Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.888
Filter
1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884448

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are considered to be the most beneficial means for combating the COVID-19 pandemic. Although vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have demonstrated excellent safety profiles in clinical trials, real-world surveillance of post-vaccination side effects is an impetus. The study investigates the short-term side effects following the administration of the Pfizer-BioNTech and Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted among the general population with age ≥ 18 years, from five regions (Central, Northern, Eastern, Southern, and Western Regions) of Saudi Arabia for a period of 6 months (July to December 2021). A self-administered study instrument was used to record the side effects among the COVID-19 vaccine recipients. Of the total 398 participants (males: 59%), 56.3% received Pfizer and 43.7% were vaccinated with AstraZeneca. Only 22.6% of respondents received the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccines. The most commonly reported side effects were pain at the injection site (85.2%), fatigue (61.8%), bone or joint pain (54.0%), and fever (42.5%). The average side effects score was 3.4 ± 2.2. Females, young people, and Oxford-AstraZeneca recipients had a higher proportion of side effects. The Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine recipients complained more about fever (p < 0.001), bone and joint pain (p < 0.001), fatigue (p < 0.001), loss of appetite (p = 0.001), headache (p = 0.008), and drowsiness (p = 0.003). The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccinees had more pain and swelling at the injection site (p = 0.001), and sexual disturbance (p = 0.019). The study participants also reported some rare symptoms (<10%) including heaviness, sleep disturbance, fainting, blurred vision, palpitations, osteomalacia, and inability to concentrate. This study revealed that both Pfizer-BioNTech and Oxford-AstraZeneca administration was associated with mild to moderate, transient, short-lived side effects. These symptoms corroborate the results of phase 3 clinical trials of these vaccines. The results could be used to inform people about the likelihood of side effects based on their demographics and the type of vaccine administered. The study reported some rare symptoms that require further validation through more pharmacovigilance or qualitative studies.

2.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884382

ABSTRACT

In this report, we describe a national-scale monitoring of the SARS-CoV-2 (SC-2) variant dynamics in Israel, using multiple-time sampling of 13 wastewater treatment plants. We used a combination of inclusive and selective quantitative PCR assays that specifically identify variants A19/A20 or B.1.1.7 and tested each sample for the presence and relative viral RNA load of each variant. We show that between December 2020 and March 2021, a complete shift in the SC-2 variant circulation was observed, where the B.1.1.7 replaced the A19 in all examined test points. We further show that the normalized viral load (NVL) values and the average new cases per week reached a peak in January 2021 and then decreased gradually in almost all test points, in parallel with the progression of the national vaccination campaign, during February-March 2021. This study demonstrates the importance of monitoring SC-2 variant by using a combination of inclusive and selective PCR tests on a national scale through wastewater sampling, which is far more amendable for high-throughput monitoring compared with sequencing. This approach may be useful for real-time dynamics surveillance of current and future variants, such as the Omicron (BA.1, BA.2) and other variants.

3.
Big Data & Society ; 9(1):12, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1883490

ABSTRACT

During the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, a wide range of digital technologies and data analytics have been incorporated into pandemic response models globally, in the hope of better detecting, tracking, monitoring and containing outbreaks. This increased digital involvement in disease control has offered the prospect of heightened effectiveness in all of the above, but not without raising other concerns. This paper contributes to ongoing discussions of the digital transformation in disease control by proposing a materialist analysis of how such control has become operative and what its effects may be, both now and in the future. Using Taiwan's digital pandemic response as a case study, the paper explores specific ways in which material processes and arrangements have shaped digital measures, as well as the actions that rendered such measures operable, with their ensuing consequences. This analysis illustrates the importance of historical, material and technological specificities and contingencies to our understanding of how digital disease control takes a particular shape. It also demonstrates how shifting regimes of practice continually reconfigure the ways in which digital disease control functions. The paper argues that paying greater attention to the materialities of digital disease control can provide a more nuanced understanding of the complex ways in which society may be protected or harmed by its use, possibly simultaneously. It is hoped that such increased attentiveness may inform more considered and careful preparation for subsequent pandemics.

4.
Revue internationale du Travail ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in French | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1883202

ABSTRACT

Résumé Les autrices s'intéressent aux outils de suivi des contacts et autres dispositifs de surveillance utilisés par les employeurs pendant la pandémie. Elles se demandent s'ils sont bien compatibles avec les dispositions du Règlement général sur la protection des données de l'Union européenne. Rappelant que la relation de travail est par nature déséquilibrée, elles estiment que les législations nationales devraient mieux protéger le droit des salariés de refuser ces systèmes une fois la pandémie passée. En outre, quand la sécurité des travailleurs ne dépendra plus de ces outils, il faudra compléter les règles et orientations existantes pour éviter l'utilisation des informations collectées à mauvais escient.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 4): 156580, 2022 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882501

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has proven to be a useful surveillance tool during the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, and has driven research into evaluating the most reliable and cost-effective techniques for obtaining a representative sample of wastewater. When liquid samples cannot be taken efficiently, passive sampling approaches have been used, however, insufficient data exists on their usefulness for multi-virus capture and recovery. In this study, we compared the virus-binding capacity of two passive samplers (cotton-based tampons and ion exchange filter papers) in two different water types (deionised water and wastewater). Here we focused on the capture of wastewater-associated viruses including Influenza A and B (Flu-A & B), SARS-CoV-2, human adenovirus (AdV), norovirus GII (NoVGII), measles virus (MeV), pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), the faecal marker crAssphage and the process control virus Pseudomonas virus phi6. After deployment, we evaluated four different methods to recover viruses from the passive samplers namely, (i) phosphate buffered saline (PBS) elution followed by polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation, (ii) beef extract (BE) elution followed by PEG precipitation, (iii) no-elution into PEG precipitation, and (iv) direct extraction. We found that the tampon-based passive samplers had higher viral recoveries in comparison to the filter paper. Overall, the preferred viral recovery method from the tampon passive samplers was the no-elution/PEG precipitation method. Furthermore, we evidenced that non-enveloped viruses had higher percent recoveries from the passive samplers than enveloped viruses. This is the first study of its kind to assess passive sampler and viral recovery methods amongst a plethora of viruses commonly found in wastewater or used as a viral surrogate in wastewater studies.

6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882081

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Northern Syria faces a large burden of influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory illness (SARI). This study aims to investigate trends of Early Warning and Response Network (EWARN) reported ILI and SARI in northern Syria between 2016-2021 and the potential impact of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We extracted weekly EWARN data on ILI/ SARI and aggregated cases and consultations into 4-week intervals to calculate case positivity. We conducted a seasonal-trend decomposition to assess case trends in the presence of seasonal fluctuations. RESULTS: 4-week aggregates of ILI cases (n=5,942,012), SARI cases (n=114,939), ILI case positivity, and SARI case positivity exhibited seasonal fluctuations with peaks in winter months. ILI and SARI cases in individuals ≥5 years old surpassed those in individuals <5 years old in late 2019. ILI cases clustered primarily in Aleppo and Idlib whereas SARI cases clustered in Aleppo, Idlib, Deir Ezzor, and Hassakeh. SARI cases increased sharply in 2021, corresponding with a severe SARS CoV-2 wave, compared to the steady rise in ILI cases over time. CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory infections cause widespread morbidity and mortality throughout northern Syria, particularly with the emergence of SARS-CoV-2. Strengthened surveillance and access to testing and treatment are critical to manage outbreaks among conflict-affected populations.

7.
Springer Protocol. Handb. ; : v, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1881002
8.
New Zealand Journal of Medical Laboratory Science ; 75(3):229-233, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880998
9.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):302, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880962

ABSTRACT

Background: Spain has been one of the main epicenters for Covid-19 in Europe. The country is divided into 17 Autonomous Communities (AC) and two Autonomous Cities (ACi). This study aims to describe the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in Spain across 3 study periods established from the beginning of the pandemic to the third epidemiologic wave, after analyzing genomes from all AC/ACi from February 2020 to March 2021. Methods: All 14,256 available partial and complete Spanish SARS-CoV-2 human genomic sequences deposited in the GISAID repository (https://www. gisaid.org/) until 21 March 2021 were downloaded in nucleotides and classified according to the AC/ACi and to the epidemiological week by collection date. The sequences were assigned to the genetic lineages according to Pangolin COVID-19 Lineage Assigner (https://pangolin.cog-uk.io/). Epiweeks were grouped into three main periods adjusted to the Spanish epidemic curve, as informed in the National Epidemiological Surveillance Network (RENAVE, https://cnecovid.isciii. es). The first period comprised from the beginning of the pandemic to the end of the first state of emergency (June 2020). The second period included the second epidemic wave (June-December 2020), and the third period covered the third wave (December 2020-March 2021). Only AC with at least 10 sequences for each period were described in the results. The two ACi were considered together. Results: Before the national lockdown (14 March 2020), 11 SARS-CoV-2 lineages were circulating in Spain with A.2 lineage predominance. During the lockdown the SARS-CoV-2 variant diversity increased, decreasing during the confinement. During this period, B.1 was the main circulating variant. During summer 2020, B.1.177 became the main circulating variant. The third wave was characterized by the introduction and fast spread of the B.1.1.7 or Alpha Variant of Concern. Conclusion: The reduction of diversity during the lockdown suggests this measure was effective in reducing the import of SARS-CoV-2 lineages. After the opening of borders within Europe during summer 2020, the variant diversity increased again and B.1.177 became the predominant variant, suggesting that despite the efforts to avoid SARS-CoV-2 spread between countries, travel restrictions during summer 2020 were not sufficient to control viral spreading. The variant distribution was heterogeneous among the AC and periods, reflecting different incidence and sequencing capacities across AC.

10.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):332, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880879

ABSTRACT

Background: Reliable serologic assays are needed to accurately measure prevalence of prior exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, several countries in Africa have reported apparent SARS-CoV-2 assay cross-reactivity with other non-coronavirus pathogens. We used 3 SARS-CoV-2 serologic assays to assess positivity in archived serum specimens collected in Zambia prior to the COVID-19 pandemic and explored seropositivity associations with participant characteristics. Methods: SARS-CoV-2 antibody seropositivity was measured using serum specimens collected from pregnant women aged 15-49 years enrolled in an HIV and syphilis sentinel surveillance study in 26 sites across Zambia during 2017-2018. Of 9,508 participants with archived specimens, 1,500 (16%) were selected using stratified random sampling (by study site). SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence was measured using the Panbio IgM/IgG lateral flow assay, Euroimmun spike IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the Wantai pan-Ig ELISA. HIV and syphilis testing followed the national testing algorithms. We compared age group and HIV and syphilis status with SARS-CoV-2 antibody seropositivity using chi-square test. Results: Among the 1,500 female participants, 1,297 (86%) had specimens available for testing. Participants' median age was 25 years (interquartile range: 21-30 years). HIV and syphilis prevalence were 16% and 6%, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 antibody seropositivity was 14% on the Panbio assay, 7% on the Euroimmun assay, and 2% on the Wantai assay. There was no concordance of positive results between the 3 assays, and no association between SARS-CoV-2 antibody seropositivity and age group, HIV status, or syphilis status on all 3 assays (p>0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusion: Three SARS-CoV-2 serologic assays showed antibody positivity in pre-pandemic specimens, possibly indicating cross-reactivity with antibodies to other coronaviruses or other non-coronavirus pathogens. Panbio and Euroimmun assays yielded more false positives than would be expected based on manufacturer-reported specificities. Although there was no association of SARS-CoV-2 antibody seropositivity with HIV or syphilis, testing for other pathogens could provide information about the identities of cross-reacting antibodies with these assays. Assessing for virus neutralizing capability of cross-reacting antibodies in SARS-Cov-2 antibody positive specimens could provide information about possible pre-existing SARS-CoV-2 immunity.

11.
Qual Quant ; : 1-23, 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881508

ABSTRACT

The still ongoing pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 virus and COVID-19 disease, affecting the population worldwide, has demonstrated the need of more accurate methodologies for assessing, monitoring, and controlling an outbreak of such devastating proportions. Authoritative attempts have been made in traditional fields of medicine (epidemiology, virology, infectiology) to address these shortcomings, mainly by relying on mathematical and statistical modeling. However, here, we propose approaching the methodological work from a different, and to some extent alternative, standpoint. Applied systematically, the concepts and tools of statistical engineering and quality management, developed not only in healthcare settings, but also in other scientific contexts, can be very useful in assessing, monitoring, and controlling pandemic events. We propose a methodology based on a set of tools and techniques, formulas, graphs, and tables to support the decision-making concerning the management of a pandemic like COVID-19. This methodological body is hereby named Pandemetrics. This name intends to emphasize the peculiarity of our approach to measuring, and graphically presenting the unique context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

12.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(6): e37377, 2022 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 is more transmissible than prior variants of concern (VOCs). It has caused the largest outbreaks in the pandemic, with increases in mortality and hospitalizations. Early data on the spread of Omicron were captured in countries with relatively low case counts, so it was unclear how the arrival of Omicron would impact the trajectory of the pandemic in countries already experiencing high levels of community transmission of Delta. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to quantify and explain the impact of Omicron on pandemic trajectories and how they differ between countries that were or were not in a Delta outbreak at the time Omicron occurred. METHODS: We used SARS-CoV-2 surveillance and genetic sequence data to classify countries into 2 groups: those that were in a Delta outbreak (defined by at least 10 novel daily transmissions per 100,000 population) when Omicron was first sequenced in the country and those that were not. We used trend analysis, survival curves, and dynamic panel regression models to compare outbreaks in the 2 groups over the period from November 1, 2021, to February 11, 2022. We summarized the outbreaks in terms of their peak rate of SARS-CoV-2 infections and the duration of time the outbreaks took to reach the peak rate. RESULTS: Countries that were already in an outbreak with predominantly Delta lineages when Omicron arrived took longer to reach their peak rate and saw greater than a twofold increase (2.04) in the average apex of the Omicron outbreak compared to countries that were not yet in an outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that high community transmission of Delta at the time of the first detection of Omicron was not protective, but rather preluded larger outbreaks in those countries. Outbreak status may reflect a generally susceptible population, due to overlapping factors, including climate, policy, and individual behavior. In the absence of strong mitigation measures, arrival of a new, more transmissible variant in these countries is therefore more likely to lead to larger outbreaks. Alternately, countries with enhanced surveillance programs and incentives may be more likely to both exist in an outbreak status and detect more cases during an outbreak, resulting in a spurious relationship. Either way, these data argue against herd immunity mitigating future outbreaks with variants that have undergone significant antigenic shifts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health Surveillance/methods
13.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):3-4, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880298

ABSTRACT

The HIV epidemic in Latin America remains concentrated in large urban centers, with vulnerable populations suffering the highest burden, particularly MSM and transgender women. In the last 10 years, the number of new HIV infections remained high and stable, and although ART coverage led to a significant decrease in AIDS-related mortality, the decrease was lower in Latin America when compared to the other regions. Brazil accounts for more than one-third of the HIV burden of the region. It was the first low-/middle-income country to provide access to universal treatment to individuals living with HIV. Brazil's actions towards the AIDS crisis assumed a human rights-based approach, integrating both prevention and treatment efforts into its universal health care system. Brazil's civil society organizations play a crucial role in shaping the initial and ongoing response. Since 2014, a "Treat All" policy of providing antiretroviral treatment in addition to comprehensive services including HIV testing and laboratory monitoring, and pre-exposure prophylaxis has been in place. The impact of the policies on people living with HIV resulted in an improved quality of life and a decline in overall morbidity and mortality. Nonetheless, important challenges remain, including a high and stable HIV incidence among key populations, and a high prevalence of late treatment initiation and of early mortality from AIDS causes, impacting the multiple steps of the continuum of care. This presentation will (a) present recent epidemiologic data on the HIV epidemic in Latin America, (b) describe and detail the characteristics of the Brazilian response to the HIV epidemic and the current status of the epidemic in Brazil, and (c) share Brazil's contribution to cutting edge AIDS research and its impact on public health policies. The latter will focus on how the data emanating from research efforts have contributed to major innovations for the HIV prevention and care agenda. Areas highlighted include pMTCT, tuberculosis, ART strategies for treatment and prevention including pre-exposure prophylaxis, and vulnerable populations, particularly young MSM and transgender women, HPV, reproductive health, and COVID-19. These research advances were only made possible through close engagement with the community. It is through this strong community engagement that we aim to reduce stigma and discrimination while promoting human rights.

16.
Central European Public Administration Review ; 20(1):7-32,167-168, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1879700

ABSTRACT

Namen: Primarni cilj predmetne raziskave je identifikacija temeljnih orodij in omejitev pri varstvu zasebnosti in osebnih podatkov v Evropski uniji in na Kitajskem, tj. dveh bistveno različnih kulturnih sistemih. Prek družbeno-kulturne analize pravne regulacije, družbenih trendov in ekspertnih ocen je namen raziskave preučiti, ali so standardi varstva zasebnosti npr. po GDPR, ki velja v EU, dovolj trdni tudi v digitalni dobi. Predmet analize sta različni kulturni okolji, da se spozna njun vpliv na praktično delovanje v povezavi z demokratičnimi varovali pri uveljavljanju pravic zasebnosti v EU v primerjavi s Kitajsko. To se dosega s primerjavo družbenega nadzora in družbeno kreditnega sistema na Kitajskem. Zasnova/Metodologija/Pristop: Glede na upravnopravni kontekst je uporabljen kombiniran kvalitativni pristop, ki vključuje normativno-dogmatično metodo, analizo literature, sociološko in zgodovinsko metodo, ekspertni intervju, primerjalno in aksiološko metodo. Ugotovitve: Rezultati tako teoretičnega kot empiričnega dela raziskave kažejo, da je strožji pravni red v EU kot na Kitajskem, v smislu doslednejšega zagotavljanja zasebnosti in varstva osebnih podatkov ter transparentnosti, mogoče pripisati demokratičnemu varstvu človekovih pravic in določnejšim predpisom, zlasti GDPR. Te razlike bi lahko v prihodnje še povečale obstoječo vrzel, kar nedvomno spodbuja nadaljnje znanstveno in praktično preučevanje. Avtorja ugotavljata, da mora oblast aktivno zagotavljati pravice do zasebnosti in varstva osebnih podatkov, sicer učinkovitost vladanja vodi v družbo popolnega nadzora in propad posameznikove svobode kot civilizacijske pridobitve. Akademski prispevek k znanstvenem področju: Raziskava pomeni prispevek k upravnopravni znanosti, saj obravnava enega ključnih konceptov sodobnega javnega upravljanja, to je trk načel učinkovitosti in transparentnosti ter zasebnosti. Prek uporabe znanstvenih metod se omogoča nadaljnje primerjave v prostoru in času. Vpliv v praksi: Članek prinaša strnjen pregled relevantne literature in analizo predpisov, ki so temelj za izvajanje zakonodaje, njeno vrednotenje in izboljšave, zlasti ob razvoju IKT, npr. v obdobju pandemije covida-19. Izvirnost/Vrednost: Članek premošča vrzel, ki nastaja zaradi razlik v pojmovanju zasebnosti in javnega upravljanja na tem področju v EU in na Kitajskem, ki izhajajo iz kulturnih razlik. Običajne splošnejše ali le na pravo ali tehnologije oprte analize so nadgrajene s kombinacijo različnih metod raziskovanja.Alternate :Purpose: The primary objective of the present research is to identify the basic tools and restrictions concerning the protection of privacy and personal data in the EU and China as two fundamentally different cultural systems. Based on the socio-cultural analysis of backgrounds, trends and expert assessments, the research aims to examine whether privacy protection standards, such as those provided by the GDPR in the EU, are sufficiently robust to endure the digital age. Two different cultural frameworks have been analysed in order to understand their influence on practical behaviours regarding the democratic safeguards in privacy rights enforcement in the EU compared with China. This is accomplished by comparing social control in the Eu and the social credit system in China. Design/Methodology/Approach: Considering the administrative context, a combined qualitative approach is applied, including normative and dogmatic methods, literature analysis, sociological and historical methods, expert interviews, and comparative and axiological methods. Findings: The results of both theoretical and empirical parts of the research suggest that the stricter regulation in the EU compared to China - in the sense of more consistent protection of privacy and personal data as well as transparency rights - can be attributed to its democratic protection of human rights and more definitive regulations, particularly the GDPR. These major differences seem to create an even deeper gap in the future, to be explored sci ntifically and in practice. The authors conclude that authorities must actively guarantee the rights related to privacy and personal data protection, or else effective governance will lead to a surveillance society and erosion of individuals' freedom as a valuable civilizational asset. Academic contribution to the field: The research contributes to administrative science by addressing one of the key concepts of modern public governance, namely the collision between the principles of effectiveness and transparency on the one hand and privacy on the other. The use of scientific methods paves the way for further comparisons. Practical Implications: The article provides a concise overview of the relevant literature and an analysis of the rules that underpin the implementation, evaluation and improvement of regulations, especially in the light of ICT development, e.g. in times of the Covid-19 pandemic. Originality/Value: The paper bridges the gap created by the differences in the understanding of privacy and public governance in the field in the EU and China based on cultural differences. The usual general or merely law- or technology-based analyses are upgraded with a combination of various research methods.

17.
Ain - Shams Journal of Anesthesiology ; 14(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1879271

ABSTRACT

BackgroundAcute hypoxemic respiratory failure is the most common complication of COVID 19 infection. Newer ways for oxygen therapy were explored during this pandemic. High flow nasal oxygenation (HFNO) emerged as a novel technique for oxygenation and prevented the need for invasive mechanical ventilation during hypoxia among COVID patients. Using high flow oxygen dries the nasal mucosa and leads to skin disruption. We are presenting this case as this complication has not been reported anywhere to our knowledge.Case presentationHere we present a case of a 62-year-old male, who was on HFNO for a long time as a part of treatment for COVID 19 and developed ulceration in the nasal septa. Patient belonged to a geriatric age group and had diabetes mellitus. Close monitoring by ICU (intensive care unit) staff was a big problem during this pandemic. Daily physical assessment, good nutrition, and daily dressing with plastic surgery consultation helped treat our patient.ConclusionsGeriatric patients with other co-morbidities are vulnerable to mucosal injury. Even in COVID era, everyday general physical surveillance is very vital in such patients to prevent these complications. During this pandemic close monitoring of patients suffered due to scarcity of ICU staff. In spite of that, it is a must to ensure daily physical surveillance and good supplemental nutrition especially in geriatric patients.

18.
Medwave ; 22(5): e8741, 2022 Jun 02.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879617

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, the first version of EPIVIGILA was deployed in a productive environment a few days after the first local case of COVID- 19. This system is a technological integration plat-form for national epidemiological surveillance of notifiable diseases. Previously, Chile used a manual process that would probably have failed with a peak volume of more than 38 000 daily notifications; in a country with 18 million inhabitants, long and narrow geography, and centralized governance. This work highlights the importance of the national electronic surveillance system EPIVIGILA in managing the pandemic. The systems main strength is its ability to adapt to the needs of reliable, precise, timely, and real- time information. EPIVIGILA was able to include, under the circumstances, different flows, actors, data, and functionalities with high expectations of accuracy. This valuable information allowed the authorities to assess the impact of the measures to manage and control the pandemic. Its versatility positions this platform among the few globally that operates national data with a high level of granularity in a single system through a pandemic. In Chile, EPIVIGILA is the primary source of information for daily reports, epidemiological reports, and data published on government websites about COVID- 19. Thus, electronic systems prove fundamental for public health because the recording and processing of data generate clear, reliable, and timely information, helping authorities make decisions to reduce the spread of infectious diseases, prevent deaths, and improve the populations quality of life.


En marzo 2020 se despliega la primera versión de EPIVIGILA en un ambiente productivo, plataforma de integración tecnológica de vigilancia epidemiológica nacional para enfermedades de notificación obligatoria (a pocos días del caso 1 de COVID- 19 local). Anteriormente, Chile usaba un proceso manual que probablemente hubiese fracasado ante un volumen máximo superior a 38 000 notificaciones diarias, en un país con 18 millones de habitantes, de geografía larga y angosta y gobernanza centralizada. El objetivo del trabajo es relevar la importancia que tiene en el manejo de la pandemia el sistema nacional de vigilancia electrónico EPIVIGILA. La principal fortaleza del sistema es su capacidad de adaptación a las necesidades de información fidedigna, precisa, oportuna y en tiempo real. EPIVIGILA fue capaz de incluir, en el curso de las circunstancias, distintos flujos, actores, datos y funcionalidades con altas expectativas de exactitud. Ello permitió que las autoridades pudieran evaluar el impacto de las medidas implementadas para el manejo y control de la pandemia. Su versatilidad posiciona a esta plataforma entre las pocas en el mundo que opera datos nacionales en una pandemia con un alto nivel de granularidad en un único sistema. En Chile, EPIVIGILA es la principal fuente de información para los reportes diarios, informes epidemiológicos y datos publicados en sitios web gubernamentales sobre COVID- 19. Así, el uso de sistemas electrónicos muestran ser un soporte fundamental para la salud pública, porque el registro y procesamiento de los datos genera información clara, confiable y oportuna, contribuyendo a que las autoridades puedan tomar decisiones orientadas a disminuir la propagación de enfermedades transmisibles, evitar muertes y mejorar la calidad de vida de la población.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
19.
JMIR Form Res ; 6(6): e37858, 2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Public health scientists have used spatial tools such as web-based Geographical Information System (GIS) applications to monitor and forecast the progression of the COVID-19 pandemic and track the impact of their interventions. The ability to track SARS-CoV-2 variants and incorporate the social determinants of health with street-level granularity can facilitate the identification of local outbreaks, highlight variant-specific geospatial epidemiology, and inform effective interventions. We developed a novel dashboard, the University of Massachusetts' Graphical user interface for Geographic Information (MAGGI) variant tracking system that combines GIS, health-associated sociodemographic data, and viral genomic data to visualize the spatiotemporal incidence of SARS-CoV-2 variants with street-level resolution while safeguarding protected health information. The specificity and richness of the dashboard enhance the local understanding of variant introductions and transmissions so that appropriate public health strategies can be devised and evaluated. OBJECTIVE: We developed a web-based dashboard that simultaneously visualizes the geographic distribution of SARS-CoV-2 variants in Central Massachusetts, the social determinants of health, and vaccination data to support public health efforts to locally mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: MAGGI uses a server-client model-based system, enabling users to access data and visualizations via an encrypted web browser, thus securing patient health information. We integrated data from electronic medical records, SARS-CoV-2 genomic analysis, and public health resources. We developed the following functionalities into MAGGI: spatial and temporal selection capability by zip codes of interest, the detection of variant clusters, and a tool to display variant distribution by the social determinants of health. MAGGI was built on the Environmental Systems Research Institute ecosystem and is readily adaptable to monitor other infectious diseases and their variants in real-time. RESULTS: We created a geo-referenced database and added sociodemographic and viral genomic data to the ArcGIS dashboard that interactively displays Central Massachusetts' spatiotemporal variants distribution. Genomic epidemiologists and public health officials use MAGGI to show the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 genomic variants at high geographic resolution and refine the display by selecting a combination of data features such as variant subtype, subject zip codes, or date of COVID-19-positive sample collection. Furthermore, they use it to scale time and space to visualize association patterns between socioeconomics, social vulnerability based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's social vulnerability index, and vaccination rates. We launched the system at the University of Massachusetts Chan Medical School to support internal research projects starting in March 2021. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a COVID-19 variant surveillance dashboard to advance our geospatial technologies to study SARS-CoV-2 variants transmission dynamics. This real-time, GIS-based tool exemplifies how spatial informatics can support public health officials, genomics epidemiologists, infectious disease specialists, and other researchers to track and study the spread patterns of SARS-CoV-2 variants in our communities.

20.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 46(3): 401-406, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878979

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we describe the design and baseline data of a study aimed at improving injury surveillance data quality of hospitals contributing to the Victorian Emergency Minimum Dataset (VEMD). METHODS: The sequential study phases include a baseline analysis of data quality, direct engagement and communication with each of the emergency department (ED) hospital sites, collection of survey and interview data and ongoing monitoring. RESULTS: In 2019/20, there were 371,683 injury-related ED presentations recorded in the VEMD. Percentage unspecified, the indicator of (poor) data quality, was lowest for 'body region' (2.7%) and 'injury type' (7.4%), and highest for 'activity when injured' (29.4%). In the latter, contributing hospitals ranged from 3.0-99.9% unspecified. The 'description of event' variable had a mean word count of 10; 16/38 hospitals had a narrative word count of <5. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline hospital injury surveillance data vary vastly in data quality, leaving much room for improvement and justifying intervention as described. IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH: Hospital engagement and feedback described in this study is expected to have a marked effect on data quality from 2021 onwards. This will ensure that Victorian injury surveillance data can fulfil their purpose to accurately inform injury prevention policy and practice.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitals , Data Accuracy , Data Collection , Humans
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL