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1.
Revista de Management Comparat International ; 23(3):439-453, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2040616

ABSTRACT

The future of work is discussed in academic literature and reports starting with 2014. Various studies have identified artificial intelligence, robots, big data, globalization, population pressures, and changed demographic profiles as the main drivers for change in the future of jobs. Also, international organizations did comprehensive analyses of the professions' rapid technology changes. In contrast to the number of consultancy documents, there are not numerous scientific articles on the topic of the future of work. Research performed on the reputable scientific databases return a much larger number of scientific articles on the broader topic of Industry 4.0 (I4.0), including several systematic literature reviews, with 31 scientific articles on the topic. Still, the specific goal of this review is to explore the impact of job automation on the IT professions in Romania's IT industry. Consequently, the present paper is designed as a semi-systematic literature review, building on over one hundred papers written on the topic of Industry 4.0, studies that were done on the particular subject of the future of work, research papers done on the IT industry, and available studies on the IT industry in Romania. The findings are analyzed via various criteria which are meant to provide an accurate image of the state-of-the-art on the topic of interest.

2.
Frontiers in Education ; 7, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2039665

ABSTRACT

The aim of this systematic review is to provide, for the first time, a broad overview of the scope and nature of the current English language concept of ‘psychological literacy' (PL) as evidenced in the literature, primarily since 2010. Covidence systematic review methodology yielded 112 papers that were scored on 23 specific criteria/questions relevant to addressing predetermined research questions. PL has been conceptualized as both a general capability (e.g., ethical application of psychological knowledge) and a group of capabilities (discipline-specific knowledge and research methods, and more generic capabilities such as communication). Variability in the constellation of group capabilities has led to challenges in operationalization and thus measurement, signaling the need for international consensus and improved measurement. We propose a model for how PL is related to psychologically literate citizenship and global citizenship. Key papers explore PL as an integrative concept in psychology. All papers were relevant to psychology education, with most prevalent being undergraduate level, and least prevalent being graduate level. There were numerous papers providing practical PL teaching and assessment strategies. PL as a pedagogical approach has been a necessary and richly diverse focus. Finally, a revisioning of PL within the context of psychology education, as well as recommendations for further research and development, are suggested. Copyright © 2022 Cranney, Morris, Norris and Connolly.

3.
International Journal of General Medicine ; 15:7299-7309, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2039536

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To assess the distribution of COVID-19 symptoms according to the consumption of tobacco products and khat chewing among samples of Saudi Arabian individuals. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted in the Jazan region of Saudi Arabia. Data was collected online via a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire measured demographic variables, COVID-19 symptoms and vaccination, comorbidities history, tobacco product consumption, and khat chewing. In addition, logistic regression was performed to assess the association between the clinical presentation of COVID-19 with tobacco product consumption and khat chewing. Results: A total of 1026 subjects were recruited. The mean age of the participants was 31 years, and more than half were male (53%). Among the reported tobacco product consumption, hookah smoking was more frequently reported as a currently consumed tobacco product (14.3%), followed by cigarette smoking (11.5%) and chewing tobacco (3.8%). Thirteen percent (134) were khat chewers at the time of recruitment. The odds of reporting five symptoms or more were higher among patients who have never been tobacco product consumers (OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.15– 2.35) while accounting for khat chewing, age, vaccination status, and history of comorbidities. Nonetheless, the difference in symptom distribution with khat chewing status was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The findings of the current investigation suggest the presence of a potential impact of nicotine toxicity in masking pain among the subjects infected with COVID-19. Therefore, it is possible to hypothesize that, with the potential masking effect of nicotine, infected smokers may be less likely to suffer from the symptoms and seek official healthcare services, including diagnostic services.

4.
Systematic Reviews ; 11:1-10, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2038920

ABSTRACT

Background With the exponential growth of published systematic reviews (SR), there is a high potential for overlapping and redundant duplication of work. Prospective protocol registration gives the opportunity to assess the added value of a new study or review, thereby potentially reducing research waste and simultaneously increasing transparency and research quality. The PROSPERO database for SR protocol registration was launched 10 years ago. This study aims to assess the proportion SRs of intervention studies with a protocol registration (or publication) and explore associations of SR characteristics with protocol registration status. Methods PubMed was searched for SRs of human intervention studies published in January 2020 and January 2021. After random-stratified sampling and eligibility screening, data extraction on publication and journal characteristics, and protocol registration status, was performed. Both descriptive and multivariable comparative statistical analyses were performed. Results A total of 357 SRs (2020: n = 163;2021: n = 194) were included from a random sample of 1267 publications. Of the published SRs, 38% had a protocol. SRs that reported using PRISMA as a reporting guideline had higher odds of having a protocol than publications that did not report PRISMA (OR 2.71;95% CI: 1.21 to 6.09). SRs with a higher journal impact factor had higher odds of having a protocol (OR 1.12;95% CI 1.04 to 1.25). Publications from Asia had a lower odds of having a protocol (OR 0.43;95% CI 0.23 to 0.80, reference category = Europe). Of the 33 SRs published in journals that endorse PROSPERO, 45% did not have a protocol. Most SR protocols were registered in PROSPERO (n = 129;96%). Conclusions We found that 38% of recently published SRs of interventions reported a registered or published protocol. Protocol registration was significantly associated with a higher impact factor of the journal publishing the SR and a more frequent self-reported use of the PRISMA guidelines. In some parts of the world, SR protocols are more often registered or published than others. To guide strategies to increase the uptake of SR protocol registration, further research is needed to gain understanding of the benefits and informativeness of SRs protocols among different stakeholders. Systematic review registration osf.io/9kj7r/

5.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22:1-10, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2038691

ABSTRACT

Background Home treatment (HT) is a treatment modality for patients with severe mental illness (SMI) in acute mental crises. It is frequently considered equivalent to psychiatric inpatient treatment in terms of treatment outcome. Peer Support (PS) means that people with lived experience of a mental illness are trained to support others on their way towards recovery. While PS is growing in international importance and despite a growing number of studies supporting its benefits, it is still not comprehensively implemented into routine care. The HoPe (Home Treatment with Peer Support) study investigates a combination of both – HT and PS – to provide further evidence for a recovery-oriented treatment of psychiatric patients. Methods In our randomized controlled trial (RCT), HT with PS is compared with HT without PS within a network of eight psychiatric clinical centers from the North, South and East of Germany. We investigate the effects of a combination of both approaches with respect to the prevention of relapse/recurrence defined as first hospitalization after randomization (primary outcome), disease severity, general functioning, self-efficacy, psychosocial health, stigma resistance, recovery support, and service satisfaction (secondary outcomes). A sample of 286 patients will be assessed at baseline after admission to HT care (data point t0) and randomized into the intervention (HT + PS) and control arm (HT). Follow-Up assessments will be conducted 2, 6 and 12 months after admission (resulting in three further data points, t1 to t3) and will be analyzed via intention-to-treat approach. Discussion This study may determine the positive effects of PS added to HT, prove additional evidence for the efficacy of PS and thereby facilitate its further implementation into psychiatric settings. The aim is to improve quality of mental health care and patients’ recovery as well as to reduce the risk of relapses and hospitalizations for patients with SMI. Trial registration The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04336527, April 7, 2020.

6.
Health Equity ; 6(1):696-707, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2037362

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Bereavement and grief are social phenomena influenced by a multitude of cultural factors. Prior studies of bereavement adjustment have primarily focused on bereaved survivors who identify racially as white;knowledge of the experience of grief and bereavement among racial/ethnic and other minority groups, particularly among Latino/a groups, in the United States is limited. Objective: The purpose of this review is to synthesize the literature documenting the bereavement experiences of the Latino/a community, evaluate the strength of the current evidence, and provide recommendations to guide future research. Method: A narrative review of research on grief and bereavement in the Latino/a community published between 1990 and 2021. Two authors used a thematic, deductive approach to categorize emergent prevalent themes from the literature and used The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) and The Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine—Evidence Quality Rating Scale (OCEBM) approaches to evaluate the strength of the qualitative and quantitative reports reviewed. Results: Searches revealed 26 reports that were categorized into six themes: cultural values, mourning rituals, immigration, spirituality, disparities related to the COVID-19 pandemic, and the effects of COVID-19 on Latino/a communities. Our evaluation concludes that the evidence in this area is weak, with limited methodologically rigorous research examining the influence of culture on bereavement among Latino/a groups. Conclusion: Research is needed to identify Latino/a groups' mental health, cultural, social, and family needs and how fulfillment of mourning rituals and other cultural factors may promote or impede bereavement adjustment. Investigation into factors that may protect bereaved survivors against adverse mental health outcomes is also needed. A better understanding of Latino/a grief and bereavement is a step toward the development of culturally competent interventions designed to promote the mental health and psychosocial adjustment of Latino/a mourners.

7.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 2022 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036211

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To suggest possible approaches to combatting the impact of the COVID-19 infodemic in-order to prevent research waste in future health emergencies and in everyday research and practice. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review. The Epistemonikos database was searched in June 2021 for systematic reviews on the effectiveness of convalescent plasma for COVID-19. Two reviewers independently screened the retrieved references with disagreements resolved by discussion. Data extraction was completed by one reviewer with a proportion checked by a second. We used AMSTAR-2 to assess the quality of conduct and reporting of included reviews. RESULTS: 51 systematic reviews are included with 193 individual studies included within the systematic reviews. There was considerable duplication of effort: multiple reviews were conducted at the same time with inconsistencies in the evidence included. The reviews were of low methodological quality, poorly reported and did not adhere to PRISMA guidance. CONCLUSION: Researchers need to conduct, appraise, interpret and disseminate systematic reviews better. All in the research community (researchers, peer-reviewers, journal editors, funders, decision makers, clinicians, journalists and the public) need to work together to facilitate the conduct of robust systematic reviews that are published and communicated in a timely manner, reducing research duplication and waste, increasing transparency and accessibility of all systematic reviews.

8.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 226:107118, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2035887

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The application of machine learning algorithms for assessing the auditory brainstem response has gained interest over recent years with a considerable number of publications in the literature. In this systematic review, we explore how machine learning has been used to develop algorithms to assess auditory brainstem responses. A clear and comprehensive overview is provided to allow clinicians and researchers to explore the domain and the potential translation to clinical care. METHODS: The systematic review was performed based on PRISMA guidelines. A search was conducted of PubMed, IEEE-Xplore, and Scopus databases focusing on human studies that have used machine learning to assess auditory brainstem responses. The duration of the search was from January 1, 1990, to April 3, 2021. The Covidence systematic review platform (www.covidence.org) was used throughout the process. RESULTS: A total of 5812 studies were found through the database search and 451 duplicates were removed. The title and screening process further reduced the article count to 89 and in the proceeding full-text screening, 34 articles met our full inclusion criteria. CONCLUSION: Three categories of applications were found, namely neurologic diagnosis, hearing threshold estimation, and other (does not relate to neurologic or hearing threshold estimation). Neural networks and support vector machines were the most commonly used machine learning algorithms in all three categories. Only one study had conducted a clinical trial to evaluate the algorithm after development. Challenges remain in the amount of data required to train machine learning models. Suggestions for future research avenues are mentioned with recommended reporting methods for researchers.

9.
J Med Virol ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2034899

ABSTRACT

This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the prevalence and factors associated with vaccine hesitancy and vaccine unwillingness in Canada. Eleven databases were searched in March 2022. The pooled prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and unwillingness were estimated. Sub-group analyses and meta-regressions were performed. Out of 667 studies screened, 86 full-text articles were reviewed, 30 were included in the systematic review. Twenty-four articles were included in the meta-analysis;12 for the pooled prevalence of vaccine hesitancy (42.3%[95%CI, 33.7%-51.0%]) and 12 for vaccine unwillingness (20.1% [95% CI, 15.2% - 24.9%]). Vaccine hesitancy was higher in females (18.3% [95% CI, 12.4% - 24.2%]) than males (13.9% [95% CI, 9.0% - 18.8%]), rural (16.3%[95%CI, 12.9%-19.7%]) versus urban areas (14.1%[95%CI, 9.9% - 18.3%]). Vaccine unwillingness was higher in females (19.9% [95%CI, 11.0%-24.8%]) compared to males (13.6%[95% CI, 8.0%-19.2%]), non-White individuals (21.7% [95% CI, 16.2% - 27.3%]) than White individuals (14.8% [95% CI, 11.0% - 18.5%]), and secondary or less (24.2% [95% CI, 18.8% - 29.6%]) versus post-secondary education (15.9% [95% CI, 11.6% - 20.2%]). Factors related to racial disparities, gender, education level, and age were discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

10.
International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology ; 18(2):231-244, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2034055

ABSTRACT

Given the flexibility and ubiquity brought about by mobile learning (m-learning), many learning institutions have adopted m-learning to ensure efficiency and effectiveness in teaching and learning. Catalysed by COVID-19 protocols such as social distancing and lockdowns, m-learning is gaining a lot of ground in Africa. As a result, several m-learning deployment models and strategies have emerged. Although many studies have been conducted in this domain, there are still no global models and best practices that guide implementation of m-learning especially in resource-constrained contexts. This study employs a systematic review and interpretive approach to collate the key body of knowledge in m-learning design and implementation over the past 10 years in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. Comparison with m-learning practice in the developed world, as a barometer to ascertain the advancement of m-learning practice in the developing world, with a particular focus on sub-Saharan Africa was also undertaken. The results show that m-learning research is predominantly undertaken in South Africa and Nigeria with only a few other countries engaging in such research. However, most of the studies were not grounded on solid theoretical frameworks and empirical findings. Moreover, this study found that the Technology Acceptance Model is the most used theoretical framework. Most studies on m-learning have relied on surveys as the most preferred data collection tool. These findings contribute towards knowledge creation at levels of theory and practice by highlighting the extant knowledge, and gaps that could inform future m-learning research.

11.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 888452, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032803

ABSTRACT

Fungal co-infections are frequent in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and can affect patient outcomes and hamper therapeutic efforts. Nonetheless, few studies have investigated fungal co-infections in this population. This study was performed to assess the rate of fungal co-infection in patients with COVID-19 as a systematic review. EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Web of Science were searched considering broad-based search criteria associated with COVID-19 and fungal co-infection. We included case reports and case series studies, published in the English language from January 1, 2020 to November 30, 2021, that reported clinical features, diagnosis, and outcomes of fungal co-infection in patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Totally, 54 case reports and 17 case series were identified, and 181 patients (132 men, 47 women, and 2 not mentioned) co-infected with COVID-19 and fungal infection enrolled. The frequency of fungal co-infection among patients with COVID-19 was 49.7, 23.2, 19.8, 6.6, and 0.5% in Asia, America, Europe, Africa, and Australia, respectively. Diabetes (59.6%) and hypertension (35.9%) were found as the most considered comorbidities in COVID-19 patients with fungal infections. These patients mainly suffered from fever (40.8%), cough (30.3%), and dyspnea (23.7%). The most frequent findings in the laboratory results of patients and increase in C-reactive protein (CRP) (33.1%) and ferritin (18.2%), and lymphopenia (16%) were reported. The most common etiological agents of fungal infections were Aspergillus spp., Mucor spp., Rhizopus spp., and Candida spp. reported in study patients. The mortality rate was 54.6%, and the rate of discharged patients was 45.3%. Remdesivir and voriconazole were the most commonly used antiviral and antifungal agents for the treatment of patients. The global prevalence of COVID-19-related deaths is 6.6%. Our results showed that 54.6% of COVID-19 patients with fungal co-infections died. Thus, this study indicated that fungal co-infection and COVID-19 could increase mortality. Targeted policies should be considered to address this raised risk in the current pandemic. In addition, fungal infections are sometimes diagnosed late in patients with COVID-19, and the severity of the disease worsens, especially in patients with underlying conditions. Therefore, patients with fungal infections should be screened regularly during the COVID-19 pandemic to prevent the spread of the COVID-19 patients with fungal co-infection.

12.
JAMS Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies ; 15(4):214-226, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033619

ABSTRACT

Currently, acupressure is widely accepted as a non-pharmacological therapy for managing pain, nausea and vomiting, and mental health conditions. Since acupressure can be self-administered, clinicians and researchers’ interest in information and communication technologies (ICTs) for disseminating acupressure to manage symptoms has increased. This mini review was conducted to examine clinical studies of acupressure using ICTs, with a particular focus on self-acupressure. Through a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL, all studies of self-acupressure using ICTs published before December 31, 2021 were collected. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. More than half of the studies published since 2020 (4/7, 54.14%) were described as being related to COVID-19. As target conditions, musculoskeletal injuries or pain, cancer-related symptoms, dysmenorrhea, mental health issues, and obesity were considered. The most frequently used acupoints were LI4, LR3, and Shenmen. Moreover, smartphone applications were the most commonly used ICT method to support self-acupressure. In addition to the basic information of self-acupressure, other tools such as timers, reminders, and schedule checkers to facilitate its implementations have been incorporated into the smartphone applications. Recently, there have been some attempts to combine acupressure and ICTs. Although these studies mainly focus on musculoskeletal pain or injuries, recent studies related to mental health have emerged in relation to COVID-19. However, few studies have been conducted to date, making it difficult to fully grasp the trends in this field. Therefore, more studies are needed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of combining self-acupressure and ICTs in more diverse clinical areas.

13.
Vestnik Urologii ; 10(1):128-134, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033528

ABSTRACT

The male reproductive health depends on several factors that can be divided into two main groups: the first group, genetic or hereditary (in particular, klinefelter syndrome, etc.), the second acquired factors that depend on the person's lifestyle (bad habits, diet), stress, infectious diseases of the genitourinary system, etc. The presence of infectious and inflammatory diseases of the male reproductive system leads to impaired reproductive and endocrine function, significantly reducing the reproductive potential. In the last three years of our time around the world, including Russia, the number of people who have become ill with a new viral infection (cOVID-19) caused by the new coronavirus (SARS-coV-2), which causes dysfunction and has a negative effect on many organs and organs, body systems. The overview of recent publications is devoted to the study of the effect of SARS-coV-2 on the reproductive health of men. The search was performed using the Medline, PubMed, and EMBASE databases.

14.
GERMS ; 12(2):276-282, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033513

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic can be acknowledged as one of the most significant public health emergencies the world has encountered in the last few decades. The purpose of the current review is to understand the significance of contact tracing and explore the pros and cons of digital contact tracing in ensuring better containment of the COVID-19 outbreaks. A widespread search of published articles pertaining to the topic was done in the PubMed search engine and a total of 46 articles matching the objectives of the present review were identified. However, four articles were discarded because of the non-availability of the free full text, and thus 42 research papers were finally included. Digital contact tracing bridges the gap wherein we aim to expedite the process of contact tracing to identify the potential contacts of the confirmed cases. These applications are designed in such a way that they send a notification on the smartphone of a person, once the user is exposed to one or more confirmed cases of COVID-19. To conclude, in the battle against the COVID-19 infection, the international welfare agencies and national policy makers have been looking forward to the employment of digital technologies to support the ongoing public health measures for contact tracing. The approach of digital contact/proximity tracing should be considered as a supplement to conventional manual tracing. The need of the hour is to take specific measures to improve the inherent design of these apps, their implementation and demonstration of their effectiveness, which in turn will play a part in enhancing their acceptance and usability among the general population.

15.
Pulmonologiya ; 31(6):792-798, 2021.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033501

ABSTRACT

The main focus in the course of COVID-19 goes on assessing the overall immune response. The role of mucosal immunity in this disease has not been studied sufficiently. The study aimed to analyze published data about secretory IgA as a significant indicator of the mucosal immune response of the respiratory tract in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods. Articles were identified via PubMed bibliographic database. The time-span of research was two years (2020, 2021). Results. The search identified 54 articles. There is evidence that secretory IgA (sIgA) is the main antibody isotype of the mucosal immunity. It is produced in quantities significantly higher than those of all other isotypes of immunoglobulins combined. sIgA antibodies are effective against various pathogens, including the SARS-CoV-2 virus, due to mechanisms such as neutralization, suppression of adhesion to the mucosal surface and invasion of epithelial cells, agglutination and facilitating the removal of pathogenic microorganisms with the mucosal secretions. Virus-specific IgA antibodies in the blood serum are detected in patients with COVID-19 as early as two days after the first symptoms, while IgM or IgG class antibodies appear only after 5 days. We accessed the efficacy of intranasal immunization as to induction of predominant production of sIgA in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Conclusion. The current information on the local immune response of the respiratory mucosa is important for understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease, diagnosis, and development of new methods of treatment and prevention of COVID-19.

16.
World Journal of Clinical Cases ; 10(26):9228-9240, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033420

ABSTRACT

Management of colorectal cancer (CRC) was severely affected by the changes implemented during the pandemic, and this resulted in delayed elective presentation, increased emergency presentation, reduced screening and delayed definitive therapy. This review was conducted to analyze the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on management of CRC and to identify the changes made in order to adapt to the pandemic. We performed a literature search in PubMed, Medline, Index Medicus, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Reference Citation Analysis (https://www.referencecitationanalysis.com/) and Google Scholar using the following keywords in various combinations: Colorectal cancer, elective surgery, emergency surgery, stage upgrading, screening, surveillance and the COVID-19 pandemic. Only studies published in English were included. To curtail the spread of COVID-19 infection, there were modifications made in the management of CRC. Screening was limited to high risk individuals, and the screening tests of choice during the pandemic were fecal occult blood test, fecal immunochemical test and stool DNA testing. The use of capsule colonoscopy and open access colonoscopy was also encouraged. Blood-based tests like serum methylated septin 9 were also encouraged for screening of CRC during the pandemic. The presentation of CRC was also affected by the pandemic with more patients presenting with emergencies like obstruction and perforation. Stage migration was also observed during the pandemic with more patients presenting with more advanced tumors. The operative therapy of CRC was altered by the pandemic as more emergencies surgeries were done, which may require exteriorization by stoma. This was to reduce the morbidity associated with anastomosis and encourage early discharge from the hospital. There was also an initial reduction in laparoscopic surgical procedures due to the fear of aerosols and COVID-19 infection. As we gradually come out of the pandemic, we should remember the lessons learned and continue to apply them even after the pandemic passes

17.
Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences ; 26(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033388

ABSTRACT

Background: Accurate detection of the global epidemic-causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is for disease surveillance. Additionally, RT-qPCR has been accepted as a reference test and is widely used for this purpose. However, RT-qPCR applications are not possible in all health centers. Therefore, the tests commonly used in the diagnosis of infectious disease should be evaluated from all angles to assess their potential role in the prognosis and management of COVID-19 patients. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare the diagnostic sensitivity of point of care (POC), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and computed tomography (CT) used in the diagnosis of COVID-19. Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted via searching in databases such as NCBI, Google Scholar, and Medline in accordance with the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA). Results: The pooled sensitivity of POC, ELISA, and CT was estimated at 68.62%, 88.05%, and 75.43%, respectively. In addition, the mean correct positivity rate of POC, ELISA, and CT was calculated to be 68.61%, 88.04%, and 79.25%, respectively. The sensitivity and true positivity rate of ELISA was observed to be the highest. Conclusions: According to the results, ELISA is a more accurate approach to the diagnosis of COVID-19 compared to POC and CT owing to its high sensitivity and true positivity rate, low false negative rate, short processing time, and simple study procedure. Although helpful in diagnosis, confirmation of ELISA results by polymerase chain reaction remains the ‘gold standard’.

18.
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ; 21(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033387

ABSTRACT

Donepezil hydrochloride is an acetylcholine esterase inhibitor studied and approved to treat Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, this drug can have positive therapeutic potential in treating different conditions, including various neurodegenerative disorders such as other types of dementia, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, psychiatric and mood disorders, and even infectious diseases. Hence, this study reviewed the therapeutic potential of this drug in treating Alzheimer’s and other diseases by reviewing the articles from databases including Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Cochrane, and Science Direct. It was shown that donepezil could affect the pathophysiology of these diseases via mechanisms such as increasing the concentration of acetylcholine, modulating local and systemic inflammatory processes, affecting acetylcholine receptors like nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, and activating various cellular signaling via receptors like sigma-1 receptors. Despite many therapeutic potentials, this drug has not yet been approved for treating non-Alzheimer’s diseases, and more comprehensive studies are needed.

19.
Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine ; 17, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033211

ABSTRACT

The length of stay in the hospital for COVID-19 can aid in understanding the disease's prognosis. Thus, the goal of this study was to collectively estimate the hospital length of stay (LoS) in COVID-19 hospitalized individuals. To locate related studies, international databases (including Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, and Scopus) were searched. The I2 index, the Cochran Q test, and T2 were used to analyze study heterogeneity. The mean LoS in COVID-19 hospitalized patients was estimated using a random-effects model. COVID-19's total pooled estimated hospital LoS was 15.35, 95%CI:13.47-17.23;p<0.001, I2 = 80.0). South America had the highest pooled estimated hospital LoS of COVID-19 among the continents, at 20.85 (95%CI: 14.80-26.91;p<0.001, I2 = 0.01), whereas Africa had the lowest at 8.56 8 (95%CI: 1.00-22.76). The >60 age group had the highest pooled estimated COVID-19 hospital LoS of 16.60 (95%CI: 12.94-20.25;p<0.001, I2 = 82.6), while the 40 age group had the lowest hospital LoS of 10.15 (95% CI: 4.90-15.39, p<0.001, I2 = 22.1). The metanalysis revealed that COVID-19's hospital LoS was more than 10 days. However, it appears that this duration varies depending on a number of factors, including the patient's age and the availability of use only

20.
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 10:437-443, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mobile health projects have been implemented worldwide, using mobile phones for record keeping, data collection, or patient communication. Further, mobile health tools have been used to promote behavior change in health workers and/or patients. For example, text message reminders have been shown to increase health-care-seeking behavior or medication adherence in some patients, and mobile data collection and communication tools for health workers have improved follow-up of patients and data reporting. METHODS: This literature review was conducted through a keyword search of the following databases to identify relevant peer-reviewed articles: Google Scholar, PubMed, Embase, and EKB. Keywords used in these searches included mHealth, mobile health, mobile phone, coverage, usage, delivery, vaccination, immunization, and COVID-19. RESULTS: Eleven studies that satisfied the inclusion criteria were included. They examined awareness, applications, challenges, and strengths of Mobile-Health applications. All studies showed some evidence that mHealth intervention had a positive impact on increasing the coverage and use of the COVID-19 vaccine. Bad awareness of people was strongly associated with declines in vaccination intent. The use of mobile applications has made a great revolution in tracking and data gathering about vaccination status. The main limitations were reporting bias and malfunctioning of mobile applications. The main strengths were getting real-time data, improving surveillance, using geographic mapping to monitor populations. CONCLUSION: Growing usage of smartphones and Internet penetration in African countries opens the door to mHealth applications such as health literacy, vaccine supply and control, disease monitoring and intervention, and virtual consultations with health professionals worldwide.

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