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1.
45th Jubilee International Convention on Information, Communication and Electronic Technology, MIPRO 2022 ; : 83-88, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1955356

ABSTRACT

Shifting the paradigm to decarbonized, distributed renewable future implies changes to conventional principles of power systems operation and requires the implementation of smart grid concepts. Microgrids have been widely recognized as a decentralized approach to successfully integrating renewable energy sources and end consumer empowerment. However, their implementation requires significant improvements and transformation of the distribution system in terms of increased observability and controllability, especially in the context of (near) real-time operation. Supervisory, Control, and Data Acquisition Systems (SCADA) enable system and infrastructure automated monitoring and control and serve as a foundation for advanced management and application of optimization-driven operation. Moreover, the development and testing of the functions mentioned above is a complex task, and today there is still a lack of holistic simulation tools, even though well-established power system simulators exist. The main objective of this paper is to introduce a novel simulation tool developed to simulate the SCADA system used in the Smart Grid Laboratory of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing for control, integration, and interactions between a microgrid's components. This paper includes simulator system architecture design, implemented functionalities, and future directions. Simulator testing shows successful communication, measurement generation, and meaningful response to commands and reference signals, proving correct functionality. Besides significant value in testing SCADA functionality, designing such a simulator has been of great benefit during restricted access to real-world devices in the Smart Grid Laboratory during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. © 2022 Croatian Society MIPRO.

2.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(4)2022 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952948

ABSTRACT

The prevalence and treatment of chlamydia (CT) and gonorrhea (GC) at school-based clinics (SBCs) requires revisiting. To assess whether clinic type influences CT/GC testing and treatment for minors (individuals 13-17 years of age), our study compared four SBCs with five family planning clinics (FPCs) in the Houston, Harris County metropolitan area of Texas, USA for: (1) the prevalence of CT/GC infection (pre-COVID-19 and during COVID-19); (2) treatment rates at the last positive diagnosis; and (3) the time, in days, from testing-to-diagnosis and testing-to-treatment. Between January 2019 and December 2020, 2439 unique patients (1579 at SBCs, 860 at FPCs) were seen. Of the 1924 tests obtained, 39.2% and 15.9% were positive for CT and GC, respectively. The prevalence of CT and GC at SBCs was similar prior to COVID-19 vs. during the COVID-19 pandemic. SBCs were able to provide treatment significantly faster after diagnosis (mean, 6.07 days; 95% CI, 3.22-8.90; 94.7% were within 30 days) than FPCs (mean, 17.60 days; 95% CI, 10.15-25.12; 84.7% were within 30 days) (p = 0.0257). This comparison within our large clinic system, with consistent clinical management protocols, suggests that SBC care may be critical to ensuring optimal sexually transmitted infection management in minors.

3.
JMIRx Med ; 3(2): e30344, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951914

ABSTRACT

Background: During COVID-19, clinical and health care demands have been on the rapid rise. Major challenges that have arisen during the pandemic have included a lack of testing kits, shortages of ventilators to treat severe cases of COVID-19, and insufficient accessibility to personal protective equipment for both hospitals and the public. New technologies have been developed by scientists, researchers, and companies in response to these demands. Objective: The primary objective of this review is to compare different supporting technologies in the subjugation of the COVID-19 spread. Methods: In this paper, 150 news articles and scientific reports on COVID-19-related innovations during 2020-2021 were checked, screened, and shortlisted to yield a total of 23 articles for review. The keywords "COVID-19 technology," "COVID-19 invention," and "COVID-19 equipment" were used in a Google search to generate related news articles and scientific reports. The search was performed on February 1, 2021. These were then categorized into three sections, which are personal protective equipment (PPE), testing methods, and medical treatments. Each study was analyzed for its engineering characteristics and potential social impact on the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: A total of 9 articles were selected for review concerning PPE. In general, the design and fabrication of PPE were moving toward the direction of additive manufacturing and intelligent information feedback while being eco-friendly. Moreover, 8 articles were selected for reviewing testing methods within the two main categories of molecular and antigen tests. All the inventions endeavored to increase sensitivity while reducing the turnaround time. However, the inventions reported in this review paper were not sufficiently tested for their safety and efficiency. Most of the inventions are temporary solutions intended to be used only during shortages of medical resources. Finally, 6 articles were selected for the review of COVID-19 medical treatment. The major challenge identified was the uncertainty in applying novel ideas to speed up the production of ventilators. Conclusions: The technologies developed during the COVID-19 pandemic were considered for review. In order to better respond to future pandemics, national reserves of critical medical supplies should be increased to improve preparation. This pandemic has also highlighted the need for the automation and optimization of medical manufacturing.

4.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 17(1): 108, 2022 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951270

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Extracorporeal circulation (ECC) in cardiac surgery is performed under systemic heparinization. Adequacy of heparin therapy and anticoagulation during ECC is assessed by activated clotting time (ACT), although there are concerns regarding the reliability of this measure. The ACT can be affected by factors other than heparin anticoagulation. A novel factor that should be considered is the influence of a COVID-19 infection. More than half of the hospitalized COVID-19 patients develop coagulation abnormalities with dysregulated coagulation test results. Patients recently recovered from COVID-19 may still demonstrate some forms of coagulation disorder affecting the ACT. This case describes an inaccurate point-of-care ACT testing in a patient with previous COVID-19 infection undergoing cardiac surgery with ECC and the alternative coagulation testing performed. CASE PRESENTATION: A 77-years-old Caucasian male presented with symptomatic severe mitral valve regurgitation for which he underwent surgery. Medical history revealed a COVID-19 infection one month before surgery. Pre-operative hematological lab results were normal and baseline ACT during surgery was 100 s. To achieve an adequate ACT of > 400 s, multiple doses of heparin were needed and after administration of a triple dose (75,000 IE heparin in total) this adequate ACT was achieved. In the meanwhile we measured anti-Xa level and APTT, which were at adequate levels when ACT was still < 400 s. DISCUSSION: This case emphasizes the need of alternative methods for monitoring heparin therapy in case ACT does not respond adequately. Another point to highlight in this case is the poorly correlated relation between ACT and APTT and anti-Xa in light of the recent COVID-19 infection. Although studies have shown that COVID-19 infection can cause coagulopathy and altered hemostatic parameters, ACT has never been investigated in COVID-19 patient. Understanding the correlation between ACT, APTT and anti-Xa in COVID-19 patients is mandatory.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight , Humans , Male , Point-of-Care Systems , Reproducibility of Results , Whole Blood Coagulation Time
5.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1177, 2022 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since March 2020, COVID-19 has disproportionately impacted communities of color within the United States. As schools have shifted from virtual to in-person learning, continual guidance is necessary to understand appropriate interventions to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Weekly testing of students and staff for SARS-CoV-2 within K-12 school setting could provide an additional barrier to school-based transmission, especially within schools unable to implement additional mitigation strategies and/or are in areas of high transmission. This study seeks to understand the role that weekly SARS-CoV-2 testing could play in K-12 schools. In addition, through qualitative interviews and listening sessions, this research hopes to understand community concerns and barriers regarding COVID-19 testing, COVID-19 vaccine, and return to school during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS/DESIGN: Sixteen middle and high schools from five school districts have been randomized into one of the following categories: (1) Weekly screening + symptomatic testing or (2) Symptomatic testing only. The primary outcome for this study will be the average of the secondary attack rate of school-based transmission per case. School-based transmission will also be assessed through qualitative contact interviews with positive contacts identified by the school contact tracers. Lastly, new total numbers of weekly cases and contacts within a school-based quarantine will provide guidance on transmission rates. Qualitative focus groups and interviews have been conducted to provide additional understanding to the acceptance of the intervention and barriers faced by the community regarding SARS-CoV-2 testing and vaccination. DISCUSSION: This study will provide greater understanding of the benefit that weekly screening testing can provide in reducing SARS-CoV-2 transmission within K-12 schools. Close collaboration with community partners and school districts will be necessary for the success of this and similar studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04875520 . Registered May 6, 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
6.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 871, 2022 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951132

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During a fast-moving epidemic, timely monitoring of case counts and other key indicators of disease spread is critical to an effective public policy response. METHODS: We describe a nonparametric statistical method, originally applied to the reporting of AIDS cases in the 1980s, to estimate the distribution of reporting delays of confirmed COVID-19 cases in New York City during the late summer and early fall of 2020. RESULTS: During August 15-September 26, the estimated mean delay in reporting was 3.3 days, with 87% of cases reported by 5 days from diagnosis. Relying upon the estimated reporting-delay distribution, we projected COVID-19 incidence during the most recent 3 weeks as if each case had instead been reported on the same day that the underlying diagnostic test had been performed. Applying our delay-corrected estimates to case counts reported as of September 26, we projected a surge in new diagnoses that had already occurred but had yet to be reported. Our projections were consistent with counts of confirmed cases subsequently reported by November 7. CONCLUSION: The projected estimate of recently diagnosed cases could have had an impact on timely policy decisions to tighten social distancing measures. While the recent advent of widespread rapid antigen testing has changed the diagnostic testing landscape considerably, delays in public reporting of SARS-CoV-2 case counts remain an important barrier to effective public health policy.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 535, 2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951097

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study determined if non-communicable disease status, HIV status, COVID-19 status and co-habiting were associated with COVID-19 test status in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Data of 5945 respondents age 18-years-old and above from 31 countries in sub-Saharan Africa collected through an online survey conducted between June and December 2020, were extracted. The dependent variable was COVID-19 status (testing positive for COVID-19 and having symptoms of COVID-19 but not getting tested). The independent variables were non-communicable disease status (hypertension, diabetes, cancer, heart conditions, respiratory conditions, depression), HIV positive status, COVID-19 status (knowing a close friend who tested positive for COVID-19 and someone who died from COVID-19) and co-habiting (yes/no). Two binary logistic regression models developed to determine associations between the dependent and independent variables were adjusted for age, sex, employment, sub region and educational status. RESULTS: Having a close friend who tested positive for COVID-19 (AOR:6.747), knowing someone who died from COVID-19 infection (AOR:1.732), and living with other people (AOR:1.512) were significantly associated with higher odds of testing positive for COVID-19 infection, while living with HIV was associated with significantly lower odds of testing positive for COVID-19 infection (AOR:0.284). Also, respondents with respiratory conditions (AOR:2.487), self-reported depression (AOR:1.901), those who had a close friend who tested positive for COVID-19 infection (AOR:2.562) and who knew someone who died from COVID-19 infection (AOR:1.811) had significantly higher odds of having symptoms of COVID-19 infection but not getting tested. CONCLUSION: Non-communicable diseases seem not to increase the risk for COVID-19 positive test while cohabiting seems to reduce this risk. The likelihood that those who know someone who tested positive to or who died from COVID-19 not getting tested when symptomatic suggests there is poor contact tracing in the region. People with respiratory conditions and depression need support to get tested for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Noncommunicable Diseases , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 477, 2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951072

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Efforts to protect residents in nursing homes involve non-pharmaceutical interventions, testing, and vaccine. We sought to quantify the effect of testing and vaccine strategies on the attack rate, length of the epidemic, and hospitalization. METHODS: We developed an agent-based model to simulate the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 transmission among resident and staff agents in a nursing home. Interactions between 172 residents and 170 staff based on data from a nursing home in Los Angeles, CA. Scenarios were simulated assuming different levels of non-pharmaceutical interventions, testing frequencies, and vaccine efficacy to reduce transmission. RESULTS: Under the hypothetical scenario of widespread SARS-CoV-2 in the community, 3-day testing frequency minimized the attack rate and the time to eradicate an outbreak. Prioritization of vaccine among staff or staff and residents minimized the cumulative number of infections and hospitalization, particularly in the scenario of high probability of an introduction. Reducing the probability of a viral introduction eased the demand on testing and vaccination rate to decrease infections and hospitalizations. CONCLUSIONS: Improving frequency of testing from 7-days to 3-days minimized the number of infections and hospitalizations, despite widespread community transmission. Vaccine prioritization of staff provides the best protection strategy when the risk of viral introduction is high.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
9.
Iran J Microbiol ; 14(1): 10-14, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955203

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Since the COVID-19 pandemic initiation, more than 28 million elective surgeries were postponed with a cancellation rate of 72.3%. However, studies suggested that the patient treatment should be conducted within 12 weeks of diagnosis because delay in treatment might have had adverse impacts on patients' health status, prognosis, and pathologic stage. Hence, the current study aimed to assess the importance of a pre-operative COVID-19 screening test for the patients were candidates for elective surgery. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 141 patients who were candidates for any type of elective surgeries or cesarean section at a tertiary university-based hospital, between June 2020, and September 2020. Results: The mean age of participants was 41.38 ± 11.66 years. Of them, 91.5% were women and 8.5% were men. The COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening tests were positive in 12 (8.5%) patients. From whose PCR tests were positive, only five people (less than half) had symptoms of COVID-19 such as fever (three patients), a distinctive smell (two patients), and cough (one patient). Suspected exposure to COVID-19 was reported in four of them. Conclusion: In this study, we found that more than half of PCR positive COVID-19 patients were asymptomatic. Therefore, to have a safe hospital environment, and improve patient health outcomes, the COVID-19 screening test should be applied before any interventions.

10.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(12): 4610-4617, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954692

ABSTRACT

During the 2 years since the start of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the scientific world made an enormous effort to fight against this disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has high transmissibility. Advancements in vaccine and treatment strategies have reduced both the hospitalization and mortality rates. However, the virus has shown its ability to evolve and evade from our COVID-19 combating armamentaria by the most common evolution mechanism-mutation. Diagnostic testing has been the first line of defense following the identification of the causative agent. Ever since, the scientific community has developed nuclei acid-based, antigen-based, and antibody-based diagnostic tests, and these testing methodologies are still playing a central role in slowing down viral transmission. These testing methods have different sensitivity and specificity and could be optimally used in areas facing different challenges owing to different level and conditions of COVID-19 outbreak. In this review, we discuss these testing methodologies as well as the considerations on how to apply these diagnostic tests optimally in the community to cope with the ever-changing pandemic conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Mobile Information Systems ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1950372

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus is a large family of viruses that affects humans and damages respiratory functions ranging from cold to more serious diseases such as ARDS and SARS. But the most recently discovered virus causes COVID-19. Isolation at home or hospital depends on one's health history and conditions. The prevailing disease that might get instigated due to the existence of the virus might lead to deterioration in health. Therefore, there is a need for early detection of the virus. Recently, many works are found to be observed with the deployment of techniques for the detection based on chest X-rays. In this work, a solution has been proposed that consists of a sample prototype of an AI-based Flask-driven web application framework that predicts the six different diseases including ARDS, bacteria, COVID-19, SARS, Streptococcus, and virus. Here, each category of X-ray images was placed under scrutiny and conducted training and testing using deep learning algorithms such as CNN, ResNet (with and without dropout), VGG16, and AlexNet to detect the status of X-rays. Recent FPGA design tools are compatible with software models in deep learning methods. FPGAs are suitable for deep learning algorithms to make the design as flexible, innovative, and hardware acceleration perspective. High-performance FPGA hardware is advantageous over GPUs. Looking forward, the device can efficiently integrate with the deep learning modules. FPGAs act as a challenging substitute podium where it bridges the gap between the architectures and power-related designs. FPGA is a better option for the implementation of algorithms. The design attains 121μW power and 89 ms delay. This was implemented in the FPGA environment and observed that it attains a reduced number of gate counts and low power. © 2022 Anupama Namburu et al.

12.
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America ; 152(1):9-18, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1949892

ABSTRACT

This paper describes ongoing developments to an advanced laboratory course at Kettering University, which is targeted to students in engineering and engineering physics and emphasizes theoretical, computational, and experimental components in the context of airborne acoustics and modal testing [cf. D. A. Russell and D. O. Ludwigsen, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131, 2515-2524 (2012)]. These developments have included a transition to electronic laboratory notebooks and cloud-based computing resources, incorporation of updated hardware and software, and creation and testing of a multiple-choice assessment instrument for the course. When Kettering University suddenly shifted to exclusively remote teaching in March 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic, many of these changes proved to be essential for enabling rapid adaptation to a situation in which a laboratory was not available for the course. Laboratory activities were rewritten by crowdsourcing archived data, videos were incorporated to illustrate dynamic phenomena, and computer simulations were used to retain student interactivity. The comparison of multiple measures, including the assessment instrument, team-based grades on project papers, and individual grades on final exams, indicates that most students were successful at learning the course material and adapting to work on team-based projects in the midst of challenging remote learning conditions. © 2022 Acoustical Society of America.

13.
2nd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Computer Engineering, ICAICE 2021 ; : 408-412, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1948772

ABSTRACT

Taking Henan Province as the research object, this paper discusses the temporal and spatial distribution of COVID-19 and its spreading laws and characteristics. Through computer modeling and intelligent fitting, the Moran'I and Moran's I exponential distributions are obtained to describe the global space and local space density. Establish SEIRD model and use simulated annealing algorithm to predict its development trend. At the same time, taking into account the development of the epidemic and the infection rate under different conditions, as well as the local testing capabilities and testing costs, combined with mathematical expectations, design a reasonable virus testing program. © 2021 IEEE.

14.
2021 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence, CSCI 2021 ; : 1283-1286, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1948745

ABSTRACT

Lateral flow tests (LFTs) are a cost-effective, quick, and frequently used testing method in many domains such as food safety and environmental and clinical applications. However, a major challenge is accurate interpretation of LFT results. Often, if a low level of target substance is present in the input liquid, the test line indicator may appear faint, causing a test interpreter to read the test result as a false negative. Therefore, to address this problem, we propose a deep-learning-based method to interpret images of LFT results. Our model is based on ResNet-101, a state-of-the-art image classification model that uses residual networks, or skip-connections between layers to improve learning on the training dataset. We further improve our model by using data augmentation to generate additional and more difficult images of LFTs for the model to learn from, thereby improving its performance and reducing overfitting to the training dataset. Our approach is also trained and tested on a dataset of SARS-CoV-2 LFT images, containing both positive and negative results. We compare our ResNet approach to a baseline convolutional neural network model. Our results show the ResNet model achieves a higher specificity and sensitivity than the baseline model to interpret LFT results. © 2021 IEEE.

15.
2021 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence, CSCI 2021 ; : 1271-1274, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1948743

ABSTRACT

This paper proposes a systems engineering perspective to analyze the causes of COVID-19 health disparities impact and interventions to minimize the impact on minorities. The impact of the novel coronavirus has shown to be more intense on minorities. The percentage of COVID-19 case count and fatality rate for minorities is much higher than that of the general population, showing that they are more significantly affected than others. Many different factors influence this impact, ranging from economic to cultural. In this paper, these factors are shown to be connected through a causal model analyzing the effects of each factor, after which, potential interventions are suggested. Many factors are identified, such as high employment in the service industry or lower likelihood to have insurance. From this, a causal model is created showing the impact of each factor. Using this causal model, one can identify the high-impact factors causing a disparate impact as well as suggest possible interventions including making testing and treatment more accessible, reducing healthcare bias, and improving healthcare for immigrants. © 2021 IEEE.

16.
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering ; 10(4), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1945561

ABSTRACT

Advancements in polymer science and engineering have helped the scientific community to shift its attention towards the use of environmentally benign materials for reducing the environmental impact of conventional synthetic plastics. Biopolymers are environmentally benign, chemically versatile, sustainable, biocompatible, biodegradable, inherently functional, and ecofriendly materials that exhibit tremendous potential for a wide range of applications including food, electronics, agriculture, textile, biomedical, and cosmetics. This review also inspires the researchers toward more consumption of biopolymer-based composite materials as an alternative to synthetic composite materials. Herein, an overview of the latest knowledge of different natural- and synthetic-based biodegradable polymers and their fiber-reinforced composites is presented. The review discusses different degradation mechanisms of biopolymer-based composites as well as their sustainability aspects. This review also elucidates current challenges, future opportunities, and emerging applications of biopolymeric sustainable composites in numerous engineering fields. Finally, this review proposes biopolymeric sustainable materials as a propitious solution to the contemporary environmental crisis. © 2022 Elsevier Ltd.

17.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(7): ofac274, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948425

ABSTRACT

Background: Disruptions in access to in-person human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preventive care during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have a negative impact on our progress towards the Ending the HIV Epidemic goals in the United States. Methods: We used an agent-based model to simulate HIV transmission among Black/African American men who have sex with men in Mississippi over 5 years to estimate how different reductions in access affected the number of undiagnosed HIV cases, new pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) starts, and HIV incidence. Results: We found that each additional 25% decrease in HIV testing and PrEP initiation was associated with decrease of 20% in the number of cases diagnosed and 23% in the number of new PrEP starts, leading to a 15% increase in HIV incidence from 2020 to 2022. Conclusions: Unmet need for HIV testing and PrEP prescriptions during the COVID-19 pandemic may temporarily increase HIV incidence in the years immediately after the disruption period.

18.
Lab Med ; 2022 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948375

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of the reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for rapid detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in community or primary-care settings. METHOD: We systematically searched the Web of Science, Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases. We conducted quality evaluation using ReviewManager software (version 5.0). We then used MetaDisc software (version 1.4) and Stata software (version 12.0) to build forest plots, along with a Deeks funnel plot and a bivariate boxplot for analysis. RESULT: Overall, the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio were 0.79, 0.97, and 328.18, respectively. The sensitivity for the subgroup with RNA extraction appeared to be higher, at 0.88 (0.86-0.90), compared to the subgroup without RNA extraction, at 0.50 (0.45-0.55), with no significant difference in specificity. CONCLUSION: RT-LAMP assay exhibited high specificity regarding current SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, its overall sensitivity was relatively moderate. Extracting RNA was found to be beneficial in improving sensitivity.

19.
J Appl Lab Med ; 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nonpharmaceutical interventions to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 also decreased the spread of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza. Viral diagnostic testing in patients with respiratory tract infections (RTI) is a necessary tool for patient management; therefore, sensitive and specific tests are required. This scoping literature review aimed to summarize the study characteristics of commercially available sample-to-answer RSV tests. CONTENT: PubMed and Embase were queried for studies reporting on the diagnostic performance of tests for RSV in patients with RTI (published January 2005-January 2021). Information on study design, patient and setting characteristics, and published diagnostic performance of RSV tests were extracted from 77 studies that met predefined inclusion criteria. A literature gap was identified for studies of RSV tests conducted in adult-only populations (5.3% of total subrecords) and in outpatient (7.5%) or household (0.8%) settings. Overall, RSV tests with analytical time >30 min had higher published sensitivity (62.5%-100%) vs RSV tests with analytical time ≤30 min (25.7%-100%); this sensitivity range could be partially attributed to the different modalities (antigen vs molecular) used. Molecular-based rapid RSV tests had higher published sensitivity (66.7%-100%) and specificity (94.3%-100%) than antigen-based RSV tests (sensitivity: 25.7%-100%; specificity:80.3%-100%). SUMMARY: This scoping review reveals a paucity of literature on studies of RSV tests in specific populations and settings, highlighting the need for further assessments. Considering the implications of these results in the current pandemic landscape, the authors preliminarily suggest adopting molecular-based RSV tests for first-line use in these settings.

20.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 2022 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948149

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Automated qualitative serology assays often measure quantitative signals that are compared against a manufacturer-defined cutoff for qualitative (positive/negative) interpretation. The current general practice of assessing serology assay performance by overall concordance in a qualitative manner may not detect the presence of analytical shift/drift that could affect disease classifications. METHODS: We describe an approach to defining bias specifications for qualitative serology assays that considers minimum positive predictive values (PPVs) and negative predictive values (NPVs). Desirable minimum PPVs and NPVs for a given disease prevalence are projected as equi-PPV and equi-NPV lines into the receiver operator characteristic curve space of coronavirus disease 2019 serology assays, and the boundaries define the allowable area of performance (AAP). RESULTS: More stringent predictive values produce smaller AAPs. When higher NPVs are required, there is lower tolerance for negative biases. Conversely, when higher PPVs are required, there is less tolerance for positive biases. As prevalence increases, so too does the allowable positive bias, although the allowable negative bias decreases. The bias specification may be asymmetric for positive and negative direction and should be method specific. CONCLUSIONS: The described approach allows setting bias specifications in a way that considers clinical requirements for qualitative assays that measure signal intensity (eg, serology and polymerase chain reaction).

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