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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(6), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843191

ABSTRACT

IntroductionChronic pain is a distressing condition and often poorly treated and managed. Psychological therapies are considered first-line intervention for people with chronic pain. Common psychological therapies require extensive clinician training and specialist qualifications. One approach that does not need lengthy training nor specialist qualification, but has empirical support in other health domains, is behavioural activation (BA). BA seeks to increase engagement in behaviours that are valued by the person and progress through behaviours that can increase mood and develop skills that build satisfying routines. BA can help people to manage their condition through scheduling behaviours, promoting routine and mastery over their condition. The extent to which BA has been used to support people living with chronic pain is not clear.Methods and analysisThis scoping review aims to identify published studies describing the application of BA to support people living with chronic pain. To map the evidence regarding BA and chronic pain, including the study type and the associated evidence, a scoping review was adopted. The search will be conducted in bibliographic databases, clinical trial registries and grey literature. No date limits will be applied to the search strategy. Screening of titles and s, and full-text screening, will be independently undertaken by two investigators using Covidence software. Any disagreement between investigators will be resolved by a third investigator. Data from included publications will be extracted using a customised data extraction tool.Ethics and disseminationThe scoping review is an analysis of existing data and therefore ethics approval is not required. The findings of this scoping review will further our understanding of how BA has been used to support people living with chronic pain and inform future training and education programmes in this area.

2.
PLoS Computational Biology ; 18(4), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843149

ABSTRACT

Comparing SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced gene expression signatures to drug treatment-induced gene expression signatures is a promising bioinformatic tool to repurpose existing drugs against SARS-CoV-2. The general hypothesis of signature-based drug repurposing is that drugs with inverse similarity to a disease signature can reverse disease phenotype and thus be effective against it. However, in the case of viral infection diseases, like SARS-CoV-2, infected cells also activate adaptive, antiviral pathways, so that the relationship between effective drug and disease signature can be more ambiguous. To address this question, we analysed gene expression data from in vitro SARS-CoV-2 infected cell lines, and gene expression signatures of drugs showing anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. Our extensive functional genomic analysis showed that both infection and treatment with in vitro effective drugs leads to activation of antiviral pathways like NFkB and JAK-STAT. Based on the similarity—and not inverse similarity—between drug and infection-induced gene expression signatures, we were able to predict the in vitro antiviral activity of drugs. We also identified SREBF1/2, key regulators of lipid metabolising enzymes, as the most activated transcription factors by several in vitro effective antiviral drugs. Using a fluorescently labeled cholesterol sensor, we showed that these drugs decrease the cholesterol levels of plasma-membrane. Supplementing drug-treated cells with cholesterol reversed the in vitro antiviral effect, suggesting the depleting plasma-membrane cholesterol plays a key role in virus inhibitory mechanism. Our results can help to more effectively repurpose approved drugs against SARS-CoV-2, and also highlights key mechanisms behind their antiviral effect.

3.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences ; 23(9):4493, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843115

ABSTRACT

MicroRNAs have been projected as promising tools for diagnostic and prognostic purposes in cancer. More recently, they have been highlighted as RNA therapeutic targets for cancer therapy. Though miRs perform a generic function of post-transcriptional gene regulation, their utility in RNA therapeutics mostly relies on their biochemical nature and their assembly with other macromolecules. Release of extracellular miRs is broadly categorized into two different compositions, namely exosomal (extracellular vesicles) and non-exosomal. This nature of miRs not only affects the uptake into target cells but also poses a challenge and opportunity for RNA therapeutics in cancer. By virtue of their ability to act as mediators of intercellular communication in the tumor microenvironment, extracellular miRs perform both, depending upon the target cell and target landscape, pro- and anti-tumor functions. Tumor-derived miRs mostly perform pro-tumor functions, whereas host cell- or stroma-derived miRs are involved in anti-tumor activities. This review deals with the recent understanding of exosomal and non-exosomal miRs in the tumor microenvironment, as a tool for pro- and anti-tumor activity and prospective exploit options for cancer therapy.

4.
Mathematics ; 10(9):1366, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843006

ABSTRACT

In recent decades, AIDS has been one of the main challenges facing the medical community around the world. Due to the large human deaths of this disease, researchers have tried to study the dynamic behaviors of the infectious factor of this disease in the form of mathematical models in addition to clinical trials. In this paper, we study a new mathematical model in which the dynamics of CD4+ T-cells under the effect of HIV-1 infection are investigated in the context of a generalized fractal-fractional structure for the first time. The kernel of these new fractal-fractional operators is of the generalized Mittag-Leffler type. From an analytical point of view, we first derive some results on the existence theory and then the uniqueness criterion. After that, the stability of the given fractal-fractional system is reviewed under four different cases. Next, from a numerical point of view, we obtain two numerical algorithms for approximating the solutions of the system via the Adams-Bashforth method and Newton polynomials method. We simulate our results via these two algorithms and compare both of them. The numerical results reveal some stability and a situation of lacking a visible order in the early days of the disease dynamics when one uses the Newton polynomial.

5.
Aesthetic Plast Surg ; 2022 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844356

ABSTRACT

Surgical management of helical and retroauricular keloids has been rarely discussed. This study aims to introduce our successful reconstruction of helical and retroauricular keloids using a novel hemi-keystone flap. The current study is a retrospective review of patients with pathologically confirmed helical and retroauricular keloids. All keloid cases were completely excised. We covered the defect with a hemi-keystone flap followed by a single fraction of 10 Gy radiation therapy at postoperative day 0 or postoperative pressure therapy using magnets for four months. Treatment outcome was recorded as recurrence or nonrecurrence. A follow-up period of a minimum of 12 months was required in all patients. Of 45 keloids in 33 patients, none of the cases had a recurrence of their auricular keloids and the postoperative course was uneventful. We successfully reconstructed helical and retroauricular keloids using our modified hemi-keystone flaps without any keloid recurrence in one-year follow-ups. This is especially useful during the COVID-19 pandemic when facial mask wearing is mandatory. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE IV: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

6.
Texila International Journal of Public Health ; 9(3), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841773

ABSTRACT

Self-medication with antibiotics is a threat to global health and becoming increasingly common due to multiple factors. The aim of our study was to evaluate the attitudes, knowledge, and use of self-medication with antibiotics among outpatients of Gbagada General Hospital Gbagada - Lagos, Nigeria. The objective of this research was to access the attitudes, knowledge and use among the Patients that use Self-medication with antibiotics. The study design was a cross-sectional descriptive study. A pretest of a closed-ended questionnaire was distributed to the respondents, corrections were made, and data was collected in February 2021.402 Outpatients of the Gbagada General Hospital Gbagada city area of Lagos was recruited for the study in the aforementioned time period through multi-stage probability sampling. Thirty-three percent of respondents said antibiotics could cure all infections. Forty-eight percent of respondents said antibiotics might be effective even if they don't complete their dosage. 94.78% of our respondents have taken antibiotics, and 71.89% have self-medicated with antibiotics. Forty-eight percent of respondents said antibiotics might be effective even if they don't complete their dosage, Not completing the dosage (49.25%), Using antibiotics repeatedly (43.28%), and Self - medication (34.08%). The percentage of the respondent that have taken antibiotics once and twice between March 2020 and February 2021, which was during the COVID - 19 First and second wave in Nigeria, were (36.07%) and (25.87%) respectively. We recommend the use of media to discourage the masses from self-medication with antibiotics.

7.
4th IEEE Global Conference on Life Sciences and Technologies, LifeTech 2022 ; : 246-247, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1840260

ABSTRACT

As the percentage of the older adults population increases worldwide, both the risk of social isolation of the older adults and the shortage of nursing care personnel have become major issues. To address these issues, we have developed a recreational program, the scenario-type robot-assisted recreation, to promote communication among the older adults in aged care facilities. While the burden of the facility staff increases due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we improved the robot operation interface, developed a system to support the operation of this activity by the facility staff from a remote location, and developed a system to realize communication with remote family members, in order to smoothly operate this recreational activity by the facility staff by themselves. © 2022 IEEE.

8.
Journal of Museum Education ; 46(4):454-466, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1839840

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global, collective, traumatic experience. Trauma-aware museum educators can play a therapeutic role in helping visitors reengage with life as the world reopens. This article explores the dynamics of what a trauma-aware approach to engaging with art may be, specifically detailing methods that can create new cognitive, emotional, and sensory experiences that contradict the experiences of trauma by replacing them with sensations rooted in agency and connection. Through their experiences working at different museums, the authors outline the main principles of trauma-aware art museum education (T-AAME) as it relates to visitors: orientation (setting a supportive tone);being with one another (regulation, attunement, and responsive pacing);choice and voice;and connection. The article also discusses museum-based art therapy as it compares to art museum education to highlight the overlaps and distinctions between the two and to show that museum experiences can be therapeutic without being therapy.

9.
JMIR Form Res ; 6(5): e34552, 2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841261

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the adoption of digital tools to support individuals struggling with their mental health. The use of a digital intervention plus human coaching ("dual" intervention) is gaining momentum in increasing overall engagement in digital cognitive behavioral interventions (dCBIs). However, there is limited insight into the methodologies and coaching models used by those deploying dual interventions. To achieve a deeper understanding, we need to identify and promote effective engagement that leads to clinical outcomes versus simply monitoring engagement metrics. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a collaborative, goal-oriented communication approach that pays particular attention to the language of change and is an effective engagement approach to help people manage mental health issues. However, this approach has been traditionally used for in-person or telephonic interventions, and less is known about the application of MI to digital interventions. OBJECTIVE: We sought to provide a dual intervention approach and address multiple factors across two levels of engagement to operationalize a dCBI that combined cognitive behavioral therapy-based techniques and MI-based interactions between the digital health coach (DHC) and user. METHODS: We reviewed hundreds of digital exchanges between DHCs and users to identify and improve training and quality assurance activities for digital interventions. RESULTS: We tested five hypotheses and found that: (1) users of a dual digital behavioral health intervention had greater engagement levels than users of a noncoached intervention (P<.001); (2) DHCs with a demonstrated competency in applying MI to digital messages had more engaged users, as measured by the DHC-to-user message exchange ratio (P<.001); (3) the DHC-to-user message exchange ratio was correlated with more engagement in app activities (r=0.28, 95% CI 0.23-0.33); (4) DHCs with demonstrated MI proficiency elicited a greater amount of "change talk" from users than did DHCs without MI proficiency (H=25.12, P<.001); and (5) users who were engaged by DHCs with MI proficiency had better clinical outcomes compared to users engaged by DHCs without MI proficiency (P=.02). CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this pilot was the first of its kind to test the application of MI to digital coaching protocols, and it demonstrated the value of MI proficiency in digital health coaching for enhanced engagement and health improvement. Further research is needed to establish coaching models in dCBIs that incorporate MI to promote effective engagement and optimize positive behavioral outcomes.

10.
Curr Med Chem ; 2022 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841245

ABSTRACT

The incidence rate of opportunistic secondary infections through invasive fungi has been observed to be 14.5% to 27% in the SARS CoV pandemic during the year 2003. But, the incidence of SARS CoV-2 is accompanied by the substantial rise in secondary opportunistic infections like mucormycosis (black fungus) mainly in the immunocompromised individuals, and diabetic patients taking steroids. Substantial rates of COVID-19 cases with mucormycosis were reported in India and other parts of the world. Previous research reports delineated the ability of Mucorales in invading the various tissues like lungs, brain, sinus through the GRP78 and subsequently this infection could invoke crusting, edema, and necrosis of brain parenchyma, ptosis, proptosis, and vision loss due to intraorbital & intracranial complications. Similarities of these pathophysiological complications with already existing diseases are causing clinicians to face several challenges in order to diagnose and treat this disease effectively at the early stage. This minireview depicts the mucormycosis-induced immune, and pathophysiological alterations in COVID-19 patients comorbid with diabetes, immunosuppression, and also reported the various clinical manifestations, and the therapeutic modalities and the failures of anti-fungal vaccines. Therefore, the emerging mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients need a rapid investigation and selective optimization of the effective therapeutic modalities including antifungal vaccines to minimize mortality rate.

11.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 38(5): 399-400, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840018

ABSTRACT

A 38-year-old male patient presented to the emergency department with fever and dyspnea. Hospitalization was warranted and soon coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was diagnosed based on a positive SARS-CoV-2-PCR. Over the following weeks his condition gradually worsened, leading to admission at the intensive care unit. Because of unexplained weight loss before admission, a HIV screening was performed. HIV was confirmed and additional tests showed an undetectable CD4+ T cell count, alongside a number of co-infections. Convalescent plasma therapy, which has been shown to be effective in severe humoral immunodeficiency was tried, but was not effective. One week after the HIV diagnosis, antiretroviral therapy was started and finally, 3 months after the initial positive test and after partial recovery of cellular immunity, the COVID-19 virus was cleared. In the end, the patient made a full recovery. Our case demonstrates a prolonged COVID-19 infection in a patient with undiagnosed HIV with severely impaired cellular immunity.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , Coinfection , HIV Infections , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Coinfection/diagnosis , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Expert Opin Biol Ther ; : 1-11, 2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839892

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: After the emergence of lipid nanoparticles (LNP) containing therapeutic mRNA as vaccines for use against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the clinical usefulness of nucleic acid-encapsulated LNPs is now a fact. In addition to the nucleus and cytoplasm, mitochondria, which have their own genome, are a site where nucleic acids function in the cell. Gene therapies targeting mitochondria are expected to pave the way for the next generation of therapies. AREAS COVERED: Methods for delivering nucleic acids to mitochondria are needed in order to realize such innovative therapies. However, only a few reports on delivery systems targeting mitochondria have appeared. In this review, we summarize the current state of research on RNA-based therapeutics targeted to mitochondria, with emphasis on mitochondrial RNA delivery therapies and on therapies that involve the use of mitochondrial genome editing devices. EXPERT OPINION: We hope that this review article will focus our attention to this area of research, stimulate more interest in this field of research, and lead to the development of mitochondria-targeted nucleic acid medicine. It has the potential to become a major weapon against urgent and unknown diseases, including SARS-CoV-2 infections.

13.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-336229

ABSTRACT

Background: We estimated vaccine effectiveness (VE) of mRNA vaccines among US Veterans during periods of Delta and Omicron variant dominance. Patients included in this study were largely 65 years or older (62,834, 55%), male (101,259, 88%), and non-Hispanic white (66,986, 58%). Methods: We used SARS-CoV-2 laboratory test results to conduct a matched test-negative case-control study to estimate VE of three and two doses of mRNA vaccines against infection (regardless of symptoms), and a matched case-control study to estimate VE against COVID-19related hospitalization and death. We estimated VE as (1- odds ratio) x 100%. Severity of disease was measured using hospital length of stay (LOS) and admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). Results: Against infection, booster doses had 7-times higher VE - 59% (95% confidence interval [CI], 57 to 61) - than 2-dose VE (7%;95% CI, 3 to 10) during the Omicron period. For the Delta period, estimated VE against infection was 90% (95% CI, 88 to 92) among boosted vaccinees, 64% higher than VE among 2-dose vaccinees [55% (95% CI, 51 to 58)]. Against hospitalization, booster dose VE was 87% (95% CI, 80 to 91) during Omicron and 95% (95% CI, 91 to 97) during Delta;the 2-dose VE was 44% (95% CI, 26 to 58) during Omicron and 75% (95% CI, 70 to 80) during Delta. Against death, estimated VE with a booster dose was 94% (95% CI, 85 to 98) during Omicron and 96% (95% CI, 88 to 99) during Delta, while the 2-dose VE was 75% (95% CI, 52 to 87) during Omicron and 93% (95% CI, 85 to 97) during Delta. During the Omicron period, average hospital LOS was 4 days shorter [3 days (95%CI, 3 to 4 days)] than during the Delta period. Conclusions: A mRNA vaccine booster is more effective against infection, hospitalization, and death than 2-dose vaccination among an older male population with comorbidities.

14.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-336150

ABSTRACT

Background: Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine has been included in the national COVID-19 vaccination program in Indonesia since January 2021. The study aims to assess the impacts of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine on infection, hospitalization, and death among adult population aged ≥18 years in Bali, Indonesia. Methods: Test-negative, case control study was conducted by linking SARS-CoV-2 laboratory records, vaccination, and health administrative data for the period of January 13 to June 30, 2021. Case-subjects were defined as individuals who had a positive RT-PCR test for SARSCoV-2 during the period;they were matched with controls (tested negative) (1:1) based on age, sex, district of residence, and week of testing. We estimated the odds of vaccination in PCR confirmed, hospitalization and death due to COVID-19, accounting for the presence of comorbidities and prior infection. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated as (1-odds ratio) x 100%. Results: Total 109,050 RT-PCR test results were retrieved during the January 13 to June 30, 2021. Of these, 14,168 subjects were eligible for inclusion in the study. Total 5518 matched case-control pairs were analyzed. Adjusted vaccine effectiveness (VE) against laboratory-confirmed SARSCoV-2 infection was 14.5% (95% confidence interval -11 to 34.2) at 0-13 days after the first dose;66.7% (95% CI: 58.1- 73.5) at ≥14 days after the second dose. The adjusted effectiveness against hospitalization and COVID-19-associated death was 71.1% (95% CI: 62.9-77.6) and 87.4% (95% CI: 65.1-95.4%) at ≥14 days after receiving the second dose, respectively. Conclusions: Two-dose of inactivated CoronaVac vaccine showed high effectiveness against laboratory confirmed COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, and death associated with COVID-19 among adults aged ≥18 years.

15.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-336130

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 is capable of infecting unvaccinated, vaccinated and previously-infected individuals due to its ability to evade neutralization by antibodies. With three sub-lineages of Omicron emerging in the last four months, there is inadequate information on the quantitative antibody response generated upon natural infection with Omicron variant and whether these antibodies offer cross-protection against other sub-lineages of Omicron variant. We show that both binding and neutralizing antibodies wane by >50% in six months in study participants with hybrid immunity. Omicron infection in a subset of individuals led to a significant increase in binding and neutralizing antibodies to BA.1 and BA.2 sub-lineages of Omicron. The levels of neutralizing antibodies were higher against the Delta variant as compared to the Omicron sub-lineages. These data suggest that Omicron infection elicits neutralizing antibodies that can cross-react with other sub-lineages of Omicron and other variants of concern in people with hybrid immunity.

16.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-336024

ABSTRACT

Background: Continued SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19-related hospitalizations highlight the need for effective anti-viral treatments in the outpatient setting. In a descriptive interim analysis of the phase 1/2 portion of a double-blind phase 1/2/3 trial in COVID-19 outpatients conducted between June 16, 2020 and September 4, 2020, REGEN-COV® (casirivimab plus imdevimab) antibody combination reduced SARS-CoV-2 viral load versus placebo. Methods: This final phase 1/2 analysis comprises 799 outpatients, including 275 from the previous descriptive analysis (group-1) and 524 from phase 2 (group-2). Patients were randomized (1:1:1) to placebo, REGEN-COV 2400mg, or REGEN-COV 8000mg. Prespecified hierarchical analyses of virologic endpoints were performed in group-2. The proportion of patients with ≥1 COVID-19-related medically attended visit (MAV) through day 29 was assessed in group-1+2. Efficacy was assessed in patients confirmed SARS-CoV-2-positive by baseline nasopharyngeal RT-qPCR. Safety was assessed in all treated patients. Results: Data from 799 outpatients enrolled from June 16, 2020 to September 23, 2020 are reported. Time-weighted average daily reduction in viral load through day 7 was significantly greater in the REGEN-COV combined 2400mg+8000mg group versus placebo in patients with baseline viral load >107 copies/mL (prespecified primary endpoint): -0.68 log10 copies/ml (95% CI, -0.94 to -0.41;P<.0001). This reduction was - 0.73 (P<.0001) and -0.36 (P=.0003) log10 copies/mL in serum antibody-negative patients and in the overall population, respectively. REGEN-COV reduced the proportion of patients with ≥1 COVID-19-related MAV versus placebo (2.8% [12/434] REGEN-COV combined dose group versus 6.5% [15/231] placebo;P=.024;relative risk reduction [RRR]=57%);in patients with ≥1 risk factor for hospitalization, the treatment effect was more pronounced (RRR=71%). Adverse events were similar across groups. Conclusions: In COVID-19 outpatients enrolled prior to the widespread circulation of delta and omicron variants, treatment with REGEN-COV significantly reduced viral load and COVID-19-related MAVs.

17.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335889

ABSTRACT

Mass vaccination against the disease caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) was a crucial step in slowing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in 2021. Even in the face of new variants, it still remains extremely important for reducing hospitalizations and COVID-19 deaths. Only limited data exists about the short- and long-term dynamics of humoral immune response. We present a longitudinal analysis of post-vaccination IgG levels in a cohort of 166 healthcare workers vaccinated with BNT162b2 with weekly follow-up until 35 days past the first dose and monthly follow-up up to 6 months post-vaccination. A subset of the patients continued with follow-up after 6 months and either received a booster dose or got infected during the Delta wave in Romania. Tests were carried out on 1697 samples using a CE-marked IgG ELISA assay developed in-house, containing S1 and N antigens of the wild type virus. Participants infected with SARS-CoV-2 before vaccination mount a quick immune response, reaching peak IgG levels two weeks after the first dose, while IgG levels of previously uninfected participants mount gradually, increasing abruptly after the second dose. Overall higher IgG levels are maintained for the previously infected group 35-70 days after vaccination. The decrease of IgG levels is gradual, with lower overall values in the infection naïve cohort even 7-8 months after vaccination, compared to the previously infected cohort. Administration of a booster dose yielded higher average IgG antibody levels than post second dose in the infection naïve group and comparable levels in the previously infected group.

18.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335813

ABSTRACT

The rapid development of vaccines to prevent infection by SARS-CoV-2 virus causing COVID-19 makes necessary to compare the capacity of the different vaccines in terms of development of a protective humoral response. Here, we have used a highly sensitive and reliable flow cytometry method to measure the titers of antibodies of the IgG1 isotype in blood of healthy volunteers after receiving one or two doses of the vaccines being administered in Spain. We took advantage of the multiplexed capacity of the method to measure simultaneously the reactivity of antibodies with the S protein of the original strain Wuhan and the variants B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.617.2 (Delta) and B.1.617.1 (Kappa). We found significant differences in the titer of anti-S antibodies produced after a first dose of the vaccines ChAdOx1 nCov-19/AstraZeneca, mRNA-1273/Moderna, BNT162b2/Pfizer-BioNTech and Ad26.COV.S/Janssen. Most important, we found a relative reduction in the reactivity of the sera with the Alpha, Delta and Kappa variants, versus the Wuhan one, after the second boosting immunization. These data allow to make a comparison of different vaccines in terms of anti-S antibody generation and cast doubts about the convenience of repeatedly immunizing with the same S protein sequence.

19.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335805

ABSTRACT

Billions of doses of COVID-19 vaccines have been administered globally, dramatically reducing SARS-CoV-2 incidence and severity in some settings. Many studies suggest vaccines provide a high degree of protection against infection and disease, but precise estimates vary and studies differ in design, outcomes measured, dosing regime, location, and circulating virus strains. Here we conduct a systematic review of COVID-19 vaccines through February 2022. We included efficacy data from Phase 3 clinical trials for 15 vaccines undergoing WHO Emergency Use Listing evaluation and real-world effectiveness for 8 vaccines with observational studies meeting inclusion criteria. Vaccine metrics collected include protection against asymptomatic infection, any infection, symptomatic COVID-19, and severe outcomes including hospitalization and death, for partial or complete vaccination, and against variants of concern Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron. We additionally review the epidemiological principles behind the design and interpretation of vaccine efficacy and effectiveness studies, including important sources of heterogeneity.

20.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335786

ABSTRACT

Background: pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) is a complication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children that resembles Kawasaki syndrome and places them at high risk of cardiorespiratory instability and/or cardiac damage. This study aims to describe the clinical presentation and outcomes of patients with PIMS in Mexico City. Methods: This was an observational study of children hospitalized for PIMS based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition criteria, in a single tertiary care pediatric center in Mexico City between May 1, 2020, and September 30, 2021. Demographic characteristics, epidemiological data, medical history, laboratory tests, cardiology evaluations, treatment, and clinical outcomes were analyzed. Results: Seventy-five cases fulfilled the case definition criteria for PIMS (median age: 10.9 years, Interquartile range [IQR]: 5.6-15.6). Fifteen (20%) patients had a severe underlying disease, 48 (64%) were admitted to the intensive care unit, 33 (44%) required invasive mechanical ventilation and 39 (52%) received vasopressor support. The patients were clustered through latent class analysis based on identified symptoms: Cluster 1 had rash or gastrointestinal symptoms (n = 60) and cluster 2 were those with predominantly respiratory manifestations (n = 15). Two patients (2.7%) died, and both had severe underlying conditions. Five patients (6.7%), all from cluster 1, developed coronary aneurysms. Conclusion: There were a high proportion of patients with severe respiratory involvement and positive RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 and very few cases of coronary aneurysms in our study which suggests that a high proportion of the children had severe acute COVID-19. The clinical manifestations and outcomes are comparable to previously reported international studies.

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