those for the N95 masks with face shield. No significant difference was observed between the two audiovisual conditions. The results confirm that wearing a surgical mask or an N95 mask with face shield has a negative impact on speech perception. However, wearing a transparent mask improved speech perception to a similar level as unmasked condition for young normal-hearing listeners.

5.
Neuropsychologia ; 174: 108334, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937048

ABSTRACT

In the last two years, face-to-face interactions have drastically changed worldwide, because of the COVID-19 pandemic: the persistent use of masks has had the advantage of reducing viral transmission, but it has also had the cost of impacting on the perception and recognition of social information from faces, especially emotions. To assess the cerebral counterpart to this condition, we carried out an EEG experiment, extracting Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) evoked by emotional faces with and without surgical masks. Besides the expected impairment in emotion recognition in both accuracy and response times, also the classical face-related ERPs (N170 and P2) are altered by the presence of surgical masks. Importantly, the effect is stronger in individuals with a lower daily exposure to masks, suggesting that the brain must adapt to an extra constraint in decoding social input, due to masks hiding crucial facial information.

6.
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering ; : 108241, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1926624

ABSTRACT

Numerous disposable surgical masks (DSMs) were consumed with the development of COVID-19 epidemic. Non-solid products recovered by pyrolysis is more than twenty species with low added value. Therefore, the search for a reasonable carbonization method can not only alleviate the pressure of global plastic pollution, but also produce considerable economic value. Here it is found that microwave cross-linking can promote the substitution of hydrogen atom in the polymer master chain of DSMs by hydrogen atom, which can reorganize the easily cracked DSMs into sp2-hybridized aromatic carbon, it can maintain 51.2% carbon yield at 1000℃. The difference between the DSMs-based porous carbon obtained by in-situ and post-processing N doping was further compared, and it was found that the specific surface area of the activated in-situ doped sample (P-SNO@DSMs) was as high as 2278 m2·g-1, which had rich hierarchical pore structure and high heteroatoms doping rate. Benefiting from the synergistic effect of heteroatoms and hierarchical holes, P-SNO@DSMs sulfur cathode delivers a high specific capacity of 1550 mAh·g-1 at 0.1C and exhibits excellent long-term cycling performance with the smaller capacity decay of 0.13% per cycle after 400 cycles. In this work, clean and efficient microwave cross-linking not only realized the efficient recovery of waste DSMs, but also the application of the prepared materials can be broadened by adding additional heteroatomic sources in the process of microwave cross-linking.

7.
Journal of Complementary Medicine Research ; 13(1):12-16, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1856109

ABSTRACT

Objective: According to recent studies and systematic review and meta-analysis, there is not enough evidence to determine which has a positive effect on COVID-19 epidemics, and the number of articles is very low. Therefore, the present study aims to compare the efficiency of positive results between N95 respirators and medical masks. Methods: Among the electronic databases, we selected Cochrane Library, PubMed, ISI, and Embas for systematically review the publications from 2010 to 2020. We then applied a software program called Endnote X8 to investigate the electronic topics and used mesh terms and concepts for searching. Log risk-ratio between both groups (N95 respirators & medical masks) with 95% confidence interval (CI), Mantel-Haenszel method as well as fixed effect model were computed. Moreover, we employed a commercial software program called Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Stata 16 for evaluating forest plots and meta-analysis. Results: Totally, we observed 27 s and topics with the potential relevance in the course of the manual and electronic searches so that three papers matched our inclusion criteria for performing a systematic review. Risk ratio equaled (RR, 0.01 95% CI 0.00, 0.02. P= 0.07), showing that using N95 respirators and medical masks did not significantly differ in preventing respiratory viral infections. Moreover, Using N95 respirators and medical masks did not significantly differ in preventing bacterial colonization (p=0.02). Conclusion: This research revealed a positive impact of both N95 respirators and medical masks for COVID-19.

8.
Jasa Express Letters ; 2(5):5, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1854216

ABSTRACT

Medical masks have become necessary of late because of the COVID-19 outbreak;however, they tend to attenuate the energy of speech signals and affect speech quality. Therefore, this study proposes an optical-based microphone approach to obtain speech signals from speakers' medical masks. Experimental results showed that the optical-based microphone approach achieved better performance (85.61%) than the two baseline approaches, namely, omnidirectional (24.17%) and directional microphones (31.65%), in the case of long-distance speech and background noise. The results suggest that the optical-based microphone method is a promising approach for acquiring speech from a medical mask. (C)& nbsp;2022 Author(s).

9.
Speech Communication ; 139:45-50, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1852085

ABSTRACT

Wearing a facemask impacts oral communication as it is both a barrier to the acoustic signal and occludes nonverbal cues such as lip movements and facial expressions. However, while past studies have suggested that these factors do not cause significant impediments to comprehension among speakers of the same first language, the current study investigates the impact facemasks have in the context of second language learners. N = 192 participants were divided into three groups of n = 64 and asked to listen to an 89 s speech. To isolate the effects of visual cues on listening comprehension, the same audio recording was used for all experimental groups. Condition One was a video of a speaker with no mask. Condition Two was a video of the same speaker wearing a mask. Condition Three was an audio recording. The significant finding was that participants in the second (masked) condition scored significantly lower on subsequent comprehension quizzes than the other two. Implications to language instruction during the COVID-19 pandemic will be discussed.& nbsp;

10.
Sep Purif Technol ; 294: 121180, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815164

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic highlighted the worldwide lack of surgical masks and personal protective equipment, which represent the main defense available against respiratory diseases as COVID-19. At the time, masks shortage was dramatic in Italy, the first European country seriously hit by the pandemic: aiming to address the emergency and to support the Italian industrial reconversion to the production of surgical masks, a multidisciplinary team of the University of Bologna organized a laboratory to test surgical masks according to European regulations. The group, driven by the expertise of chemical engineers, microbiologists, and occupational physicians, set-up the test lines to perform all the functional tests required. The laboratory started its activity on late March 2020, and as of the end of December of the same year 435 surgical mask prototypes were tested, with only 42 masks compliant to the European standard. From the analysis of the materials used, as well as of the production methods, it was found that a compliant surgical mask is most likely composed of three layers, a central meltblown filtration layer and two external spunbond comfort layers. An increase in the material thickness (grammage), or in the number of layers, does not improve the filtration efficiency, but leads to poor breathability, indicating that filtration depends not only on pure size exclusion, but other mechanisms are taking place (driven by electrostatic charge). The study critically reviewed the European standard procedures, identifying the weak aspects; among the others, the control of aerosol droplet size during the bacterial filtration test results to be crucial, since it can change the classification of a mask when its performance lies near to the limiting values of 95 or 98%.

11.
Kuwait Journal of Science ; : 14, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1812586

ABSTRACT

Wearing face masks have been implemented as a public and personal health control measure against the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). However, the protection level of non-medical face masks, such as women face veils, is still uncertain. This study aimed to assess the filtration efficiency (FE;percentage of particles retained by a mask) of different types of medical masks (either as sealed or unsealed, single or doubled), non-medical masks (cloth masks) and face veils. FE of face masks was evaluated using an in-house 3D-printed air duct connected to the Aerotrak particle counter with a capability of counting particle sizes of 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1, 2 and 5 mu m. A set of 10 earloop surgical masks,10 tie-on surgical masks, 3 triple-layers reusable cloth masks and 3 types (short, medium and long) of traditional face veils were included in the study. The unsealed surgical masks showed intermediate FE (36.54-80.58%), with no observed differences between tie-on and earloop or single and doubled masks. For each mask type, the mean FE values of sealed surgical masks (FE=99.16%) was significantly higher (P<0.001) than the unsealed ones (FE=80.58%). No significant difference was observed in the mean FE values between unsealed surgical masks and either cloth masks (FE=23.19-75.35%, P=0.26) or face veils (FE=19.10-70.68%, P=0.14). However, a mockup experiment showed that wearing a surgical mask under the face veil significantly improve the FE (33.73-79.18%;P<0.001). We conclude that besides sealed surgical masks that ensure optimal filtration under the experimental conditions, the unsealed surgical and cloth masks and face veils showed comparable performance and acceptable protection at 5 mu m particle size, which is the most relevant particle size associated with COVID-19 infectious droplets. Wearing a surgical mask under the face veil significantly improves the FE compared to wearing a face veil alone.

12.
Polym Compos ; 43(6): 3944-3950, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802552

ABSTRACT

The crucial role of face masks is highlighted in our day-to-day life during the COVID-19 pandemic. Polypropylene (PP)-based disposable face masks are widely used to hold back viral transmission. The discarded masks can create a huge burden of contamination on the environment. The purpose of this work is to recycle and reuse discarded masks to reduce environmental pollution. A simple and innovative technique to recycle surgical masks into composites of higher mechanical strength and antimicrobial properties is explored to reuse in packaging materials and cutleries. The surgical masks composed of PP fibers are recycled to use as a matrix material to reinforce with sisal and hemp fibers. The hot compression molding technique is used to sandwich the PP masks with natural fibers. The tensile strength of the composites is remarkably increased by 197% and 305% for sisal fiber composites and hemp fiber composites, respectively. The tensile elongation also increased to 574% for sisal fiber composites. The resulting composites exhibit notable antimicrobial properties against Staphylococcus aureus, a pathogen responsible for common staphylococcal food poisoning. The composites are found to be suitable to use as food contact cutleries and packaging materials.

13.
International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology ; : 38, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1799403

ABSTRACT

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine which criteria should be taken into account while choosing face masks for pandemic times and to what extent their effects are. Design/methodology/approach Nine face mask alternatives were evaluated based on the assessments of their performance with respect to twelve attributes. Seven experts were asked to evaluate the mask alternatives and the influences among attributes. In gathering expert judgments, spherical fuzzy number-based linguistic terms were utilized in the study to provide a more comprehensive representation domain to them. Findings According to the results, the most important attributes are found as material type, cost and bacteria-virus protection level. The best face mask is N95, which is followed by respirators and surgical masks. Research limitations/implications The implication of the research is to evaluate face masks in terms of criteria such as physical, performance, protection and cost to decide on what basis they were selected as a personal protective equipment (PPE) based on expert assessments. This is useful in selection of the right face mask with optimum performance and provides guidance to the general public and profession specific groups for this purpose. The face mask companies might be also benefitted from the implications of the present study in their design and research and development (R&D) operations. Originality/value The preference ranking of the face mask alternatives has not been studied in detail yet in the literature. Focusing on this issue, the present study provides a comprehensive assessment of the selection criteria of face masks in the pandemic era.

14.
Chimia ; 76(3):249-254, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1798961

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in shortages of personal protective equipment and medical devices in the initial phase. Agile small and medium-sized enterprises from regional textile industries reacted quickly. They delivered alternative products such as textile-based community masks in collaboration with industrial partners and research institutes from various sectors. The current mask materials and designs were further improved by integrating textiles with antiviral and antimicrobial properties and enhanced protection and comfort by novel textile/membrane combinations, key factors to increase the acceptance and compliance of mask wearing. The safety and sustainability of masks, as well as taking into account particular needs of vulnerable persons in our society, are new fields for textile-based innovations. These innovations developed for the next generation of facemasks have a high adaptability to other product segments, which make textiles an attractive material for hygienic applications and beyond.

15.
Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research ; 47(1):125-130, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1762167

ABSTRACT

In this study, the performance characteristics of various surgical masks have been examined. Several physical properties, such as air permeability, tensile strength, and calculated surface porosity of 8 commercial 3-layer surgical masks, with all spunbonded layers and meltblown middle layer, have been determined and then compared. The production type of the nonwoven layer is effective on the air permeability values, and the values of the spunbonded masks are found higher than the masks containing a meltblown layer. The air permeability of the latter masks varies with the weight per unit area of the meltblown layer. Moreover, calculated porosities of the spunbonded masks are higher than those of the others. The influence of meltblown layers is found effective on the tensile strength values in machine direction.

16.
Non-conventional in English | National Technical Information Service, Grey literature | ID: grc-753605

ABSTRACT

This paper addresses the question of how effective Do It Yourself (DIY) Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), i.e. face masks, are within the general population in mitigating the spread of COVID-19. It references studies comparing the effectiveness of various materials in DIY masks alongside surgical masks and respirators. This is associated with the Department of Defenses COVID-19 announcement for all Total Force members (military personnel, civilian employees, contractors and their family members) to wear a cloth face covering in public settings where social-physical distancing measures are difficult to maintain, especially in areas of significant community-based transmission. Studies have shown that holistically given a variety of factors that are discussed in depth in this paper a single layer pillowcase or a 100% cotton t-shirt are the most suitable household materials for an improvised (DIY) face mask. This is due to their breathability, fit factor, and their ability to reduce viral particle transmission by up to 50%. In general, using any type of face mask can decrease viral transmission. However, it is important not to focus on a single intervention in the case of a pandemic, but rather to integrate all effective interventions for optimal protection.3 A DIY face mask will not completely eliminate the possibility of infection with COVID-19, particularly given that there are multiple routes of transmission. But the underlying consensus of all research suggests that DIY cloth facemasks are better than nothing at all. It is vital to note that all DIY face masks, regardless of the efficiency of their filtration or seal, will only have partial effectiveness on their own. They must be used in conjunction with other preventative measures, which include: isolation of infected individuals, immunization, maintaining healthy eating/fitness standards, cough and respiratory etiquette, and regular hand hygiene. 2,3,8,14

17.
Front Physiol ; 13: 808588, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731815

ABSTRACT

A large variety of disposable face masks have been produced since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Decreased resistance to inspiration improves adherence to the use of the mask; the so called breathability is usually estimated by the measurement of air flow across a section of the tissue under a given pressure difference. We hypothesized that the mask pressure-flow relationship studied in conditions that mimic tidal breathing could allow a more comprehensive characterization of airflow resistance, a major determinant of mask comfort. A physical analog was made of a plaster cast dummy head connected through a pneumotachograph to a series of bellows inflated/deflated by a respirator. Pressure was measured at the mock airway opening over which the mask was carefully secured. The precision of the measurement equipment was quantified using two estimates of measurement error: repeatability coefficient (RC) and within-mask coefficient of variation (CVwm). The airflow resistance of 10 surgical masks was tested on 4 different days. Resistance means did not differ significantly among four repeated measures (0.34 hPa.s.L-1; 0.37 hPa.s.L-1; 0.37 hPa.s.L-1; and 0.37 hPa.s.L-1; p = 0.08), the estimated RC was 0.08 hPa.s.L-1 [95%CI: 0.06-0.10 hPa.s.L-1], and CVwm was 8.7% [95%CI: 1.5-12.2%]. Multiple comparisons suggest the presence of a learning effect by which the operator reduced the error over the course of repetitive resistance measurements. Measurement precision improved considerably when the first set of measures was not taken into account [RC ~ 0.05 hPa.s.L-1 (95%CI: 0.03-0.06 hPa.s.L-1); CVwm~4.5% (95%CI: 1.9-6.1%)]. The testing of the face mask resistance (R) appears simple and highly repeatable in conditions that resemble tidal breathing, once operator training was assured. The procedure adds further to the current standard assessment of breathability and allows estimating the maximal added respiratory load, about 10-20% of the respiratory resistance reported in heathy adult subjects.

18.
Polimery ; 66(11-12):574-583, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1701945

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has increased the need for personal protective equipment (PPE), especially for medical personnel: face masks, full protective clothing, gloves and goggles. To date, they are usually made of thermoplastic polymers, such as polypropylene (PP). To reduce the risk of secondary infections it is essential to enhance the antimicrobial (especially antibacterial and antiviral) properties of the materials used in PPE. There are some attempts to modify materials by, for example, silver nanoparticles or zinc oxides. The increasing demand for personal protective equipment, mostly masks, leads to an increase of environmental problem of non-biodegradable wastes. Therefore some researches on use of safer for user's health sustainable antimicrobial and biodegradable biopolymer fibers, such as cellulose, starch, chitosan, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) or poly(glycolic acid) (PGA), have been done. These biopolymers and their properties are discussed in this article.

19.
AHFE International Conferences on Safety Management and Human Factors, and Human Error, Reliability, Resilience, and Performance, 2021 ; 262 LNNS:169-177, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1669688

ABSTRACT

With the worldwide spread of the COVID-19 virus in early 2020, shortages of surgical masks and filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) masks became a critical problem. European governments recommended that civilians should not use these masks so that the shortages in the hospitals would be minimised. In Europe, civilians were instead advised to wear community face coverings. In June 2020, the European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) published CWA 17553:2020 [1–3] which formalised minimum requirements, methods of testing and use of community face coverings. The CWA 17553 is presently only a recommendation, and not an official standard such as the EN14683 standard for surgical masks or the EN149 standard for filtering facepiece respirators. Because there are different performance requirements for these three different classes of masks, it makes comparing their performance challenging. In this work, we perform particulate filtration efficiency measurement, total inward leakage measurement and breathability measurement on a range of surgical masks, filtering facepiece respirators and community face coverings. This analysis provides a useful comparison between material performance and the effectiveness of a mask’s design which is manufactured from this material. © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021.

20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(1): 284-292, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594192

ABSTRACT

The demand of wet wipes and masks has been rising worldwide since the outbreak of global COVID-19; however, with more reports about improper handling of wipes and masks, their potential threats to the environment are gradually emerging. Wipes and masks are made of a large number of plastic fibers, which are easily broken and fragmented into microplastic fibers under the influence of environmental factors. Weathered wipes or masks can release billions of microplastic fibers, which is a great challenge to the local ecological security. Wipes and masks as new microplastic pollution sources and their potential role in the ecosystem have not been fully recognized and considered. Microplastic fiber pollution is a huge environmental issue, and how to prevent a large number of discarded wipes and masks from entering the environment and how to deal with them are an important issue for all countries and regions in the world. In the post era of global COVID-19, disposable wipes and masks, as new sources of environmental microplastic fiber pollution, should be given concern. It is urgent to recognize this potential environmental threat and prevent it from becoming the next microplastic problem.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Ecosystem , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Masks , Microplastics , Plastics , SARS-CoV-2 , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
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