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1.
Virtual Learning: Insights and Perspectives ; : 131-150, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2034482

ABSTRACT

Every economy in the world is facing alarming issues caused by the rigorous Covid-19 pandemic. There are lots of question marks in everyone's mind that what will happen after the end of this worldwide pandemic relating to the way we live, work, communicate, celebrate, educate and many more. Although due to the virus pandemic, educational institutions have suspended campus teaching classes to restrain the spread of the coronavirus. Education institutions have shifted to online-mode of lecture delivery to safeguard the endurance of the teaching-learning course. This paper discusses the present state of digital infrastructure used by faculty of primary as well as secondary education sector in India through a questionnaire that was specifically designed to meet the requirements. With the help of 87 respondents, this paper would be highlighting the challenges which Indian educational institutions are facing while following the digital way of teaching, assessing and measuring the students' performance Also, suggestions for improving the digital infrastructure in India for education so that in future digital mode can be used effectively. © 2023 Contributors and Manakin Press. All rights reserved.

2.
Tourism and Hospitality International Journal ; 18(2):55-58, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034432

ABSTRACT

This article discusses the state of the tourism industry during the COVID-19 pandemic and how information and communication technologies (ICTs) can be used to make a valuable contribution to this sector. ICTs have become an important factor in building resilience in tourism. They have played an extremely important role during the course of the current pandemic.

3.
Virtual Learning: Insights and Perspectives ; : 85-93, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2034384

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus (COVID-19) which have influenced global health and becomes a most sensitive challenge in this era. COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by a "Coronavirus" (a type of virus). Perhaps, the virus and disease were first identified in the Wuhan city, China, on 31st December 2019. Globally across 210 countries are fighting against COVID-19 and India also included among them with a large number of cases. To control the situation, India has been followinglockdown since March 2020 and people are facing lots of challenges in their dayto day life. During this period surviving has become a greater challenge to all. Like other sectors, all educational institutions have been closed for a long period. In India, many colleges and universities are adopted the digital classroom platform to cover up their academic session within a particular time. Learners are experiencing something new and unconventional through online classroom teaching. This paper aims to present "The Impact of digital learning on the teaching-learning process and whether it fulfills the needs of the learner by focusing on both positive and negative aspects". © 2023 Contributors and Manakin Press. All rights reserved.

4.
Curriculum and Teaching Dialogue ; 24(1/2):135-138,312, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2034272

ABSTRACT

According to the report, rote memorization and repetition is today's dominant teaching method (Creativity in Learning, 2019). Interestingly, the Gallup study (Creativity in Learning, 2019) revealed that parents and teachers do not value standardized testing as an effective measure of student learning with only 4% of parents and 1% of teachers ranking scores on standardized tests as an important learning outcome. Despite rising calls for preservice teachers to be prepared with the pedagogical content understanding needed to teach statistics, there are few stand-alone statistics courses available. [...]she contends that teachers from all subject areas must be able to decipher the statistical data generated on their pupils, schools, and themselves.

5.
Boletin de Malariologia y Salud Ambiental ; 61(Edicion Especial II 2021):188-194, 2021.
Article in Spanish | GIM | ID: covidwho-2034255

ABSTRACT

EHealth is defined as the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) for health, a concept that has evolved in the last two decades, along with advances in this field. Given the arrival of the COVID-19 pandemic, ICTs have played an important role in society, informing the scope, risks and care of this disease, facilitating the care and monitoring of patients and allowing the logistics of Nations and organizations, among many other aspects. Additionally, technology has been a protagonist in the medical and scientific community, in the search for knowledge and understanding about the new coronavirus Sars-Cov-2, from its appearance in a Chinese town to the worrying impact by the new circulating variants, derived from the genetic mutation of the pathogen. This research study by Alphafold, GISAID and MasterOfPores, innovative technologies of public access, free and of high scientific reliability, which make up a new methodology in mutagenic detection, structural modeling and antigen research, in the fight against COVID-19 and its new variants. Finally, ICTs have been and will continue to be vital in the fight against COVID-19, in the research and development of antigens that make it possible to immunize a large part of the world's population.

6.
Virtual Learning: Insights and Perspectives ; : 151-159, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2034224

ABSTRACT

On the 30th of January 2020, World Health Organisation (WHO) declared corona virus outbreak as a public health emergency of international concern. The 2019 novel corona virus (2019-nCoV) had its origin in Wuhan, China and has spread to around 200 countries which has alarmed public health authorities all over the world. Due to the spread of deadly coronavirus pandemic the state governments across the country started to shut down schools and colleges temporarily. The slowdown in the education sector will have long lastingimplications. The only ray of hope for the education sector is the use of technology where in the lockdown period students can study from home and faculty also work from home. In India, some private schools could adopt online teaching methods. However, low-income private and government school may not be able to adopt online teaching methodsas a result of which there will be complete shut down due to no access to e-learning solutions. © 2023 Contributors and Manakin Press. All rights reserved.

7.
The Canadian Journal of Regional Science ; 45(2):89, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2034092

ABSTRACT

The digital divide in Canada has gained significant attention from policymakers and the public in 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic enhances the vulnerability of residents in rural and Indigenous communities that lack highspeed Internet access which affects their residents' ability to participate in an online work and learning environment. However, digital inequalities also remain an issue in urban settings despite the physical infrastructure that is usually in place to connect to high-speed Internet. The federal government has launched several funding initiatives at the end of 2020;however, this paper argues that the current federal policy strategy to address the digital divide is insufficient. By drawing on the intersectional character of the digital divide, which is interlinked with other types of socio-economic inequalities, this paper investigates why the federal broadband development approach remains problematic. As the digital divide in Canada persists, this paper explores current federal funding initiatives and their effectiveness in supporting broadband deployment across rural and Indigenous communities. The analysis shows inequalities regarding broadband access and funding distribution in Canada which also stem from a lack of democratic efficacy during federal hearings.

8.
International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology ; 18(2):231-244, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2034055

ABSTRACT

Given the flexibility and ubiquity brought about by mobile learning (m-learning), many learning institutions have adopted m-learning to ensure efficiency and effectiveness in teaching and learning. Catalysed by COVID-19 protocols such as social distancing and lockdowns, m-learning is gaining a lot of ground in Africa. As a result, several m-learning deployment models and strategies have emerged. Although many studies have been conducted in this domain, there are still no global models and best practices that guide implementation of m-learning especially in resource-constrained contexts. This study employs a systematic review and interpretive approach to collate the key body of knowledge in m-learning design and implementation over the past 10 years in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. Comparison with m-learning practice in the developed world, as a barometer to ascertain the advancement of m-learning practice in the developing world, with a particular focus on sub-Saharan Africa was also undertaken. The results show that m-learning research is predominantly undertaken in South Africa and Nigeria with only a few other countries engaging in such research. However, most of the studies were not grounded on solid theoretical frameworks and empirical findings. Moreover, this study found that the Technology Acceptance Model is the most used theoretical framework. Most studies on m-learning have relied on surveys as the most preferred data collection tool. These findings contribute towards knowledge creation at levels of theory and practice by highlighting the extant knowledge, and gaps that could inform future m-learning research.

9.
Boletin de Malariologia y Salud Ambiental ; 62(2):343-351, 2022.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2033887

ABSTRACT

The health crisis caused by COVID-19 generated the application of social distancing and confinement measures for a long time, undermining participation in community activism and promoting the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for the control and prevention of the disease;however, there is a wide gap between those who have access to the internet and those who do not, and the spread of COVID-19 has only deepened this gap. A descriptive and correlational study was carried out in order to determine the relationship between the digital divide and ICTs for the control of the COVID-19 pandemic, in 119 users who attend a telecenter in the Peruvian Amazon. A questionnaire made up of 37 items related to the digital divide and ICTs, evaluated using a Likert scale, was applied. Likewise, an instrument with 15 items was applied to evaluate the search for information about COVID-19. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Differences were found between what is known and what should be known about COVID-19, generating an information gap about the disease;In addition, a correlation between the digital divide and ICT was obtained. The implementation of digital inclusion programs, policies for digital access and connectivity, establishment of other telecenters and development of adequate infrastructure are required, which reduce the digital divide and promote the control and prevention of COVID-19.

10.
Virtual Learning: Insights and Perspectives ; : 119-130, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2033782

ABSTRACT

The web2.0 technology are the recent trends in the teaching learning process with a more interactive and dynamic platform focusing on the ability to integrate, collaborate and share resources as well as information in an online virtual system by using online blogging, wiki, blogs, YouTube, online video, Google tools, twitter, portals, eBook, e-learning, MOOCS, social media like Whatsapp, and other web based tools for effective and interactive communication worldwide for sharing and constructing knowledge. In the pandemic it is very important for the teachers and the students to know about ways to teach, learn, communicate and create knowledge using this technology. Web2.0 is a source of creation and sharing of content enhancing the constructivist teaching environment. The pedagogy using web2.0 should be promoted as a fruitful platform for easy sharing and collaborating learning materials. This study aimed to find out whether these web2.0 tools have any significant effect on the achievement performance on the secondary learners. The study found positive effects of web2.0 in enhancement of student's knowledge achievement abilities with the innovation using web2.0 technology. The teacher can effectively provide online instructions and other web resources which have a significant effect on the learning performance of learners. Google tools, Wiki, YouTube, Whatsapp and Slideshare Power Points were used both in individual and collaborative mode. The qualitative study found that web2.0 technology tools were not only better over traditional learning and also can be used during any kind of situation causing barrier in the traditional classes. In India still technology based learning, smart classrooms, internet assisted online platform inside and outside institutional boundary are yet to be achieved in secondary level. The researcher put an effort and provided online instruction through Web2.0 technology assisted applications to assess the learners' achievement performance. The future implications include further investigation and promotion of efficiently using web2.0 technology based instruction by creating online learning environment and solving the problems that hinders the smooth virtual instruction in secondary education. © 2023 Contributors and Manakin Press. All rights reserved.

11.
20th International Conference on e-Society, ES 2022 and 18th International Conference on Mobile Learning, ML 2022 ; : 231-236, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2033742

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 pandemic that affects the whole world today. Local governments support all possible solutions to limit the exposure of its people to the disease. It promotes cashless and contactless transactions even in purchasing necessary goods. And since the government's strength comes from the revenues, refining the existing process is essential to survive this pandemic. The government imposes market tariffs to raise revenue, and many developing nations like the Philippines use taxes. In establishing trading hubs all over the country, the government also ensures income from market activities. Urdaneta City Bagsakan market is one of the biggest trading hubs of agricultural products in Northern Luzon. This study is about developing an automated tariff payment collection system for agricultural products like fruits and vegetables and livestock. It primarily aims to provide cashless and contactless transactions in collecting tariffs at Urdaneta City, Pangasinan. Currently, the collection of tariffs is still in manual collection and process. Reporting is done afterward by encoding the daily reports on a spreadsheet and is not always on time. It also includes a large amount of workforce to facilitate collection. Some anomalies always come up with the manual tariff payment, leading to the inaccuracy of reports affecting revenue. The system automates cash collection and produces reporting in real-time. It can also keep track of the list of traders that can facilitate the elimination of illegal trading. The system has two parts - (1) a mobile application to be used by traders, and (2) a cashiering system intended for market staff and administrators in the Bagsakan market. The mobile application for traders provides a contactless procedure of product valuation and tariff computation. It also has an electronic wallet to deliver a cashless transaction in tariff payment. The cashiering system for the market administrators for the following objectives: (1) provide support in loading the trader's app electronic wallet, (2) offer assistance to new trader's transactions, and (3) ensure valid transactions of tariff payment in trading hubs. © 2022 IADIS Press. All rights reserved.

12.
Revista de Stiinte Politice ; - (75):189-196, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2033727

ABSTRACT

The situation which has recently turned the world upside down (that of the coronavirus disease which has rapidly spread among the people from all over the world, taking its tribute and being merciless from all points of view: social and economic), has forced education to adjust in a matter of seconds and discover ways of transferring knowledge virtually to learners. The connection of the teacher to digital resources is not new, on the contrary, it has passed quite a while since electronic gadgets and materials have slowly but constantly "invaded" the teaching act. The novelty lies in the total movement of the teaching process in the digital world. A numberless range of issues stirred each educator's mind regarding the platform that should be used, the difficulty to cope with a large number of students, possible technical problems that may appear, etc. The current paper is meant to focus on all the constraints, fears, problems but also on the positive aspects of digital teaching under the current changes generated by the appearance of a highly contagious disease such as COVID-19.

13.
IOP Conference Series : Earth and Environmental Science ; 912, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2033643

ABSTRACT

These proceedings contain papers on the knowledge and experience on mainstreaming natural resources and product research and sustainable development. The main theme of the 3rd ICONART is Natural Resources and Technology for Industry and Community with a sub-theme focusing on adaptation and innovation research on sustainable natural resources and technology during Covid 19 pandemic.

14.
JAMS Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies ; 15(4):214-226, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033619

ABSTRACT

Currently, acupressure is widely accepted as a non-pharmacological therapy for managing pain, nausea and vomiting, and mental health conditions. Since acupressure can be self-administered, clinicians and researchers’ interest in information and communication technologies (ICTs) for disseminating acupressure to manage symptoms has increased. This mini review was conducted to examine clinical studies of acupressure using ICTs, with a particular focus on self-acupressure. Through a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL, all studies of self-acupressure using ICTs published before December 31, 2021 were collected. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. More than half of the studies published since 2020 (4/7, 54.14%) were described as being related to COVID-19. As target conditions, musculoskeletal injuries or pain, cancer-related symptoms, dysmenorrhea, mental health issues, and obesity were considered. The most frequently used acupoints were LI4, LR3, and Shenmen. Moreover, smartphone applications were the most commonly used ICT method to support self-acupressure. In addition to the basic information of self-acupressure, other tools such as timers, reminders, and schedule checkers to facilitate its implementations have been incorporated into the smartphone applications. Recently, there have been some attempts to combine acupressure and ICTs. Although these studies mainly focus on musculoskeletal pain or injuries, recent studies related to mental health have emerged in relation to COVID-19. However, few studies have been conducted to date, making it difficult to fully grasp the trends in this field. Therefore, more studies are needed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of combining self-acupressure and ICTs in more diverse clinical areas.

15.
Revista Ra Ximhai ; 18(1):179-192, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2033592

ABSTRACT

The concept of complex thought in Higher Education Institutions has been little addressed and understood, since it is still in the intellectual imagination of educational actors that it is a theoretical construct with which problems of formal sciences can be solved, more not of the factual ones;If we add to this that during the Covid-19 pandemic Virtual Learning Environments had to be used with much greater intensity, the challenge of perceiving the concept and merging it with ICTs for the construction of meta-complex virtual environments turns out to be a challenge. The main objective of this document was to develop an instrument to measure the significance of complex thinking in Virtual Learning Environments in Higher Education Institutions;For this purpose, the instrumental methodology of Hernandez (2011) was used, applying the validation of experts, using the focus group method, where a value of .77 was obtained, which is considered a good degree of validity. Reliability was also analyzed using Cronbach's Alpha, which showed a value of .780, which is why it is considered adequate. The questionnaire is made up of 63 items, 57 of which are integrated using a 4-level Likert scale;Therefore, it is considered to be a valid and reliable instrument. The instrument proposes to know precisely the relationship that exists between the concept of complex thought and virtuality and how these are merged by educational actors.

16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Hungarica ; 91(3-4):106-107, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033588

ABSTRACT

ATMPs - a new era A boy from Hungary, Zente, was one and a half years old when the crowd-funding campaign to finance his life-saving medicine Zolgensma concluded with a happy end. He was the third European patient that received the new gene therapy, which replaces the function of the missing or nonworking survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene with a new, working copy of a human SMN gene that helps motor neuron cells work properly and survive. From a European perspective, it has been almost 15 years by now since regulatory framework for advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) had been established to ensure the free movement of these medicines within the European Union, to facilitate their access to the EU market, and to foster the competitiveness of European pharmaceutical companies in the field. Zolgensma has been approved in the EU in May 2020. The FDA expects it will be reviewing and approving up to 20 cell and gene therapies each year until 2025. Rapid development of technology and better understanding of the manufacturing challenges are not the only prerequisites of the growth. Assessment of products like Zolgensma requires very specific knowledge and often an adaptive approach from regulators. They have to gain enough experience and need to be able to summarize knowledge in guidelines that would help developers of products that are substantially different from traditional medicines. FDA issued seven new guidelines in January 2020, in which, for example, they highlight the importance of long-term follow-up for gene therapies that offer one-time fix for inherited diseases and where pre-market studies may have limited value. 2. Regulatory tools These examples may already show that rapid change in technology leads to new kinds of medicines that require a properly adapted regulatory system. Patients would expect state-of-the-art medicines within the shortest possible time frame, however, authorities are traditionally more cautious. Still, there are several various initiatives from the EMA and the FDA to foster early access to medicines. Some of these have been available for a longer time. EMA's accelerated assessment reduces the timeframe for review of innovative applications of medicines with major public health interest. Conditional marketing authorisation grants authorization before a complete dataset is available, and compassionate use allows the use of an unauthorized medicine for patients with an unmet medical need. A more recent regulatory tool of EMA is the priority medicines scheme (PRIME) that aims to enhance support for the development of medicines that are expected to make a real difference to patients. Early dialogue between EMA and the developers is a crucial part of the tool, together with accelerated assessment and continuous scientific advice and protocol assistance. Up to now, 282 applications for PRIME eligibility have been assessed by the CHMP of which 95 have received a green light. Most of the applicants are small and medium size enterprises, and the major therapeutic area is oncology. FDA has similar programs, such as the Fast Track, Breakthrough Therapy and Priority Review designations, and is also aiming to facilitate and accelerate development and marketing authorization of key medicines. By 2018, about 70% of new drug approvals by the FDA were expedited, compared to about 50% in 2010. The result is a growing pro-portion of medicines authorized with less premarket evidence, a trade-off, that most patients with fatal or debilitating disease would likely accept. Nevertheless, conditional approval requires a strong post-marketing attention from regulators, and lack of enough evidence sometimes leads to difficult decisions. In April 2019 a fast-tracked cancer drug, Lartruvo was withdrawn because a large study was not able to prove a favourable benefit-risk profile, which was established previously on a smaller patient population. The regulators approach is not expected to be changed, but experience from such cases would gradually be built into the decision-making process. In addition to this real world evidence (RWE) and patient recorded outcomes may also help in decision making. 3. Digital revolution The rapid development of biotechnology is not the only area where an adaptive regulatory approach is needed. Digital medicine is a new field, as smartphones and sensors open up new ways of generating data. For example, collecting and analysing RWE seems to be a good solution for single arm studies where randomized trials are not feasible. FDA has approved easy-to-use devices that are able to track several physiological systems of our body, which in turn can give a boost to developments in this field. In addition to these simpler devices, digital revolution in terms of artificial intelligence (AI) and cognitive machine learning is another challenge that our regulatory systems should tackle. It has been recently announced that a new drug candidate, a long-acting and potent serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonist, which was created using an artificial intelligence platform, will enter into clinical study. There are also numerous radiological applications based on AI, including computer aideddetection and diagnosis software, where images are analysed, and clinically relevant findings suggested to aid diagnostic decisions. Many of these new developments require a tailored approach from regulators to find a way for authorization within the existing regulatory framework. The fact, that many of these new developments are carried out by academic research groups or small companies without extensive regulatory experience, adds an extra layer of difficulty. To meet this challenge, EMA and the Heads of Medicines Agencies have established the EU-Innovation Network, to support medicine innovation and early development. As a milestone of its function, beginning in 1 February 2020 a pilot for simultaneous scientific advice is starting, where the applicants will receive a consolidated advice from the participating agencies. Innovative products often require specific expertise;therefore this new form of advice is also extremely beneficial for regulators as they are able to learn from each other and broaden their knowledge. 4. Conclusions The rapid development of pharmaceutical and digital technology requires a concerted action from all stakeholders. Or, as we all experience, a global pandemic can be an important driving force of the evolution of regulatory policies. Appropriate usage of currently available regulatory tools and a continuous discussion between academia, industry and regulators would be the only way to ensure quick access to state-of-the-art, safe and efficacious medicines, and medical devices. It is clearly shown currently by the concerted action of various stakeholders and series of rolling reviews which led to the expedited authorization of COVID-19 vaccines.

17.
GERMS ; 12(2):276-282, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033513

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic can be acknowledged as one of the most significant public health emergencies the world has encountered in the last few decades. The purpose of the current review is to understand the significance of contact tracing and explore the pros and cons of digital contact tracing in ensuring better containment of the COVID-19 outbreaks. A widespread search of published articles pertaining to the topic was done in the PubMed search engine and a total of 46 articles matching the objectives of the present review were identified. However, four articles were discarded because of the non-availability of the free full text, and thus 42 research papers were finally included. Digital contact tracing bridges the gap wherein we aim to expedite the process of contact tracing to identify the potential contacts of the confirmed cases. These applications are designed in such a way that they send a notification on the smartphone of a person, once the user is exposed to one or more confirmed cases of COVID-19. To conclude, in the battle against the COVID-19 infection, the international welfare agencies and national policy makers have been looking forward to the employment of digital technologies to support the ongoing public health measures for contact tracing. The approach of digital contact/proximity tracing should be considered as a supplement to conventional manual tracing. The need of the hour is to take specific measures to improve the inherent design of these apps, their implementation and demonstration of their effectiveness, which in turn will play a part in enhancing their acceptance and usability among the general population.

18.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(10):4897-4904, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033483

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, the epicenter of the century, has had a profound effect on the entire industry, and on our health in an unprecedented way. The closure announced by the government to monitor the spread of the disease has halted many businesses on a large scale. As a result, US GDP for 2Q2020 (Apr-Jun) decreased by 9%, while UK GDP contracted by 20% (GDP Growth-Second Quarter 2020, OECD, 2020). Such setbacks have never been heard of in the last decade. Against this backdrop, it will be interesting to see how businesses have performed on this issue, what steps they have taken to deal with natural storms, and what technologies they have chosen to survive. A vicious cycle that leads to economic downturns has begun to emerge. Retail is one of the most important sectors of the economy. This paper proposes a strategy to combat the risk or robustness of the digital retail business.

19.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(10):4754-4765, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033482

ABSTRACT

Pandemic has not only brought significant changes in the world’s economy. The educational sector has also made abrupt adjustments just to cater to the needs of learners. Among the solution that wasrealized in the Philippines was the implementation of the blended learning modality. Public schools prepared digital and printed copy of modules which will serve as the self-learning kit of the students when the face-to-face teaching was not possible due to the COVID 19 pandemic. Aligned to this context, the present study aimed to gauge the cognitive performance of the students and to know the extent of the usage of digital and printed modules. Utilizing a quantitative approach, the data revealed that the Senior High school students showed similar extent of using the digital and printed module during the implementation of the blended learning modalities. Both were extensively utilized by the respondents. This explains that student’s agreement on the usage of digital copy of the module may be because of their ability on the digital technologies, the availability of gadgets and the internet connectivity knowing for a fact that the research locale is a highly urbanized city. Therefore, the study recommends t hat teachers may consi der the preference of st udent s whether to use di gi tal, pri nted modul e or whatever modal i t i es that are appropri ate to the l earni ng scheme of the st udents.

20.
International Journal of Preventive Medicine ; 13(1):99, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033230
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