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1.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335918

ABSTRACT

Introduction The infection-fatality rate (IFR) of COVID-19 has been carefully measured and analyzed in high-income countries, whereas there has been no systematic analysis of age-specific seroprevalence or IFR for developing countries. Methods We systematically reviewed the literature to identify all COVID-19 serology studies in developing countries that were conducted using population representative samples collected by early 2021. For each of the antibody assays used in these serology studies, we identified data on assay characteristics, including the extent of seroreversion over time. We analyzed the serology data using a Bayesian model that incorporates conventional sampling uncertainty as well as uncertainties about assay sensitivity and specificity. We then calculated IFRs using individual case reports or aggregated public health updates, including age-specific estimates whenever feasible. Results Seroprevalence in many developing country locations was markedly higher than in high-income countries. In most locations, seroprevalence among older adults was similar to that of younger age cohorts, underscoring the limited capacity that these nations have to protect older age groups. Age-specific IFRs were roughly 2x higher than in high-income countries. The median value of the population IFR was about 0.5%, similar to that of high-income countries, because disparities in healthcare access were roughly offset by differences in population age structure. Conclusion The burden of COVID-19 is far higher in developing countries than in high-income countries, reflecting a combination of elevated transmission to middle-aged and older adults as well as limited access to adequate healthcare. These results underscore the critical need to accelerate the provision of vaccine doses to populations in developing countries.

2.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335805

ABSTRACT

Billions of doses of COVID-19 vaccines have been administered globally, dramatically reducing SARS-CoV-2 incidence and severity in some settings. Many studies suggest vaccines provide a high degree of protection against infection and disease, but precise estimates vary and studies differ in design, outcomes measured, dosing regime, location, and circulating virus strains. Here we conduct a systematic review of COVID-19 vaccines through February 2022. We included efficacy data from Phase 3 clinical trials for 15 vaccines undergoing WHO Emergency Use Listing evaluation and real-world effectiveness for 8 vaccines with observational studies meeting inclusion criteria. Vaccine metrics collected include protection against asymptomatic infection, any infection, symptomatic COVID-19, and severe outcomes including hospitalization and death, for partial or complete vaccination, and against variants of concern Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron. We additionally review the epidemiological principles behind the design and interpretation of vaccine efficacy and effectiveness studies, including important sources of heterogeneity.

3.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Debate about the level of asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) infection continues. The amount of evidence is increasing and study designs have changed over time. We updated a living systematic review to address three questions: (1) Amongst people who become infected with SARS-CoV-2, what proportion does not experience symptoms at all during their infection? (2) What is the infectiousness of asymptomatic and presymptomatic, compared with symptomatic, SARS-CoV-2 infection? (3) What proportion of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in a population is accounted for by people who are asymptomatic or presymptomatic? METHODS AND FINDINGS The protocol was first published on 1 April 2020 and last updated on 18 June 2021. We searched PubMed, Embase, bioRxiv and medRxiv, aggregated in a database of SARS-CoV-2 literature, most recently on 6 July 2021. Studies of people with PCR-diagnosed SARS-CoV-2, which documented symptom status at the beginning and end of follow-up, or mathematical modelling studies were included. Studies restricted to people already diagnosed, of single individuals or families, or without sufficient follow-up were excluded. One reviewer extracted data and a second verified the extraction, with disagreement resolved by discussion or a third reviewer. Risk of bias in empirical studies was assessed with a bespoke checklist and modelling studies with a published checklist. All data syntheses were done using random effects models. Review question (1): We included 130 studies. Heterogeneity was high so we did not estimate a mean proportion of asymptomatic infections overall (interquartile range 14-50%, prediction interval 2-90%), or in 84 studies based on screening of defined populations (interquartile range 20-65%, prediction interval 4-94%). In 46 studies based on contact or outbreak investigations, the summary proportion asymptomatic was 19% (95% CI 15-25%, prediction interval 2-70%). (2) The secondary attack rate in contacts of people with asymptomatic infection compared with symptomatic infection was 0.32 (95% CI 0.16-0.64, prediction interval 0.11-0-95, 8 studies). (3) In 13 modelling studies fit to data, the proportion of all SARS-CoV-2 transmission from presymptomatic individuals was higher than from asymptomatic individuals. Limitations of the evidence include high heterogeneity and high risks of selection and information bias in studies that were not designed to measure persistently asymptomatic infection, and limited information about variants of concern or in people who have been vaccinated. CONCLUSIONS Based on studies published up to July 2021, most SARS-CoV-2 infections were not persistently asymptomatic and asymptomatic infections were less infectious than symptomatic infections. Summary estimates from meta-analysis may be misleading when variability between studies is extreme and prediction intervals should be presented. Future studies should determine the asymptomatic proportion of SARS-CoV-2 infections caused by variants of concern and in people with immunity following vaccination or previous infection. Without prospective longitudinal studies with methods that minimise selection and measurement biases, further updates with the study types included in this living systematic review are unlikely to be able to provide a reliable summary estimate of the proportion of asymptomatic infections caused by SARS-CoV-2.

4.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335634

ABSTRACT

Background: Evaluating seroprevalence study risk of bias (RoB) is crucial for robust infection surveillance, but can be a time-consuming and subjective process. We aimed to develop decision rules for reproducible RoB assessment and an automated tool to implement these decision rules. Methods: We developed the SeroTracker-RoB approach to RoB assessment. To do so, we created objective criteria for items on the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Critical Appraisal Checklist for Prevalence Studies and developed decision rules for RoB based on these items. The criteria and decision rules were based on published guidance for assessing RoB for prevalence studies and expert opinion. Decision rules were validated against the SeroTracker database of seroprevalence studies, which included consensus manual RoB judgements from two independent reviewers. We measured efficiency by calculating paired-samples t-test for time to judge RoB using the automated tool versus manually for 25 randomly selected articles from the SeroTracker database, coverage as the proportion of database studies where the decision rules could evaluate RoB, and reliability by calculating intraclass correlations between automated and manual RoB assessments. Results: We established objective criteria for seven of nine JBI items. We developed a set of decision rules with 61 branches. The SeroTracker-RoB tool was significantly faster than manual assessment with a mean time of 0.80 vs. 2.93 minutes per article (p<0.001), classified 100% (n = 2,070) of studies, and had good reliability compared to manual review (intraclass correlation 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.74 to 0.80). The SeroTracker-RoB Excel Tool embeds this approach in a simple data extraction sheet for use by other researchers. Conclusions: The SeroTracker-RoB approach was faster than manual assessment, with complete coverage and good reliability compared to two independent human reviewers. This approach and tool enable rapid, transparent, and reproducible evidence synthesis of infection prevalence studies, and may support public health efforts during future outbreaks and pandemics.

5.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(9):4934, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837954

ABSTRACT

Although tourism has increasingly become an important activity with wide influences on the economic, social, and spatial development of a city, knowledge and interest mostly remain on its industrial performance and promotion. The synergy between tourism and city development is largely overlooked in many cases, resulting in suboptimal design and planning of city tourism activities and unfledged potentials of city development. The aim of the paper is to propose a view of tourism–industrial complex based on a synergistic perspective in order to clarify the systematic characteristics of urban tourism in an integrated, sustainable manner. Availing of bibliometric methods and drawing on city/urban tourism literature, this paper proposes a concept of tourism–industrial complex to cover current complicated and various tourism activities that are embedded in cities at diverse levels regardless of social, economic, and spatial factors. Then, four types of tourism–industrial complexes are proposed, including demand-driven, resource-dependent, externally forced, and hybrid-driven models. Due to the networked connectivity of urban tourism, urban backgrounds, tourism industry, and external circumstances all contribute to a coupling the tourism city development system. The results provide theoretical constructs and policy recommendations for optimization and sustainable city and tourism development.

6.
Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences ; 12(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837821

ABSTRACT

IntroductionCoronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19) has been declared as pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020. As of 28 November 2021, there were more than 260 million cases and nearly 5.2 million deaths caused by COVID-19. The most affected system by COVID-19 infection was the respiratory system although several other studies suggested multi-organ involvement with pathophysiology that was not clearly understood. Autopsy findings were beneficial to researchers to determine the mechanism behind these organ failures. The objective of this review was to summarize the autopsy findings related to COVID-19 death.MethodOnline literature search was conducted via online databases such as Scopus, PubMed and Google Scholar. The keywords inputted during the search were “post-mortem”, “autopsy” and “COVID-19” in title, and keywords. The inclusion criteria were the topic related with the title of this review, published in 2020–2021, have full text available and in English language. Any articles that were not related, duplicated studies, review articles including systematic review and meta-analysis and in other languages were excluded.ResultsA total of 20 articles were included in this review. The articles reviewed were mostly case reports and case series while others were case-control and cohort study ranging from one to 348 cases. Majority were originated from the United States of America (USA).ConclusionThe most frequent system described in autopsy findings in COVID-19 death was the respiratory system, with the most common histological finding of diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). Majority of the findings of other organs were related to chronic diseases.

7.
Applied Sciences ; 12(9):4459, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837579

ABSTRACT

The lack of justification of the results obtained by artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms has limited their usage in the medical context. To increase the explainability of the existing AI methods, explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) is proposed. We performed a systematic literature review, based on the guidelines proposed by Kitchenham and Charters, of studies that applied XAI methods in X-ray-image-related tasks. We identified 141 studies relevant to the objective of this research from five different databases. For each of these studies, we assessed the quality and then analyzed them according to a specific set of research questions. We determined two primary purposes for X-ray images: the detection of bone diseases and lung diseases. We found that most of the AI methods used were based on a CNN. We identified the different techniques to increase the explainability of the models and grouped them depending on the kind of explainability obtained. We found that most of the articles did not evaluate the quality of the explainability obtained, causing problems of confidence in the explanation. Finally, we identified the current challenges and future directions of this subject and provide guidelines to practitioners and researchers to improve the limitations and the weaknesses that we detected.

8.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(9):4957, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837489

ABSTRACT

Disruption in routine may be related to experiencing negative emotional states and to aggressive behaviors in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The lockdown because of COVID-19 contributed to the disruption of individuals’ routines, including the sleep–wake cycle. The current study tested a relationship between the adherence to the sleep–wake routine and aggressive behaviors via the mediation role of negative emotional states (i.e., anxiety and anger). Forty-three parents of adults with ASD completed a web-based questionnaire about their life condition during the first lockdown (April–May 2020). Preliminary analyses showed a worsening in the adults’ aggressive behaviors during the lockdown in comparison to before it (Z = −3.130;p = 0.002). In the mediation models, the relationship between the adherence to the sleep–wake routines and aggressive behaviors was significant. The models showed the hypothesized mediated relationships among the adherence to the sleep–wake routines, negative emotional states, and aggressive behaviors (Model 1: F (1, 41) = 10.478, p < 0.001;Model 2: F(1, 41) = 9.826, p = 0.003). The findings confirmed the potential protective role of the adherence to the sleep–wake routines for the emotional and behavioral adjustment of adults with autism. Theoretical and practical contributions of the study were discussed;indeed, our results may inform parent-coaching as well as intervention programs for individuals with ASD given that adequate sleep hygiene may contribute to improvements in internalizing/externalizing behaviors.

9.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(9):5642, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837138

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Good Infection prevention and control (IPC) is vital for tackling antimicrobial resistance and limiting health care-associated infections. We compared IPC performance before (2019) and during the COVID-19 (2021) era at the national IPC unit and all regional (4) and district hospitals (8) in Sierra Leone. Methods: Cross-sectional assessments using standardized World Health Organizations IPC checklists. IPC performance scores were graded as inadequate = 0–25%, basic = 25.1–50%, intermediate = 50.1–75%, and advanced = 75.1–100%. Results: Overall performance improved from ‘basic’ to ‘intermediate’ at the national IPC unit (41% in 2019 to 58% in 2021) and at regional hospitals (37% in 2019 to 54% in 2021) but remained ‘basic’ at district hospitals (37% in 2019 to 50% in 2021). Priority gaps at the national IPC unit included lack of: a dedicated IPC budget, monitoring the effectiveness of IPC trainings and health care-associated infection surveillance. Gaps at hospitals included no assessment of hospital staffing needs, inadequate infrastructure for IPC and lack of a well-defined monitoring plan with clear goals, targets and activities. Conclusion: Although there is encouraging progress in IPC performance, it is slower than desired in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. There is urgent need to mobilize political will, leadership and resources and make a quantum leap forward.

10.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(9):5036, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837115

ABSTRACT

Background: Tobacco smoke has been associated with negative health outcomes, including those with chronic respiratory illnesses, such as asthma. This study aimed to assess the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), as well as tobacco use (cigarette and electronic cigarettes), on asthma severity among adults with current asthma, with stratification by sex to understand potential biological sex differences. Methods: The study population consisted of Californian adults 18 years or older with self-reported physician/health care diagnosis of asthma and still having current asthma from 2020 California Health Interview Survey. All descriptive statistics and analyses were sex-stratified and survey-weighted. Crosstabulations were used to understand the association between asthma attack and ETS or firsthand smoke exposure, while binary logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of ETS exposure, current smoking status, and control variables on asthma attack in the past 12 months, with a sub-analysis among non-smoking adults with asthma. Results: Among the primary variable of interest, 35% of males and 30% of females reported ETS exposure in the past 12 months, while 13% of males and 6% of females reported being a current smoker. Past year asthma attack was reported among 43% and 55% of males and females, respectively. Among males, after adjusting for all control variables, asthma attack was significantly higher among those with ETS exposure (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.01–3.02) and among current smokers (OR: 3.82, 95% CI: 1.49, 9.81). Male non-smokers with ETS exposure had a 109% higher odds of asthma attack, compared to non-exposure individuals. Conclusion: Using a population-based survey, our results highlight the ongoing burden of tobacco use and exposure particularly among males with current asthma, further corroborate the literature on the relationship between tobacco and asthma, and highlight putative sex-specific outcomes.

11.
Applied Sciences ; 12(9):4117, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837048

ABSTRACT

Despite the evident growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) applications, IoT deployments in organizations remain in their early stages. This paper aims to systematically review and analyze the existing literature on IoT adoption in organizations. The extant literature was identified using five electronic databases from 2015 to July 2021. Seventy-seven articles have met the eligibility criteria and were analyzed to answer the research questions. This study produced a coherent taxonomy that can serve as a framework for future research on IoT adoption in organizations. This paper presents an overview of the essential features of this emerging technology in terms of IoT adoption benefits and challenges in organizations. Existing theoretical models have been analyzed to identify the factors that influence IoT adoption and to understand the future requirements for widespread IoT adoption in organizations. Six critical factors affecting and playing a key role in IoT adoption in organizations were identified based on the critical review findings: technological, organizational, environmental, human, benefit, and value. Decision-makers and developers can prioritize these critical factors and progressively improve their development to enhance IoT adoption efficiency. This review also includes an in-depth analysis to bridge gaps and provide a comprehensive overview to further understand this research field.

12.
African Renaissance ; 2022(si1):237-237–257, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1836509

ABSTRACT

Although the COVID-19 pandemic, its ensuing lockdowns, and the accelerated rate of pandemic outbreaks in the last six (6) years have resulted in burdening household realities for all. There seems to be an increasing and bruising reality for the feminine role. Therefore, this article examined the extent of the increasing realities, vulnerabilities and burden on women and girls during the COVID-19 pandemic globally. The radical feminist theorisation was found most suitable in analysing some of the experiences women and girls encountered during other epidemics and the COVID-19 pandemic. Using the systematic review of articles on the PubMed and ScienceDirect databases between 2014-2020;findings showed that the COVID-19 and other epidemics outbreaks have heightened the roles of women and girls within and outside households and have resulted in increased economic realities, increased vulnerabilities to infections, increased mortality rates due to conflicts, violence and displacements;the inability of the girl-child to focus on home-schooling via the e-learning platforms as a result of the increased burden of household activities amongst others. These gendered roles and stereotypes accrued to women and girls took another dimension during the COVID-19 outbreak, especially as the world experienced partial and total lockdown. Hence, this study recommended the dire need for community engagement and sensitisation to better educate women and men about possible risk factors and shared responsibility for preventive actions against future pandemics. Finally, data disaggregation on these gender demands and realities in the household is important to create platforms to generate further discussions.

13.
Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education ; 18(5), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1836465

ABSTRACT

Development of the STEM curriculum played a key role in economic development because it enabled the production of well-qualified production from schools. This development extensively depends on the demonstration of competence in key knowledge areas such as science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines (Dhurumraj et al., 2020). Sustainable STEM education is still in its early stage of development in higher education. Although the COVID-19 pandemic presented unprecedented challenges to this fairly new field, it also helped increase the focus on elements of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, concerning education (Sobrosa Neto et al., 2020). This study systematically reviewed the current articles (n=15) of STEM education in higher education during COVID-19. Results indicated that Faculty members considered the transition from face-to-face to web-based programs effective even though they faced several challenges. Further investigation showed that the application of STEM online learning has helped to increase students’ creativity and the rate of STEM research by both students and faculty members. Comparative studies about the differences between the two modes of STEM learning in higher education programs (face-to-face, online) and how they can be harmonized is suggested. © 2022 by the authors;licensee Modestum. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

14.
Gates Open Research ; 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1835867

ABSTRACT

Family planning represents a ‘best buy’ in global efforts to achieve sustainable development and attain improvements in sexual and reproductive health. By meeting contraceptive needs of all women, significant public health impact and development gains accrue. At the same time, governments face the complex challenge of allocating finite resources to competing priorities, each of which presents known and unknown challenges and opportunities. Zambia has experienced a slow but steady increase in contraceptive prevalence, with slight decline in total fertility rate (TFR), over the past 20 years. Drawing from the Zambian context, including a review of current policy solutions, we present a case for making investments in voluntary family planning (FP), underpinned by a human rights framework, as a pillar for accelerating development and socio-economic advancement. Through multilevel interventions aimed at averting unintended pregnancies, Zambia – and other low- and middle-income countries – can reduce their age dependency ratios and harness economic growth opportunities awarded by the demographic dividend while improving the health and quality of life of the population.

15.
Journal of Nursing Education ; 61(5):229-236, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834976

ABSTRACT

Background: Nursing students experience similar stress-related health issues as RNs and have been identified as a group of health professionals who may be unable to cope effectively with stress. Studies have emphasized the need to incorporate resilience programs at higher education institutions for nursing students. However, it is important to identify strategies that increase resilience to ensure future programs are effective and follow an evidence-based approach. Method: This mixed-methods systematic review was conducted using Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) methodology. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using JBI Critical Appraisal Checklists for assessment and quality appraisal. Data were extracted and synthesized thematically. Results: Category intervention strategies were identified and used to cluster three intervention strategy themes. Three outcome themes also were synthesized to examine strategy effectiveness. Conclusion: Findings indicate multicomponent interventions that include information sharing, skill application, and reflective learning are effective in helping nursing students manage stress and increase resilience. [J Nurs Educ. 2022;61(5):229–235.]

16.
Stresses ; 1(2):119, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834888

ABSTRACT

Concomitantly, the reduced sources of antioxidants, including superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, vitamin A, E, C and carotenoids in obese patients promotes a vulnerability to oxidative damage and consequently increases susceptibility to infections [14]. [...]obesity is associated with a state of metaflammation—chronic low-grade inflammation—a condition that, among other factors, contributes to inducing systemic OS. Characteristic hyperlipidaemia observed in obese patients stimulates monocytes and macrophages and induces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 [16,18,19]. [...]in obese COVID-19 patients, the already pre-existing effects prompted by the lipid peroxidation-dependent OS could be further aggravated by SARS-CoV-2 infection [20], affecting the immune control system in response to infection and potentially increasing the severity of the lung disease and contributing to multiorgan failure. The results of the study demonstrated that the antibody titre was significantly higher in young and female participants compared to the male and older population. [...]the humoral response was significantly more efficient in subjects with lower and normal weight compared to overweight and obese subjects. [...]the consequence of OS on immunological functions and the evidence of weakened virus vaccine effectiveness in obese patients raise concerns about COVID-19 vaccine responsiveness in this population.

17.
Radiation ; 1(3):234, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834874

ABSTRACT

Simple SummaryThere are limited available data indicating that in oxygen-dependent elderly patients with COVID-19-associated pneumonia, low-dose whole-lung radiation doses, ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 Gy, can lead to accelerated recovery and progress in clinical status, encephalopathy, and radiographic consolidation without any detectable acute toxicity. Therefore, low-dose radiation therapy (LDRT), using conventional cancer radiation therapy machines, could be introduced as a safe treatment with promising efficacy that fully warrants further large-scale studies. Current findings indicate that LDRT could increase the survival of elderly patients and of patients with genetic risk factors, who are at greater risk of mortality due to COVID-19, even if more preclinical work and clinical trials are needed before any clear conclusion can be made.The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is of great concern for the whole world, and finding an effective treatment for the disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is, therefore, a global race. In particular, treatment options for elderly patients and patients with genetic risk factors with COVID-19-associated pneumonia are limited, and many patients die. Low-dose radiotherapy (LDRT) of lungs was used to treat pneumonia many decades ago. Since the first report on the potential efficacy of LDRT for COVID-19-associated pneumonia was published on 1 April, 2020, tens of papers have addressed the importance of this treatment. Moreover, the findings of less than 10 clinical trials conducted to date are now available. We performed a detailed search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus and selected the nine most relevant articles. A review of these articles was conducted. The available data indicate that in oxygen-dependent elderly patients with COVID-19-associated pneumonia, whole-lung radiation at doses of 0.5–1.5 Gy can lead to accelerated recovery and progress in clinical status, encephalopathy, and radiographic consolidation without any detectable acute toxicity. Although data collected so far show that LDRT could be introduced as a treatment with promising efficacy, due to limitations such as lack of randomization in most studies, we need further large-scale randomized studies, especially for elderly patients who are at greater risk of mortality due to COVID-19. However, more preclinical work and clinical trials are needed before any clear conclusion can be made.

18.
Journal of Medical Internet Research ; 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834179

ABSTRACT

Background: Mobile health (mHealth) apps are revolutionizing the way clinicians and researchers monitor and manage the health of their participants. However, many studies using mHealth apps are hampered by substantial participant dropout or attrition, which may impact the representativeness of the sample and the effectiveness of the study. Therefore, it is imperative for researchers to understand what makes participants stay with mHealth apps or studies using mHealth apps. Objective: This study aimed to review the current peer-reviewed research literature to identify the notable factors and strategies used in adult participant engagement and retention. Methods: We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases for mHealth studies that evaluated and assessed issues or strategies to improve the engagement and retention of adults from 2015 to 2020. We followed the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Notable themes were identified and narratively compared among different studies. A binomial regression model was generated to examine the factors affecting retention. Results: Of the 389 identified studies, 62 (15.9%) were included in this review. Overall, most studies were partially successful in maintaining participant engagement. Factors related to particular elements of the app (eg, feedback, appropriate reminders, and in-app support from peers or coaches) and research strategies (eg, compensation and niche samples) that promote retention were identified. Factors that obstructed retention were also identified (eg, lack of support features, technical difficulties, and usefulness of the app). The regression model results showed that a participant is more likely to drop out than to be retained. Conclusions: Retaining participants is an omnipresent challenge in mHealth studies. The insights from this review can help inform future studies about the factors and strategies to improve participant retention.

19.
British Journal of Sports Medicine ; 56(10):535-536, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1832389

ABSTRACT

Correspondence to Dr Sharief Hendricks, Division of Physiological Sciences, Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa;sharief.hendricks01@gmail.com There is little argument against the benefits of physical activity for most cohorts: healthy individuals, patients with non-communicable disease and auto-immune conditions, and patients with cancer - all experience improved health outcomes from regular physical activity. While a large body of evidence exists on running-related injury risk factors, little is known about risk factors specific to trail running.1 To address this gap, young South African clinician researcher Carel Viljoen and his team conducted a living systematic review on trail running and injury risk (see page 577) . Physical activity, exercise and COVID-19 Across the globe, athletes have reported a decrease in physical activity since COVID-19.2 3 However, regular physical activity may have a protective effect against adverse outcomes from COVID-19.

20.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1832158

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tissue fillers are among the most popular cosmetic procedures performed and notably, cases of filler reactions after COVID-19 vaccination have been reported. OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics of patients with filler reaction after COVID-19 vaccination and address several considerations that have to be taken into practice. METHODS: A PRISMA compliant systematic search was conducted in Scopus, Web of science, and Pubmed/Medline databases for articles published from inception up to 21 October 2021. RESULTS: Out of 106 initially retrieved articles, 4 of them were included in our study, and a total number of 13 cases were analyzed. In this study, we found that all of the patients who developed delayed-type reaction (DTR) following COVID-19 vaccination were middle-aged women without any known history of allergy to foods or drugs. All patients had a history of Hyaluronic acid (HA) filler injection in their head and neck and demonstrated symptoms particularly swelling, from less than 1 day up to 10 days after the first or second doses of vaccines. Lisinopril, hyaluronidase, and corticosteroids seemed to have good results in management. CONCLUSION: Although rare, DTR to fillers after COVID-19 vaccination can happen. Physicians should be aware of the pathogenesis and management of this phenomenon.

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