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1.
Bulletin des GTV ; 104:85-92, 2021.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1957885

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses have a high evolutionary capacity which has led to their very large genetic diversity. Their prevalence in nature is very high and they can infect a wide spectrum of hosts including mammals (including humans) and birds. To date, six porcine coronaviruses have been identified. Two of which were responsible for severe epizootics in pigs with a major impact in the global swine industry in the 60's to 80's for porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus and since the 2010's in China and 2014 in North America for porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus. The latter has also become the third most important pathogen for pigs in China after the African swine fever virus and the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. This review summarizes the latest developments in scientific knowledge of these porcine coronaviruses.

2.
Webology ; 19(3):2453-2470, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1940228

ABSTRACT

Epidemics and pandemics ravage human population in different ways. Recent COVID-19 has engulfed the whole world and casted significant social and psychological impacts on individuals around the globe. This review article includes literature from January 2020 to November 2020 on the psychological impact of corona virus pandemic on individuals in Pakistan. Literature on psychological impact was searched via electronic databases and reputable websites including Google Scholar, PubMed, Elsevier, Science Direct, Scopus and Springer by using the searching keywords: COVID-19 and psychological problems, COVID-19 and mental health, impact of corona/novel corona virus and COVID-19 and medical personnel or health care professionals in Pakistan. Total of 12 articles were selected for review. The results of study highlighted the psychological impacts of COVID-19 on students, health workers, slum community and general public who were more likely to develop the stress, anxiety, and depression, post traumatic and additional indicators of mental distress like psychological distress associated with economic recession. It was concluded that Covid-19 should not be solely treated as a life-threatening virus and a risk for physical health, but the mental health services should also be promoted to safeguard the psychological impact of the virus on Pakistani population in general, and students and healthcare providers in particular.

3.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939018

ABSTRACT

A PEDV/PDCoV/TGEV/SADS-CoV/XIPC 5-plex real-time RT-PCR was developed and validated for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of four swine enteric coronaviruses (PEDV, PDCoV, TGEV and SADS-CoV) in one PCR reaction (XIPC serves as an exogenous internal positive control). The 5-plex PCR had excellent analytical specificity, analytical sensitivity, and repeatability based on the testing of various viral and bacterial pathogens, serial dilutions of virus isolates, and in vitro transcribed RNAs. The 5-plex PCR had comparable diagnostic performance to a commercial PEDV/TGEV/PDCoV reference PCR, based on the testing of 219 clinical samples. Subsequently, 1807 clinical samples collected from various U.S. states during 2019-2021 were tested by the 5-plex PCR to investigate the presence of SADS-CoV in U.S. swine and the frequency of detecting swine enteric CoVs. All 1807 samples tested negative for SADS-CoV. Among the samples positive for swine enteric CoVs, there was a low frequency of detecting TGEV, an intermediate frequency of detecting PDCoV, and a high frequency of detecting PEDV. Although there is no evidence of SADS-CoV presence in the U.S. at present, the availability of the 5-plex PCR will enable us to conduct ongoing surveillance to detect and differentiate these viruses in swine samples and other host species samples as some of these coronaviruses can cause cross-species infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Alphacoronavirus , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Feces , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Swine , Swine Diseases/diagnosis
4.
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association ; 93(31-37):31-37, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1935013

ABSTRACT

The informal poultry and pig sector in the Eastern Cape Province (ECP) of South Africa is of significant socio-economic importance as it sustains livelihoods and ensures food security;yet little is known about the distribution and prevalence of infectious and zoonotic diseases in this region. This paper reviews data published for pig and poultry diseases in the province during the last 20 years (2000-2020). The review included relevant published papers identified by a computerised literature search from Web of Science;provincial animal health reports;the national database from the Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD);animal health reports submitted by DALRRD to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) via the World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID) interface and laboratory records. A publication was considered eligible if it included qualitative or quantitative information on any disease affecting pigs and poultry including zoonosis. The search retrieved 174 publications, of which 26 were relevant. The review found that Newcastle disease (ND), coccidiosis and fowl pox (FP) were the most reported avian diseases in the national database, whereas avian infectious bronchitis (AIB), ND and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) were the most reported diseases in the OIE database. Classical swine fever (CSF) was the most reported pig disease in both databases. The retrieved literature on pig and poultry diseases was scarce and no longer up to date, providing decision makers with little information. The review identified important zoonotic diseases that require further studies yet failed to find information on important neglected diseases like leptospirosis.

5.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925311

ABSTRACT

Objective: We aim to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of iatrogenic CNS inflammation associated with vaccinations at a tertiary neuroimmunology clinic and compare the frequency of these events before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Background: Various vaccines are implicated in rare demyelinating events. Although influenza is the most commonly-implicated vaccine, an increasing number of CNS inflammatory events are linked to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Design/Methods: We analyzed consecutive patients seen over 4 years (2017-2021) at a tertiary neuroimmunology clinic who were screened for iatrogenic CNS inflammation secondary to vaccinations. In patients with suspected iatrogenic events, the Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale was used to score the probability of vaccine-related events as doubtful, possible, probable, or definite. Results: In total, 419 patients were seen over 4 years and were screened. Eleven cases were identified, and the total prevalence was 2.6% (82% female, average age 56+/- 18 years). Most events (10, 91%) were scored as probable. The following disease phenotypes were identified: multiple sclerosis relapse (6, 55%), optic neuritis (1, 9%), monophasic MOGAD (1, 9%), transverse myelitis relapse (1, 9%), seropositive NMOSD (1, 9%), and autoimmune encephalitis (1, 9%). The vaccines included influenza (n=4), SARS-CoV-2 mRNA (n=3), swine flu (n=1), and HPV (n=1). Two patients were exposed simultaneously to multiple vaccines (tetanus, MMR, and VZV;tetanus, hepatitis A, and meningococcal vaccines). Spontaneous resolution occurred in 36% of events, complete response to corticosteroids/immunotherapy in 46%, partial response in 9%, and unresponsiveness in 9%. Finally, 8 patients (73%) had relapsing disease and 3 patients (27%) had monophasic disease. Conclusions: Post-vaccination iatrogenic CNS inflammation is a rare but distinct neuroimmunological disease spectrum mostly involving spontaneous recovery or responsiveness to corticosteroids. We did not identify an excess of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-related events. The rare occurrence and predominantly favorable prognosis suggest the benefit of vaccination outweighs the neurological risks, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.

6.
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology ; 22(6):6-11, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1924716

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID-19 epidemic on China's pig. industry was analyzed from pig production. pork consumption and pig prices. The results showed that the epidemic led to the poor circulation of feed and livestock products. the increase of operating costs of breeding enterprises, the difficulty of starting work of feed enterprises and slaughtering enterprises etc., which significantly hindered the. recovery process of pig production capacity, and affect the realization of the goal of pig production capacity recovery throughout the year;the total consumption and outdoor consumption of pork decreased significantly, but the proportion of pork consumption added indirectly With the consumption of poultry meal and eggs increased, the price of pigs increased in general and the regional price gap widened. In the shun term. [he pig industry would face the problems of the situation that prevention of Africa swine fever was still severe and the support policies fall into the "difficulties of grass-roots implementation", and so on. Based on this. policy suggestions were put forward.

7.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 867631, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924194

ABSTRACT

Stringent COVID-19 public health and social measures (PHSMs) have challenged the work of animal health professionals, especially in the early phase of the pandemic. We aimed to qualitatively describe how COVID-19 PHSMs have affected the surveillance and control of African swine fever (ASF) in Europe, assess how professionals engaged in these activities perceived the impact of the COVID-19 crisis, and identify potential areas of improvement. An online questionnaire was proposed via email between 9 December 2020 and 22 January 2021 to professionals engaged in ASF-related activities in Europe and Eastern neighboring countries. The questionnaire contained questions pertaining to ASF surveillance and control activities between March and May 2020, respondent's perception of the impact of COVID-19 PHSMs on these activities, and respondent's opinion on potential improvements to prepare for future crises. Economic and sanitary variables were used to describe the national contexts over the study period. Twenty-seven respondents from 24 countries participated to the study. Essential activities related to surveillance and management of ASF were reduced and/or adapted but maintained in most surveyed countries. Communication was mentioned as the first area of improvement during crisis while maintenance of efficient veterinary services and surveillance activities were cited second and third top priorities. The need for the development of remote procedures was also recognized. Some respondents highlighted difficulties in ensuring biosecurity and biosafety of the field actors due to shortage in protective equipment. Only a small majority (52%) of the survey participants agreed that their institution/working group is better prepared to future lockdown-type situations. Our study emphasizes that short-term measures were globally successful to tackle the immediate impacts of the COVID-19 crisis on the routine duties of professionals involved in ASF surveillance and control. Our findings suggest that country-specific improvements are necessary to support and advance the preparedness of the actors involved in infectious animal disease surveillance and control in case lockdown-like measures are implemented. Overall, our results highlight the crucial importance of recognizing animal health services as essential activities during crisis.

8.
South African Journal of Science ; 118(5/6):1-5, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1912362

ABSTRACT

Although the global response to COVID-19 has demonstrated that some progress has been made in ensuring timely access to new medical interventions in Africa, much more needs to be done to strengthen the global systems that enable equitable access to health technologies during public health emergencies.

9.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911645

ABSTRACT

Multiple domestic and wild animal species are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Cattle and swine are susceptible to experimental SARS-CoV-2 infection. The unchecked transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in animal hosts could lead to virus adaptation and the emergence of novel variants. In addition, the spillover and subsequent adaptation of SARS-CoV-2 in livestock could significantly impact food security as well as animal and public health. Therefore, it is essential to monitor livestock species for SARS-CoV-2 spillover. We developed and optimized species-specific indirect ELISAs (iELISAs) to detect anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in cattle, swine, and chickens using the spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) antigen. Serum samples collected prior to the COVID-19 pandemic were used to determine the cut-off threshold. RBD hyperimmunized sera from cattle (n = 3), swine (n = 6), and chicken (n = 3) were used as the positive controls. The iELISAs were evaluated compared to a live virus neutralization test using cattle (n = 150), swine (n = 150), and chicken (n = 150) serum samples collected during the COVID-19 pandemic. The iELISAs for cattle, swine, and chicken were found to have 100% sensitivity and specificity. These tools facilitate the surveillance that is necessary to quickly identify spillovers into the three most important agricultural species worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/veterinary , Cattle , Chickens , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Swine
10.
International Conference on Tourism Research ; : 529-535,XIX, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1905316

ABSTRACT

The sustainable tourism concept has been evolving continually and respectively with modern society's views on sustainability. The tourism industry constantly faces new challenges showing weak points and providing opportunities for further concept development. With the focus on Japan as a case study, this empirical research discusses the insights of key stakeholders about managing sustainable tourism development during the crisis. This research takes the COVID-19 pandemic as an example of a crisis, which provides an opportunity for the sustainable tourism concept for further evolution. The results indicated that public and private sector stakeholders have different visions of sustainable tourism development. Japan's current public sector approach to it implies resolving the issue of overtourism in main tourism destinations and providing comfortable living for local communities. However, it does not have any implications for making tourism more resilient to external crises. The proposals of stakeholders for response measures for future sustainable tourism development and related policies included the establishment of a crisis management system in the tourism sphere, focus on the development of domestic tourism, creation of proper guidelines for the tourism industry for actions in case of crisis, revision of traditional tourism techniques, the establishment of "new lifestyle"/adaptation to "with Corona" era, focusing on online business/ tourism experience, focus on the development of small groups tours and individual tours, development of flexibility and adaptivity to changes in social conditions, incorporation of public health-related issues, non-contact content expansion, individual approach to different areas, and regional cooperation incorporation.

11.
Malaysian Journal of Veterinary Research ; 12(2):11-16, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904870

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 is contagious and fatal to humans. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, significant concerns on food safety and security are rising due to potential interspecies transmission. As such, surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 on imported meat and animal parts is carried out and reported in this study to safeguard food safety and security. Overall, none of the 225 samples from various livestock (buffaloes, cattle, goat and pig) imported from seven countries were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 with quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) from July 2020 to November 2021. This study finding serves as a baseline data for SARS-CoV-2 in imported meat and animal parts. Notably, this study accentuated the importance of active surveillance to prevent zoonosis and to safeguard food safety and security.

12.
Jiangsu Journal of Agricultural Sciences ; 38(2):422-428, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1893038

ABSTRACT

In this study, we detected the viral load and protein expression of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) after overexpression and inhibition of integrin avbeta1 on the surface of Vero cells, and then cleared the role of integrin avbeta1 in the PEDV infection process. The results showed that the viral load and protein expression were significantly increased in the Vero cells which overexpressed integrin avbeta1, and the viral load and protein expression were significantly reduced in the Vero cells with silent integrin avbeta1 gene. Integrin avbeta1 promotes PEDV to infect Vero cells.

13.
Surveillance ; 48(4):10-24, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1887621

ABSTRACT

Exotic pest and disease investigations are managed and reported by the Ministry for Primary Industries' (MPI's) Diagnostic and Surveillance Directorate. This article presents a summary of investigations of suspect exotic and emerging pests and diseases in New Zealand during the period from July to September 2021.

14.
Pacific Conservation Biology ; 28(3):6, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1886259

ABSTRACT

The pandemic resulting from COVID-19 infections had short-term positive impacts on the environment such as improvement in air and water quality. However, long term changes still have disastrous effects in terms of loosening of conservation policies and an increase in 'post-COVID-19' development subsidies to boost the economy at the expense of the environment. The prevention of habitat loss and zoonoses will avert future pandemics and measures to protect the local environment should be taken. The Republic of Korea follows the global trend in the weakness of long-term environmental answer to the pandemic and other on-going zoonoses, such as the avian influenza and African swine fever. Some of the current activities may even increase the risks of pandemic as mass culling of animals is widespread despite known risks. Instead, environmental protection and decreased encroachment may be the only safe way to proactively prevent the emergence of further pandemics.

15.
INRA Productions Animales ; 35(1):1-20, 2022.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1876329

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic is a major global event. A reflection on the first implications of this sanitary crisis for the world agricultural economy and the animal sectors of three geographical areas is proposed in this article. The agri-food systems have been strongly affected by this crisis, whose global economic impacts (a 3.5% drop in world gross domestic product and a 5.3% drop in international trade in goods between 2019 and 2020) are affecting the purchasing power of final consumers. However, they have resisted the crisis well, both in terms of supply (stability or slight growth in the volumes of meat and milk produced on a global scale) and trade. In 2021, the sharp rise in international prices for agricultural products and the rapid resumption of economic growth, particularly in the three zones more specifically studied here (China, the United States and the European Union), suggest that agriculture should remain under pressure from sustained world demand. More than Covid-19, the impact of African swine fever in China has had a major impact on international meat trade flows for several years. In addition, the growing Chinese appetite for dairy products is playing a central role in the development of international dairy markets, to the benefit of exporting areas including the EU and the US.

16.
Online Information Review ; 46(3):525-546, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1874125

ABSTRACT

Purpose>This study investigates the effect of protection motivation theory (PMT) constructs on Arab women's feelings while seeking information during the COVID-19 pandemic.Design/methodology/approach>The study has adopted a mixed-method approach using semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire to explore PMT constructs' impact on women's feelings while seeking information on COVID-19. Several tests, such as standard deviation, mean, skewness, kurtosis and persons, were used to check the reliability of data and inter-relationships between constructs.Findings>The study results show a significant positive correlation between PMT constructs (perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, response efficacy, self-efficacy and response cost) with the feelings of Arab women during information seeking on COVID-19. However, the relationship between threat appraisal and feelings during information seeking was more substantial than coping appraisal and feelings during information seeking. The researchers hope that this study creates a baseline of cross-cultural studies on PMT constructs' effect on women's feelings while seeking health information.Research limitations/implications>The current study was conducted on female participants only. While the study intended to examine Arab women's feelings during information seeking with PMT's application, the results may be affected by other factors that were not considered in the current study. Furthermore, the questionnaire was distributed in three Arab countries, which means that the results cannot be generalized in other geographical contexts. Therefore, similar studies need to be conducted in larger geographical areas as cultural factors may produce different results.Originality/value>This study explores women's feelings while seeking COVID-19 information using the PMT constructs. As far as we know, this study is the first study to investigate Arab women's feelings while seeking health information during pandemics. PMT utilization is considered a new approach to discover and measure informational needs and feelings associated with it during pandemics.

17.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869803

ABSTRACT

From 29 November to 1 December 2021, an "emerging animal infectious disease conference (EAIDC)" was held at the Pennsylvania State University. This conference brought together distinguished thought leaders in animal health, veterinary diagnostics, epidemiology and disease surveillance, and agricultural economics. The conference's primary objective was to review the lessons learned from past experiences in dealing with high-consequence animal infectious diseases to inform an action plan to prepare for future epizootics and panzootics. Invited speakers and panel members comprised world-leading experts in animal infectious diseases from federal state agencies, academia, professional societies, and the private sector. The conference concluded that the biosecurity of livestock operations is critical for minimizing the devastating impact of emerging animal infectious diseases. The panel also highlighted the need to develop and benchmark cutting-edge diagnostics for rapidly detecting pathogens in clinical samples and the environment. Developing next-generation pathogen agnostic diagnostics will help detect variants of known pathogens and unknown novel pathogens. The conference also highlighted the importance of the One Health approach in dealing with emerging animal and human infectious diseases. The recommendations of the conference may be used to inform policy discussions focused on developing strategies for monitoring and preventing emerging infectious disease threats to the livestock industry.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Communicable Diseases , Agriculture , Animals , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/veterinary , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/veterinary , Humans
18.
Ciencia Animal ; 31(4):134-153, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1863944

ABSTRACT

This work aims to review about coronaviruses in swine, emblazoning there's differences. Transmissible gastroenteritis and epidemic diarrhea are imported diseases, as they generate a high mortality rate in lactating piglets and economic losses. These viruses reach enterocytes, causing villous atrophy;affected animals present watery diarrhea, vomiting, hypoxia and dehydration. Two other viruses have recently emerged, the swine deltacoronavirus and the swine acute diarrhea syndrome virus, which have pathogenicity and clinical signs similar to those described in previous diseases. In the other hand, the porcine respiratory coronavirus and the hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus have distinct clinical signs. The first causes mild or subclinical respiratory manifestations and the second neurological signs, vomiting and emaciation, mostly affecting piglets younger than 4 weeks. As there is no specific treatment for these diseases, and vaccines do not provide full protection, a good biosecurity program is the main way to control and prevent them.

19.
Springer Protocol. Handb. ; : 363-377, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1858946

ABSTRACT

Infectious disease outbreaks keep challenging human and veterinary health worldwide since decades. Disease outbreaks such as smallpox, influenza, polio, SARS, Ebola, foot-and-mouth disease, African swine fever, and the most recent and devastating COVID-19, all point to the need for a more proactive approach to developing diagnostics and treatment methods for these deadly diseases. Because the pathogenic agents that cause these diseases are highly transmissible, careful containment of these agents within the laboratories is necessary, with little or no exposure to working personnel. Different regulatory authorities across the world provide guidelines and procedures to ensure that research and diagnostic laboratories operate safely. This chapter delves into the many events that occur as a result of lab-mediated disease spread, as well as the need for, importance of, and guidelines for good lab practices and biosafety.

20.
Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research ; 10(2):171-182, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1856867

ABSTRACT

Purpose Vaccination is a cost-efficient intervention to slow the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aims to assess the population's willingness to take the COVID-19 vaccine in Jordan and investigate potential determinants of their acceptance Materials and Methods This study used an online survey distributed in November 2020, before introducing the vaccine, with items investigating socio-demographic characteristics, seasonal flu vaccination history, COVID-19 vaccine acceptance once available, and factors affecting their decision-making. Also, “COVID-19 risk perception” and beliefs toward COVID-19 vaccine benefits and barriers were assessed. Results A total of 2,208 participants completed the survey with a participation rate of 13.1%. The mean±standard deviation age was 33.2±13.5, and 55.7% were females. Study participants were almost equally distributed between willingness, unwillingness, and indecision to take the COVID-19 vaccine (30.4%, 36.4%, and 31.5%, respectively). Younger adults, males, and those who were not married, do not have children, have a bachelor or higher education, employees or being students, healthcare workers, and those who reported receiving flu vaccine had higher rates of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance compared to their counterparts (p<0.001 for each category). COVID-19 risk perception, and perceived vaccine benefits, and barriers were significant predictors of intention. Among those undecided or unwilling to take the COVID-19 vaccine, its safety and side effects were the most common concerns. Conclusion The low rate of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in a developing country is alarming, and a significant proportion are indecisive. Interventions to elevate vaccine acceptance by addressing its safety and efficacy and targeting vulnerable groups are recommended.

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