Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 453
Filter
1.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-886-S-887, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967382

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing public health crisis that has sickened or precipitated death in millions. The etiologic agent of COVID-19, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), infects the intestinal epithelium and can persist long after the respiratory infection has cleared. We previously observed that intestinal SARS-CoV-2 infection levels varied by individual donors and did not correlate positively with ACE2, the cognate SARS-CoV-2 receptor. Therefore we aimed to delineate host factors that influence viral infection in the intestine. Methods: Published dataset GSE75214 was downloaded and expression levels of select genes were querried. Primary human ileal spheroids (enteroids), derived from healthy donors and patients with Crohn's disease (CD), were grown on 2D transwells until confluent. Cells were differentiated for 3d before infection with a modified vesicular stomatitis virus expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (VSV-SARS-CoV-2) and GFP for 1h at a multiplicity of infection of ~0.5. Cells were harvested pre-infection and 24h after infection and expression of select genes was performed by qRT-PCR. Expression data were fit to a linear regression model to predict viral RNA levels. Results: Small intestine biopsy samples from CD patients demonstrated a reduction in ACE and an increase in CTSB and CTSL expression during active inflammation compared to healthy controls. Viral RNA expression did not correlate with ACE2 expression in CD enteroids. A subset of CD enteroids exhibited enhanced protease expression (TMPRSS2, TMPRSS4, CTSL), each of which correlated with higher viral RNA levels (P=0.04, P=0.002, P=0.006, respectively). Expression of these proteases was higher in the pre-infection for the sample subset. Principle component analysis of uninfected expression data demonstrated these samples clustered separately from the others, with the difference driven by TMPRSS2, TMPRSS4, and CTSL. Modeling viral RNA levels based on gene expression revealed expression levels of these proteases are a predictive expression signature. Conclusions: Host protease expression can predict SARS-CoV-2 infection and represent potential therapeutic targets for COVID-19. This is consistent with the recent report showing that cathepsin inhibition reduces SARS-CoV-2 spike-mediated syncytia formation. High expression of these proteases in the intestine may also be a novel biomarker for the risk of intestinal complications associated with COVID-19.(Figure Presented)RNA data from dataset GSE75214 demonstrating reduced ACE2 and increased CTSB and CTSL in patients with Crohn's disease during active inflammation compared to healthy controls. (Figure Presented) Enteroids from healthy control donors and patients with Crohn's disease were grown in 2D transwells and expression of indicated genes was assessed in pre-infection (A) and after infection with VSV-SARS-CoV-2 (B)

2.
Kawasaki Medical Journal ; 48(33-37):33-37, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1964599

ABSTRACT

Dialysis patients are compromised hosts;thus, they might become even more seriously ill in the case of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2). A man in his 50s under maintenance dialysis was accidentally a close contact of someone with SARS-COV-2 infection. Therefore, he received the PCR test for SARS-COV-2 three days a week at the time of his visit to our hospital for his hemodialysis session. He was admitted the day after the result of the PCR test was positive. This patient belongs to a high-risk group with severe illnesses, including the fact that he had not been vaccinated against SARS-COV-2. He received antibody cocktail therapy (casirivimab/imdevimab) on the day he was hospitalized. As a result, he escaped aggravation of COVID-19. This case suggests the important of early diagnosis and early treatment with this cocktail therapy for prevention of aggravation of COVID19 in high-risk hemodialysis patients.

3.
Sociologica ; 15(1):67, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1964501

ABSTRACT

From extreme weather to infectious disease, disasters now arrive in ever more rapid succession, combining with and compounding one another with increasing complexity and potential for crisis. In this context I suggest a particularly important site for analysis and intervention: the chronic lack of affordable housing and broader processes of exclusion now prevalent in cities around the world. These dynamics, I argue, help drive increasing movement to and development in interface zones between urban, rural, and undeveloped areas. In so doing, they also are implicated in a range of "exurban disasters", including wildfires and infectious disease, and in the broader crises these disasters generate for vulnerable populations. The article develops this relational argument across three moments. First, I posit contemporary dynamics of housing crisis and urban exclusion, which prevent people from finding adequate shelter in cities, as key drivers of displacement and settlement across various framings of urban interface zones - from the Wildlands Urban Interface [WUI] to the peri-urban fringe. I then explore how the increasingly forced settlement in these zones - themselves destabilized by prior processes of settler colonialism, neoliberal land-use planning, and climate change - contribute to both environmental and health related disasters. Here I focus on two contemporary cases: catastrophic wildfire in the WUI of California, and the emergence of zoonotic diseases in peri-urban regions around the world. Finally, with a focus on California, I explore how, once health and environmental disasters land and combine within a single location, inadequate housing increases the likelihood of multiple forms of exposure and susceptibility - e.g. to toxic smoke, respiratory ailments, and COVID. In conclusion, I argue for increased scholarly and political focus on the role of housing crises and urban exclusion in both the origins and outcomes of disaster. More scholarly and political work is needed that bridges city and hinterland, linking disaster research to critical approaches in housing studies and urban political ecology, together with wildfire ecology, epidemiology, and environmental stewardship.

4.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 50: 8-14, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1959411

ABSTRACT

COVID19 has emerged as one of the worst pandemics in the history of mankind. Several vaccines have been approved by different government agencies worldwide, but data on their efficacy and safety are limited, and distribution remains a massive challenge. As per WHO, personal immunity is vital for protection against COVID19. Earlier, Vitamin C-mediated pathways have been shown to play critical role in boosting immunity attributed to its antioxidant properties. Recently, the involvement of such pathways in protection against COVID19 has been suggested. The controlled doses of Vitamin C administered through intravenous (IV) injections are being studied for determining its role in the prognosis of COVID19. In this article, we have discussed the potential role of Vitamin C in the management in COVID19 patients and presented recent clinical trials data. Additionally, we have elaborated the possibility of administering Vitamin C through inhalers in order to achieve local high concentration and the challenges of such approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamins/therapeutic use
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1958595

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic and the possible emergence of new viruses urgently require the rapid development of antiviral vaccines and therapeutics. However, some viruses or newly generated variants are difficult to culture in common cell types or exhibit low viral susceptibility in vivo, making it difficult to manufacture viral vector-based vaccines and understand host-virus interactions. To address these issues, we established new cell lines deficient in both type I and type II interferon responses, which are essential for host immunity and interference with virus replication. These cell lines were generated by developing an integrated CRISPR-Cas9 system that simultaneously expresses dual-guide RNA cassettes and Cas9 nuclease in a single plasmid. Using this highly efficient gene-editing system, we successfully established three cell lines starting from IFN-α/ß-deficient Vero cells, deleting the single interferon-gamma (IFNG) gene, the IFNG receptor 1 (IFNGR1) gene, or both genes. All cell lines clearly showed a decrease in IFN-γ-responsive antiviral gene expression and cytokine production. Moreover, production of IFN-γ-induced cytokines remained low, even after HSV-1 or HCoV-OC43 infection, while expression of the receptor responsible for viral entry increased. Ultimately, knockout of IFN-signaling genes in these cell lines promoted cytopathic effects and increased apoptosis after viral infection up to three-fold. These results indicate that our integrated CRISPR-Cas9-mediated IFNG- and IFNGR1-knockout cell lines promote virus replication and will be useful in viral studies used to design novel vaccines and therapies.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems , Interferon-gamma , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Interferon-beta/pharmacology , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Interferon-gamma/pharmacology , Receptors, Interferon , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/genetics
6.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(7):TC01-TC05, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957580

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Rhino-cerebral Mucormycosis (RCM), in the pre-Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) era, was thought to be solely associated with an immunocompromised state. However,anunforeseenoutbreakinthenumberofmucormycosis cases was seen with the increase in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Aim: To study and investigate the clinical characteristics, imaging findings, associated risk factors, and clinical outcomes in COVID-19 associated mucormycosis. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted comprising 480 cases of COVID-19 associated mucormycosis who presented to the institution between April 2020 and September 2020. The clinical and radiological data were studied and analysed. results: Out of a total of 480 cases, 443 (92.29%) were found to suffering from diabetes mellitus and 392 patients (81.66%) had a history of steroids intake in the studied population. Facial or per orbital swelling followed by pain were the most frequent presenting complaints found in 188 (39.16%) and 162 (33.75%) patients, respectively. Nasal septum and middle turbinate were the most common sites of disease involvement on nasal endoscopic examination. On radiological imaging, maxillary (438;91.25%) was the most commonly involved sinus followed by ethmoids (395;82.29%). Premaxillary/retroantral fat and orbits were the most common sites of extra sinonasal spread of infection found in 278 (57.91%) and 244 (50.83%) patients, respectively. About 238 (49.58%) patients showed bony erosion and dehiscence. Intracranial complications were seen in 73 (15.21%) patients. Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels showed significant value with higher disease staging. Oxygen supplementation was frequently associated with extrasinus spread of infection. A total of 44 (9.17%) patients succumbed to death despite aggressive antifungal treatment. conclusion: COVID-19 associated RCM shows frequent and extensive spread to extrasinus regions, especially with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, steroid administration, and oxygen supplementation. High clinical suspicion, early imaging, and prompt institution of antifungal therapy can aid in reducing mortality rate.

7.
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology ; 78:S99-S100, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955954

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Human steroid 5α-reductase 2 (SRD5A2) coded by SRD5A2 gene is an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. Dutasteride, an SRD5A2 inhibitor, is a widely used antiandrogen for the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia. Multiple variations have been identified in the SRD5Ar gene. Some of these variations may affect the efficacy and safety of SRD5A2 inhibitors. Dutasteride has also been investigated for intermediate and high-risk nonmuscle- invasive urothelial bladder cancer treatment with the combination of BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin). Objectives: The study aims to evaluate the potential impact of V89L (rs523349) and A49T (rs9282858) variations on the SRD5A2 gene on dutasteride efficacy and safety in bladder cancer patients that have been enrolled in Phase 2 clinical trial entitled 'Efficacy and safety of a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor, dutasteride, added to Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) immunotherapy in the prevention of recurrence and progression of intermediate and high risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: A single-arm, Phase 2 clinical trial' Methods: Twenty-one patients on BCG and dutasteride in the Phase 2 clinical trial were included in the study. Genomic DNA was obtained from whole blood samples, and evaluation of V89L (rs523349) (G>C) and A49T (rs9282858) (C>T) variations on the SRD5A2 gene was performed by using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay. The severity of the adverse events was graded by the United States National Cancer Institute- Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 5.0. The causality assessment of adverse drug reactions was performed using Liverpool Causality Assessment Tool, Naranjo Algorithm, and World Health Organization-Uppsala Drug Monitoring Centre Causality Assessment System. The response to dutasteride was evaluated as the presence of bladder cancer recurrence. The Chi-Square test was used for testing the relationship between categorical variables. P values of <0.05 were considered significant. Results: All patients were homozygous GG for V89L variation on the SRD5A2 gene. Regarding the A49T variation, only one patient was homozygous CC, 8 patients were homozygous TT and 12 patients were heterozygous TC. One of the 8 patients (%12) was homozygous TT and 3 of 12 patients (%25) were heterozygous TC had bladder cancer recurrence. There was no statistically significant difference between bladder cancer recurrence and A49T variation (p=0.803). None of the adverse events were associated with dutasteride treatment whereas some of the adverse events, mostly urinary tract infections, were associated with the BCG. Other adverse events were upper respiratory tract infections, COVID-19, abdominal pain, vomiting, and loss of appetite. Serious adverse events were coronary artery disease, dyspnea, hypotension, and urethral stricture. None of the serious adverse events were associated with dutasteride or BCG treatment. Conclusion: Neither V89L nor A49T variation on the SRD5A2 gene was found to be associated with the efficacy and safety of dutasteride in medium and high-risk bladder cancer patients. Further studies of these variations with larger sample sizes and/or healthy control groups may lead to a better understanding of the impact of these variations on the efficacy and safety of dutasteride.

8.
Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents ; 36(2):139-150, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955702

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause long-standing damage to the immune system characterized by increased inflammatory cytokine activation. Maintaining periodontal health may reduce host susceptibility to COVID-19 and prevent COVID-19 aggravation in infected patients. There is sufficient evidence in the literature to warrant an association between the presence of PDs and the development and course of respiratory illnesses. Optimum oral health, maintaining good systemic health, and elimination of smoking habits may be beneficial for the prevention and management of COVID-19 infections. Future studies on the periodontal status of patients with COVID-19, including from mild to severe forms, could allow the opportune identification of people at risk of severe illness and generate relevant recommendations. The connection, if any, between the oral microbiome and COVID-19 complications is urgently required to establish the importance of oral hygiene and pre-existing oral disease in the severity and mortality risk of COVID-19.

9.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; : e13602, 2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956679

ABSTRACT

PROBLEM: Starting from November 2019, the world has had to face a devastating pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. Various studies have identified potential risk factors facilitating the infection, however it has not been demonstrated whether endometriosis might represent one of them. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if patients with endometriosis had a higher risk of contracting COVID-19 infection and, in such case, whether they developed a more severe infection than the general population. Furthermore, this study evaluated the possible correlation with the stage of endometriosis, based on the r-ASRM score, and the potential worsening of the disease during the SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHOD OF STUDY: A case-control study was conducted from March 2020 to April 2021 at Macedonio Melloni Hospital, in Milan. A total of 401 women were recruited. The cases were 201 women with clinical or surgical diagnosis of endometriosis. The control group consisted of 200 women, without the disease. All women completed a self-administered questionnaire which evaluated their demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as a potential diagnosis of Covid-19. RESULTS: Comparison between the two groups showed that women with endometriosis had a higher frequency of COVID-19 than the control subjects (23% vs. 13.5%, P = .014), with a greater prevalence of fever (14.4% vs. 6%, P = .008) and myalgias or arthralgias (11.4% vs. 4.5%, P = .01). In multivariable logistic regression analyses, women with endometriosis had a higher risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR = 2.11, 95% IC: 1.20-3.80), regardless the stage of the disease. CONCLUSION: Endometriosis increases the susceptibility to COVID-19, and women who suffer from it should be considered as fragile patients, worthy of prior access to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaign.

11.
Int J Gen Med ; 15: 4741-4751, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951772

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak has created a global health crisis. Secondary pulmonary bacterial infection is a COVID-19 complication, increasing morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to determine the pathogens, antibiotic susceptibility patterns, and risk factors for mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study used secondary data from patients' electronic medical records at Hasan Sadikin General Hospital and Santo Borromeus Hospital between March 2020 and March 2021. Overall, 2230 hospitalized COVID-19 patients were screened, and 182 of them who were hospitalized ≥48 hours with a procalcitonin level of ≥0.25 ng/mL were enrolled. Culture examination was performed on sputum samples to determine pathogen and antibiotic susceptibilities. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine mortality-related risk factors in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Results: The prevalence of secondary pulmonary bacterial infections in COVID-19 patients was 8.2%, with 161/182 pathogen growth from sputum samples. Mainly gram-negative bacteria (64.8%) were present, including Acinetobacter baumannii (31.9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (19.8%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.8%). High rate of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens was found among isolate (45.9%), ie carbapenem-resistance A. baumannii (CR-Ab) was 84.2%, extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) among K. pneumoniae was 61.1%. Secondary infection of MDR pathogens was associated with a higher risk of mortality (AOR 5.63, p = 0.001). Other associated factors were age ≥60 years, ventilator use, and female gender. Conclusion: Gram-negative bacteria are the predominant pathogens causing secondary pulmonary bacterial infection in COVID-19 patients, implying nosocomial infection. High resistance to first-line antimicrobial drugs was observed in Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria. High rate of MDR pathogens was found among isolate and was associated with a significant risk of mortality.

12.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 67, 2022 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951286

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is highly prevalent worldwide and can cause severe diseases. MRSA is associated with other antibiotic resistance. COVID-19 pandemic increased antimicrobial resistance in adult patients. Only a few data report the antimicrobial susceptibility of S. aureus in the Italian pediatric population, before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We included all the S. aureus positive samples with an available antibiogram isolated from pediatric patients (< 18 years old) in a tertiary care hospital in Milan, Italy, from January 2017 to December 2021. We collected data on demographics, antimicrobial susceptibility, and clinical history. We compared methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and MRSA strains. We calculated the frequency of isolation by year. The incidence of isolates during 2020 was compared with the average year isolation frequency using the univariate Poisson test. We compared the proportion of MRSA isolates during 2020 to the average proportion of other years with the Chi-squared test. RESULTS: Our dataset included a total of 255 S. aureus isolated from 226 patients, 120 (53%) males, and 106 (47%) females, with a median age of 3.4 years (IQR 0.8 - 10.5). The mean isolation frequency per year was 51. We observed a significant decrease of isolations during 2020 (p = 0.02), but after adjusting for the total number of hospitalization per year there was no evidence that the incidence changed. Seventy-six (30%) S. aureus were MRSA. Twenty (26%) MRSA vs 23 (13%) MSSA (p = 0.02) were hospital-acquired. MRSA strains showed higher resistance to cotrimoxazole, clindamycin, macrolides, levofloxacin, gentamicin, and tetracyclin than MSSA strains. None of MRSA were resistant to linezolid and vancomycin, one was resistant to daptomycin. The proportion of MRSA did not change during the COVID-19 pandemic. The overall clindamycin resistance was high (17%). Recent antibiotic therapy was related to MRSA infection. CONCLUSION: The proportion of MRSA did not change during the COVID-19 pandemic and remained high. Clindamycin should not be used as an empirical MRSA treatment due to its high resistance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcal Infections , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Clindamycin/pharmacology , Clindamycin/therapeutic use , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Infant , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pandemics , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus , Tertiary Healthcare
13.
Current Psychology ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1935866

ABSTRACT

While generational differences in coping with the threat of the global COVID-19 crisis were widely discussed in Western societies, a more careful look from the family level is needed in collectivistic societies like China. This study conducted an online survey among three generations of Chinese families between late January and late March in 2020. The study examined 1380 individuals (college students [G1]: N = 762, M-age = 20.47 + 2.45, 78.1% female;parents [G2]: N = 386, M-age = 47.64 + 4.08, 51.3% female;grandparents [G3]: N = 232, M-age = 73.50 + 8.57, 54.3% female) and their cognitions, affect, and preventive intentions toward COVID-19. The investigation ultimately yielded 226 pairs of family data. The results showed generational differences in the above variables. Perceived severity showed a significant total effect on preventive intention for all three generations, and perceived societal risk showed a significant (total) effect on preventive intention only for G3. Perceived severity was linked to preventive intentions through negative affect for those with lower self-efficacy in G1 and G2. Perceived societal risk was also linked to preventive intention through negative affect for those with low self-efficacy for G2. Moreover, cluster analyses identified three types of families with different epidemic coping patterns: stand-by families (48.23%), precautious families (35.40%), and insensitive families (16.37%). This research provides theoretical and practical implications for understanding the disparities in epidemic prevention between different generations and families. Findings show insights for improving the government's communication strategies.

14.
Sleep Science ; 15:38, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1935243

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Sleep is considered a cyclical physiological state due to the alternation between sleep and wakefulness that occur in most living beings. It is characterized by five fundamental stages and the total or partial absence of quality nighttime sleep can cause sleep and wake disorders, which are related to damage to the health of the population. Relating the theme to medical students, it is known that this population experiences, since college, the reality of a few hours to sleep and rest. Also, by associating this issue in the current context of COVID-19, it is possible that the quality of sleep in this population has changed. Objective: To identify the prevalence of the occurrence of Sleep Disorders and associated factors among medical students from a higher education institution in the forest region of Minas Gerais. Methods: The research, with a cross-sectional design, was conducted online through a semi-structured questionnaire with social, personal, demographic variables and also using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index. Results: Of the total of 340 academics invited to participate in the study, 63.8% participated in the survey. 41% of the participants stated that they had a sleep duration per night of less than six hours and in relation to the usual sleep efficiency, 50.7% certified that they have an efficacy of less than 84%, evidencing a high frequency of sleep disorders (94, 9%). Also regarding the analysis of the Pittsburg Scale for Assessment of Sleep Quality, comparing cycles (basic, clinical and internship), 14% of students in the basic cycle need to use medication to sleep 3 or more times a week, as opposed to 7% denounced by the analysis of both the clinical cycle and the internship. About 40% of basic cycle students, 22% of clinical cycle students and 4% of boarding students reported having daytime dysfunction 5 to 6 days a week, such as difficulty staying awake and focused on their daily activities, in as a result of disturbed nights of sleep. As for the Epworth sleepiness scale, only 31.7% of the sample had normal sleep and in 44% of students an abnormal (pathological) sleepiness was identified. Conclusion: It is concluded that the perception of poor sleep quality was high for all years of the medical graduation course. Regarding the comparison of course phases, students in the early years (basic cycle group) reported worse sleep quality and greater daytime dysfunction.

15.
European Journal of Clinical Investigation ; 52, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1935100

ABSTRACT

The proceedings contain 316 papers. The topics discussed include: COVID-19 and social inequalities in a syndemic approach: social, clinical and psychological aspects;individual differences modulate social distance during COVID-19 pandemic;genetic factors predisposing to irritable bowel syndrome;inflammasomes as a gateway to autoinflammation;different variations of intra- familial body mass index subjected to COVID-19 lockdown;effects of temporary sacral nerve stimulation on gastrointestinal motility and function in patients with chronic refractory slow- transit constipation;reduced hepatic phospholipid (PL) output dramatically promotes the formation of cholesterol (Ch) gallstones in mice;novel insight into the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstone disease;therapeutic targets in inflammatory bowel disease;and accelerating healthy lifestyles: the case for tobacco harm reduction.

16.
Journal of Hypertension ; 40:e174, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1937723

ABSTRACT

Objective: Statins result in lower H5N1 (influenza A) titers on viral exposure and inhibit Ebola virus production and glycoprotein processing. So a similar pattern might be a target for SARS-CoV-2. However, there are data that indicate statins upregulate ACE2 which may have an opposite effect on SARS-CoV-2 infection. To address this question we conducted a systematic review on the efficacy of statins on the risk of respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Design and method: Publications of head-to-head randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of statins were retrieved from MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane (from 2000-July 2021). We included RCTs with at least 100 participants and with a minimum follow-up of one year. Two authors independently selected the included trials, evaluated the risk of bias, and retrieved the data on RTIs. Meta-analyses were performed to summarise the pooled risk ratios (RRs) of RTIs between treatment arms. Results: The initial literature search identified 568 records. After duplicates were excluded, there were 318 records. Twenty-five RCTs were excluded after a fulltext review of the 29 eligible studies. In the end, four RCTs with a total of 7,912 participants were included in our meta-analysis. As to the effect of statins on RTIs, the point estimate for statins was less than 1, but it did not reach statistical significance in the overall analysis (the pooled RR in the fixed effect model was 0.99 [95% CI: 0.94, 1.04;I2 = 59%;x2 p = 0.66]). Conclusions: The findings of our systematic review and meta-analysis do not support the hypothesis that statins reduce the risk of including RTIs. (Figure Presented).

17.
Int J Immunogenet ; 49(4): 243-253, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937936

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but the pathogenesis is unclear. Host genetic background is one of the main factors influencing the patients' susceptibility to several viral infectious diseases. This study aimed to investigate the association between host genetic polymorphisms of two genes, including vitamin D receptor (VDR) and vitamin D binding protein (DBP), and susceptibility to COVID-19 in a sample of the Iranian population. This case-control study enrolled 188 hospitalized COVID-19 patients as the case group and 218 suspected COVID-19 patients with mild signs as the control group. The VDR (rs7975232, rs731236 and rs2228570) and DBP (rs7041) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped by Polymerase Chain Reaction Restriction - Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. A significant association between rs2228570 SNP in the VDR gene and the susceptibility of COVID-19 was found between case and control groups. The CT genotype (Heterozygous) of rs2228570 C > T polymorphism showed significant association with a 3.088 fold increased odds of COVID-19 (p < .0001; adjusted OR: 3.088; 95% CI: 1.902-5.012). In addition, a significant association between CC genotype of rs2228570 CT polymorphism and increased odds of COVID-19 in male and female groups (p = .001; adjusted OR: 3.125; 95% CI: 1.630-5.991 and p = .002; adjusted OR: 3.071; 95% CI: 1.485-6.354 respectively) were determined. Our results revealed no significant differences in the frequency of genotype and allele of VDR (rs7975232 and rs731236) and DBP (rs7041) between SARS-CoV-2-infected patients and controls (p > .05). Our results showed that polymorphism of VDR (rs2228570) probably could influence individual susceptibility to COVID-19. The polymorphisms of VDR (rs7975232 and rs731236) and DBP (rs7041) were not associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection susceptibility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Female , Gene Frequency , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Receptors, Calcitriol/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(7)2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938900

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Starting in early December 2019, the novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) from infection with COVID-19 has caused a global pandemic. Many aspects of its pathogenesis and related clinical consequences are still unclear. Early diagnosis and dynamic monitoring of prognostic factors are essential to improve the ability to manage COVID-19 infection. This study aimed to provide an account of the role played by vitamins C and D on the onset, progression and severity of COVID-19. Clinical features and infection-related risk factors are also briefly discussed. Material and Methods: In March 2022, the main online databases were accessed. All the articles that investigate the possible role of vitamins C and D on COVID-19 susceptibility, severity and progression were considered. Results: The current evidence on vitamin C and D supplementation in patients with COVID-19 infection is inconsistent and controversial. In some studies, vitamins were used as coadjuvant of a formal experimental therapy, while in others as main treatment. Ethnicity and hospital setting (inpatient/outpatient) were also variable. Moreover, there was no consensus between studies in administration protocol: high heterogeneity in dosage, administration, and duration of the treatment were evident. Finally, some studies administered vitamins pre- and/or during COVID infection, in patients with different risk factors and infection severity. Conclusions: While waiting to develop a targeted, safe and effective therapy, it is important to investigate individual predisposition and proper disease management. Concluding, available data on the use of nutraceuticals in COVID-19 are inconsistent. However, there is a lack of evidence-based guidelines which recommend vitamin C and D supplementation in patients with COVID-19, and results from high quality randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are inconsistent. Current investigations so far are mostly observational, and include a relatively small sample size which can lead to biased results. Large-scale multicentre studies are therefore needed.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid , COVID-19 , Vitamin D , Vitamins , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use
19.
Front Neurol ; 13: 884449, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933727

ABSTRACT

It is increasingly acknowledged that Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) can have neurological manifestations, and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) have been observed in this setting. The aim of this study was to characterize CMBs patterns on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with neurological manifestations. CMBs volume was quantified and correlated with clinical and laboratory parameters. The study included patients who were hospitalized due to COVID-19, exhibited neurological manifestations, and underwent a brain MRI between March and May 2020. Neurological, clinical, and biochemical variables were reported. The MRI was acquired using a 3T scanner, with a standardized protocol including SWI. Patients were divided based on radiological evidence of CMBs or their absence. The CMBs burden was also assessed with a semi-automatic SWI processing procedure specifically developed for the purpose of this study. Odds ratios (OR) for CMBs were calculated using age, sex, clinical, and laboratory data by logistic regression analysis. Of the 1,760 patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ASST Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital between 1 March and 31 May 2020, 116 exhibited neurological symptoms requiring neuroimaging evaluation. Of these, 63 patients underwent brain MRI and were therefore included in the study. A total of 14 patients had radiological evidence of CMBs (CMBs+ group). CMBs+ patients had a higher prevalence of CSF inflammation (p = 0.020), a higher white blood cell count (p = 0.020), and lower lymphocytes (p = 0.010); the D-dimer (p = 0.026), LDH (p = 0.004), procalcitonin (p = 0.002), and CRP concentration (p < 0.001) were higher than in the CMBs- group. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, CRP (OR = 1.16, p = 0.011) indicated an association with CMBs. Estimated CMBs volume was higher in females than in males and decreased with age (Rho = -0.38; p = 0.18); it was positively associated with CRP (Rho = 0.36; p = 0.22), and negatively associated with lymphocytes (Rho = -0.52; p = 0.07). CMBs are a frequent imaging finding in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with neurological manifestations and seem to be related to pro-inflammatory status.

20.
Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology ; 43(10):5-16, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1929196

ABSTRACT

The current study is the reviews of the work done for pest infestation in different legume pulse grains Pulse grains have been found to have different susceptibility for the attack of pulse beetle. An insect has varied fecundity on different varieties of pulses. India is agriculture based country and agriculture is the key sector of Indian economy. Including many kharif and rabbi crops, pulses are cultivated in all parts of country. Pulse cultivation has its own significant place in agriculture as it has been considered as complimentary to cereal crop in many aspects and positioned as a second most important crop plant [1]. Study indicates 20-40% of dry matter of pulse grains is made up of beneficial dietary proteins [2]. Insufficiency of adequate amount of protein in diet may lead to protein energy malnutrition. Like poverty and hunger, to combat PEM is another great provocation for agriculture and nation. Pulse grains legumes are good source of protein and other nutrient materials. Crop plant of Arhar has its own advantage for agriculture. The leguminous plants are used in crop rotation to improve the fertility of soil as the root nodules harbor the nitrogen fixing bacteria;fixes atmospheric nitrogen to nitrogen compound about 72-350 kg/hectare/year . The current study emphasizes the different facts of pulse beetle and their infestation in arhar seed grains. About eight months of the year have been found to be susceptible for infestation;remarkable growth and development of pests continue during six months of the year. Arhar pulse grains are most suitable for pest infestation. Bold variety of arhar was identified to be the most preferred for maximum oviposition having larger and smooth surface area. Temperature suitable for oviposition was noticed between 28-370c. Developmental period was found to be of lesser duration and survival of adults was more in bold varieties as compared to the smaller variety. Developmental period was recorded as 24-30.3 days in bold legume grains and 26-32.3 days in smaller size grains. Survival of male and female insect pest was also different as male survived for 7-10.6 days and females for 8.3-12.6 days. Increased growth rate of insect population was there with the increase in temperature and humidity. Significant Weight loss, content loss and percent germination loss have been found in the pulse grains of both varieties in the current studies. Indian economy relies significantly on agriculture and loss and damage of complementary crop plant certainly affect it. At this point there is need to consider the condition of Mass poverty of India after pandemic covid -19 which has been ascertained after more than 45 years The outcome of pandemic recession is more than 2 fold increase in the number of poor from 60 million in a year to 134 million (Reports of downtoearth.org.in). Furthermore any rise in price would snatch the accessibility of the easily available protein diet from people living in indigence.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL