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1.
Hematology, Transfusion and Cell Therapy ; 44(Supplement 2):S682, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2179250

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Relatar caso de paciente com Sindrome de Trombose com Trombocitopenia (TTS) identificado precocemente e com boa evolucao clinica. Relato do caso: Paciente de 21 anos, do sexo masculino, apresentou inicio dos sintomas sete dias apos terceira dose da vacina contra COVID-19, sendo esta a primeira dose de vacina de plataforma adenoviral (ChAdOx-1). Inicialmente com mal-estar e obstrucao nasal, procurou atendimento apos febre nao aferida e dor abdominal e lombalgia. Internado apos achado de trombocitopenia (13.500 plaquetas/mm3). Sorologia negativa para dengue e teste PCR para COVID-19 negativo. Tomografia computadorizada de abdome e pelve mostravam sinais de trombose de pequenos ramos tributarios das veias hepaticas direita e media, area compativel com infarto esplenico, nefrograma heterogeneo no rim esquerdo, predominando no polo superior, sugestivo de foco de infarto renal, e presenca de imagem sugestiva de trombo nao oclusivo na veia renal esquerda, ao nivel do hilo. Hemograma de admissao: Hb 15,3 Leucocitos 4.588 Plaquetas 13.370. TP e TTPa normais. Nadir plaquetario foi de 9.493. Fibrinogenio 178 mg/dL. Dimero D de 61,80 mg/L (VR <0,50). Paciente tratado com imunoglobulina humana (dose total de 2 g/kg) e dexametasona 40 mg /dia por 4 dias, apos quadro de cefaleia na vigencia de plaquetopenia grave, porem com TC de cranio contrastada sem sinais de sangramento ou de trombose venosa cerebral. Evoluiu com boa resposta plaquetaria, com contagem acima de 50.000 mm3 a partir de dois dias apos primeira dose de imunoglobulina. O paciente foi anticoagulado com fondaparinux e posteriormente rivaroxabana. Seguindo a norma tecnica ndegree 933/2021 do Ministerio da Saude, a amostra foi encaminhada para laboratorio de referencia, com resultado positivo para anticorpos anti-PF4 em altos titulos pelo metodo ELISA. Pesquisas de sorologias, anticorpos antifosfolipideos e para trombofilias hereditarias tambem resultaram negativas. Paciente seguiu estavel, com plaquetas de 160.000 mm3 e em anticoagulacao, quatro semanas apos a alta hospitalar. Discussao: A Sindrome de Trombose com Trombocitopenia (TTS) e uma rara complicacao da vacina de plataforma adenoviral nao-replicante, com uma incidencia de 0,5 a 6,8 casos a cada 100.000 vacinacoes. Sua mortalidade esta atualmente relatada em torno de 17%, mas chegando a 50% nos primeiros estudos, dependendo do tempo para diagnostico e inicio do tratamento. Manifesta-se entre 4 e 30 dias apos exposicao vacinal. Caso contempla todos os criterios para caso confirmado de TTS, alem de ser um caso provavel conforme o algoritmo de Naranjo para causalidade de reacao adversa. Apesar de complicacao potencialmente grave, nao compromete a seguranca vacinal, sendo evento clinico tratavel. Conclusao: A complicacao de TTS induzida por vacina com vetor adenoviral nao replicante, apesar de rara, e potencialmente fatal se nao identificada a tempo, alem de ter abordagem e tratamento que reduz de forma significativa a taxa de mortalidade. A divulgacao das informacoes para diagnostico precoce e manejo clinico devem ser ampliadas para melhoria dos desfechos. Copyright © 2022

2.
Iranian Journal of Microbiology ; 14(6):913-920, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2157067

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Neutrophil / lymphocyte (NLR) and thrombocyte / lymphocyte ratios (TLR) are also a guid-ing factors in the prognostic evaluation of infectious diseases. Another parameter to determine inflammation and prognosis is albumin. This study was aimed to determine whether TLR, NLR and neutrophil / albumin ratios (NAR) are effective in predicting the severity and course of Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). Material(s) and Method(s): In this retrospective and cross-sectional study, a total of 1597 patients who were admitted to our hospital between 15.03.2020-1.06.2020, diagnosed with COVID-19 were evaluated. Result(s): In the estimation of the decision for hospitalization, TLR, NLR and NAR AUROC values were 0.596, 0.634, 0.602 for cutoff values 123.7, 2.3 and 839.5, respectively. In predicting mortality, TLR, NLR and NAR AURO sample size can be specified C values were 0.674, 0.821, 0.787 for cutoff values 168.1, 5.2 and 1303.4, respectively (p <0.001 for all). Conclusion(s): In our study, it was determined that TLR, NLR and NAR are independent predictors in making the decision of hospitalization and in determining the prognosis in patients who are decided to be hospitalized. Copyright © 2022 The Authors.

3.
Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis Conference ; 6(Supplement 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2128198

ABSTRACT

Background: Platelets are transfused therapeutically for hemostasis, and are an integral part of hemorrhage management. However, transfusions can be ineffective in the most severe cases of hemorrhage. Platelets are also a potential cell therapy in other applications, but development has been hindered by inadequate methods to control which proteins are expressed by platelets. Currently, there are no methods to express exogenous proteins in transfusable platelets, which would expand their use to help treat the diseases they modulate. A method is therefore needed to modify transfusable platelets, and thus enhance their protein composition for specific applications. Aim(s): To produce engineered, transfusable platelets to enhance their natural coagulability and functional repertoire by directly transfecting donor-derived platelets with mRNA via lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-mediated delivery. The recent advances through the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines demonstrates the clinical safety and efficacy of LNP-mediated gene therapy, and thus offers a promising strategy to effectively engineer modified platelets. Method(s): Donor-derived platelets were washed and subsequently incubated with a systematic array of LNPs encapsulating Cy5-labeled mRNA encoding for nanoluciferase in comparison to commercial transfection reagents. LNP uptake and platelet activation via CD62p levels was assessed following 4 hours by flow cytometry, while luciferase expression was assessed by normalizing the luminescence intensity to the total protein content. Result(s): Platelets took up the mRNA through all conditions tested;nanoluciferase was only expressed, however, in platelets treated with LNPs and not commercial reagents. Systematically optimizing LNPs increased nanoluciferase expression nine-fold relative to pre-optimized LNPs. Exogenous protein expression did not appear to correlate with mRNA uptake nor platelet activation. Conclusion(s): Platelets transfected with LNPs can express exogenous protein. Further optimization can eventually lead to the creation of a platform technology that in the long-term will allow platelets to deliver therapeutic proteins and yield more effective platelet products.

4.
Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis Conference ; 6(Supplement 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2128085

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccine-induced immune thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (VITT) is a new syndrome that occurs 4-30 days following COVID-19 vaccination with adenoviral vector vaccines. VITT is characterised by thrombocytopenia, thrombosis, highly elevated levels of D-dimers and anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4) antibodies. Anti-PF4 antibodies activate platelets via FcgammaRIIA driving pathophysiology. However, the evolution of these antibodies and their ability to activate platelets after initial treatment remains unknown. Aim(s): To determine how anti-PF4 antibody levels in VITT patients change following recovery and the ability of patient serum to activate platelets. Method(s): We followed-up seven discharged VITT patients from diagnosis up to 280 days (range: 199-280) post-vaccination and measured anti-PF4 antibodies and other biomarkers, including PF4 levels, in patient serum. We tested the ability of patient serum to activate healthy and patient platelets using light transmission aggregometry with and without PF4 addition. We also assessed platelet function of patients' platelets at the latest follow-up timepoint. Result(s): Anti-PF4 IgG antibody levels remained high in 6 out of 7 patients up to 7 months post-vaccination. The other patient received rituximab. Diagnostic patient serum strongly activated control (n = 3) and patient platelets, either alone or with PF4. Most follow-up serum alone (5 out of 7 patients) was weaker at stimulating platelets, despite similar anti-PF4 antibody levels. However, PF4-enhanced serum-mediated platelet activation was detectable in 3 out 7 patients beyond 150 days post-vaccination. Patients' PF4 serum levels were reduced at diagnosis compared to follow-up (p < 0.0001, n = 7) but returned to healthy control levels during follow-up. Patients' platelet responses and FcgammaRIIA levels were similar to controls. Conclusion(s): The reduction in serum-mediated platelet activation during follow-up, despite similar PF4 antibody levels remains unexplained. Further assessment is required to determine if levels of high affinity anti-PF4 antibodies are reduced during follow-up. Additional understanding is also required to assess duration of ongoing anticoagulation for VITT patients.

5.
Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; 167(1 Supplement):P151, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064487

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Olfactory dysfunction (OD) affects more than 3 million US adults. The number of patients with post viral olfactory dysfunction (PVOD) is expected to increase secondary to the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic. Preliminary studies have demonstrated the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in restoration of smell in both animals and humans. To date, human studies have utilized injectable PRP only. We describe our pilot study investigating the use of topical PRP as a novel delivery method for smell restoration and contribute to existing literature demonstrating the promise of PRP as a therapeutic. Method(s): Pilot study from September 2020 to January 2022. Patients >18 years with hyposmia diagnosed via Brief Smell Identification Test (B-SIT) score <8 were included. PRPimpregnated Surgifoam was placed into bilateral olfactory clefts monthly for at least 3 months. Patients completed the B-SIT at baseline and 1 month after each treatment. Result(s): Eight patients underwent at least 3 treatments and completed the B-SIT at month 4. Average age was 56.3 years;mean smell loss duration was 19.3 months. Etiologies included PVOD, post-COVID (5), and idiopathic. Mean change in B-SIT after 3 treatments was +1.06. Of patients, 62.5% had achieved the minimal clinically significant difference of >1 on B-SIT after treatments 2 and 3. Patients with smell loss <12 months demonstrated greater B-SIT scores at 4 months (+1.6 vs +0.2). Two patients achieved B-SIT >8 after 3 treatments. Of patients who have returned thus far for a fourth treatment, 1 additional patient scored >8. Conclusion(s): We present the largest pilot study to date for the use of PRP in treatment of OD and the first study to develop methods for topical delivery in human subjects. Topical PRP may serve as a less invasive, efficacious therapy for patients. Further, randomized control trials are warranted to investigate the required number of topical PRP treatments for smell restoration.

6.
Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; 167(1 Supplement):P20-P21, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064482

ABSTRACT

Introduction: While there is anecdotal evidence that a SARSCoV- 2 (COVID-19) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction screening nasopharyngeal swab confers an elevated risk of epistaxis, no studies substantiate this. We aim to assess the association between epistaxis and exposure to a provideradministered COVID-19 swab. Method(s): A paired-exposure crossover cohort design was used among all patients who received a single COVID-19 swab between April 2020 and March 2021. Occurrence of epistaxis was compared during the hazard period, the 7 days following the index COVID-19 swab, to the control period, the 7 days preceding the index COVID-19 swab. McNemar test was used to compare rates of control- and hazard-period epistaxis. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate sociodemographic and clinical risk factors for epistaxis. Result(s): A total of 827,987 participants were included, with 1047 epistaxis encounters. The prevalence of epistaxis during the hazard and control periods were 0.08% and 0.04%, respectively. Swab exposure was associated with 1.92-fold odds of epistaxis in the hazard period (95% CI, 1.73, 2.12];P<.01). Older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.07;95% CI, 1.02, 1.75), Asian ancestry (OR 1.68;95% CI, 1.40, 2.02), men (OR 1.33;95% CI, 1.16, 1.54), anticoagulation/antiplatelet use (OR 2.88;95% CI, 2.11, 3.92), hypertension (OR 2.31;95% CI, 1.92, 2.78), and prior facial trauma (OR 1.63;95% CI, 1.21, 2.19) were associated with significantly increased odds of epistaxis during the hazard period (P<.01). Conclusion(s): COVID-19 nasal swabs are associated with increased risk of epistaxis. Physicians should provide additional counseling to patients, particularly those at highest risk, including those on anticoagulants/antiplatelets or with hypertension, prior to undergoing a COVID-19 nasal swab.

7.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):420-421, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063359

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Vaccine-induced thrombosis and thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare syndrome that has emerged since widespread vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. As a result of the high mortality, some patients have become deceased organ donors. Outcomes after kidney transplantation from donors with VITT are poorly described. Since the disease appears to be antibody-mediated, there is a theoretical risk of transmission from donor to recipient. Method(s): We examined the UK experience of kidney transplantation from donors with VITT, using data from the UK Transplant Registry. Our outcomes were early graft function, post-operative complications, 3-month estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), patient and graft survival, and disease transmission. Result(s): Thirty patients (including two aged <18 years) received a single kidney transplant from 16 donors with VITT between 1st January and 30th June 2021. After a median follow-up of 5 months, patient and graft survival were 97% and 90%, respectively. Median 3-month eGFR was 51 mL/min/1.73m2. Two recipients had detectable anti-platelet factor 4 antibodies following transplantation, but no evidence of clinical disease. Major haemorrhagic or thrombotic complications occurred in three recipients, resulting in the loss of two grafts. Conclusion(s): The UK experience to date shows that favourable outcomes in kidney transplants from donors with VITT are possible. Ongoing vigilance for donor-related complications in these patients remains important. (Table Presented).

8.
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology ; 34(4):499, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062999

ABSTRACT

Clinical manifestation of coronavirus (COVID-19) is known to be associated with a hypercoagulable state and has a correlation of stroke as observed during the COVID pandemic. Pregnancy augments physiologic estrogenic effects on coagulation, making pregnant patients hypercoagulable. Management of hypercoagulability includes anticoagulation, which poses a contraindication to neuraxial anesthesia based on current guidelines. Management of primary labor anesthesia modality in patients with thrombocytosis can be challenging, particularly when presented with concurrent COVID infection. There is no guideline on the administration of anti-coagulation in this populace. The risk-benefit stratification of neuraxial anesthesia versus general anesthesia needs to be reviewed in such a patient population. We present a case of a parturient in labor who had thrombocytosis with a platelet of 576, COVID infection, and received therapeutic anticoagulation based on an automatic EMR best practices protocol. In this report, we examine literature surrounding the intersection of COVID, pregnancy, thrombocytosis and neuraxial anesthesia with respect to coagulation status to better guide anesthetic management in patients.

9.
Cardiology in the Young ; 32(Supplement 2):S252-S253, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062099

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Myocardial infarction after coronavirus dis-ease 2019(COVID-19) is a quite uncommon clinical disease in children. We present a case about a 9-year-old boy with total occlusion of the right main coronary artery(RMCA) attending to the hospital with chest pain. It was related pediatric multisystem inflammatory disease (MIS-C). Method(s): It is a case presentation. Result(s): Case Presentation: The patient had no previous cardiac or family history. Electrocardiography(ECG) showed a definite elevation on the extremity derivatives(DI, DII, DIII, and aVF), and marked ST depression on the chest derivatives (V1 to V6) and aVR, aVL, all representing lateral inferior ischemia. Transthoracic echocardi-ography revealed left ventricular systolic dysfunction, and global wall hypokinesia. Existence of fever and two-body system involvement (cardiac, gastrointestinal), CRP rise, and prior SARS-CoV-2 exposure in a month, MIS-C was a foremost diag-nosis. The total antibody for SARS-CoV-2 was positive. Lipid profiles(LDL, HDL, VLDL, triglyceride), lipid electrophoresis, routine coagulation, and thrombophilia tests were evaluated for differential diagnosis and all were normal. Because of the possible MI, it was planned to visualize coronary arteries by angiography. Total occlusion of the right main coronary artery(RMCA) with a large thrombus was detected without any dilatation of the coro-nary arteries in the coronary angiography. Two coronary stents were implanted into the distal and proximal part of the RMCA. After the procedure, clopidogrel was added to acetylsalicylic acid for platelet inhibition. During the follow-up, LVEF rose to 55% and there was a little hypokinesia on the left inferior wall of ventricles. Conclusion(s):. It should be kept in mind that acute coronary throm-bosis could be an important complication of COVID-19 exposure or MIS-C. A coronary stent implantation is a good treatment option even in small children.

10.
Chest ; 162(4):A1764, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060857

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Pathologies of the Post-COVID-19 World SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 10:15 am - 11:10 am INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 Associated Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CAPA) is a subset of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis occurring in patients actively infected with or recovering from COVID-19. It has mostly been described in immunocompromised or severely ill patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation[1-6]. The authors report a case of CAPA infection in an ambulatory and immunocompetent patient with prior lung resection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 20-year-old male presented to a Comprehensive Cancer Center for fever and hemoptysis. He carried a diagnosis of metastatic germ cell tumor to his lungs, status post left upper-lobe wedge resection. He had completed bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy one year earlier. He was recently diagnosed with COVID-19 one month prior to admission and treated as an outpatient with monoclonal antibodies. He reported ongoing cough productive of clear sputum since his diagnosis, which had worsened over the previous two days and was now blood-tinged. He had been afebrile for weeks before noting new fevers over the same period. Physical examination was notable for fever to 38.6°C and lungs clear to auscultation. His labs were significant for a WBC of 14.5 K/mcl (82.5% neutrophils), Cr 2.1 mg/dL (baseline 1.5 mg/dL), and normal platelets and coagulation studies. Serum Aspergillus galactomannan was normal. Repeat SARS-CoV-2 PCR was negative. Chest x-ray was unchanged. V/Q scan showed no evidence of pulmonary embolism. Non-contrast CT chest performed on hospital day #4 revealed a partial opacification and increased wall thickness of patient's largest left upper lobe surgical cavitation (see Image 1). A bronchoscopy was performed day #6, with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) galactomannan >5.56 (normal <0.5)7;fungal culture was significant for septate hyphae. He was started on voriconazole with improvement in his symptoms and discharged day #9. DISCUSSION: Immunocompromised patients with prolonged neutropenia, solid-organ or stem cell transplants, and patients with advanced AIDS are at highest risk of contracting PA[8-9]. ARDS secondary to viral pneumonia is also a common precipitant in immunocompetent patients[1-6,10,11]. The exact mechanism of this association remains unknown, but it is postulated to occur due to multiple factors, including host immune dysregulation[1,2], widespread exposure to corticosteroids[1,2], concomitant lung disease[1], and viral-induced lymphopenia[2]. We report a case of an immunocompetent patient with prior lung resection recovering from COVID-19 who experienced a secondary worsening of symptoms ultimately found to have CAPA to further highlight the link between these conditions. CONCLUSIONS: While many of CAPA case reports describe patients with typical risk profiles for CAPA, this case suggests that clinicians should consider structural lung disease alone in an otherwise immunocompetent, ambulatory individual to be a potential risk factor. Reference #1: See Image 2 for full list of references. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Raphael Rabinowitz No relevant relationships by Matthew Velez

11.
Chest ; 162(4):A1415, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060814

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Problems in the Pleura Case Posters 1 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Ibrutinib is an irreversible inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), approved for treatment of a variety of B-cell malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). There is an association of increased risk of bleeding with ibrutinib due to platelet dysfunction caused by the medication. Bleeding is usually non-life threating such as subcutaneous or mucosal bleeding, epistaxis, and ecchymosis. But major bleeding has been reported such as intracranial hemorrhage and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Thoracic complications from ibrutinib are rare. Below is a case report discussing a hemorrhagic pleural effusion thought to be caused by Ibrutinib. CASE PRESENTATION: Patient is a 78-year-old male initially diagnosed with CLL on flow cytometry showing a low-grade B cell lymphoproliferative process. Patient was monitored by Hematology and when kappa light chain numbers began to rise, a bone marrow biopsy was performed showing 90% infiltration of the marrow with lymphoid cells. Patient was started on Ibrutinib therapy and responded well to treatment. A year after starting therapy, patient presented to the emergency room with increased shortness of breath and fatigue. Patient was found to be COVID-19 positive and chest x-ray showed a large right sided pleural effusion. Thoracentesis was performed draining 1650cc of bloody fluid. Fluid studies revealed a lymphocytic effusion with RBC count 1,185375, WBC of 1751. Cultures and cytology were negative. On further history, patient was without recent trauma or surgery, CTA chest was negative for pulmonary embolism. QuantiFERON Gold test was negative, indicating low likelihood of tuberculosis. Patient was not on any antiplatelet or systemic anticoagulation medications. Ibrutinib therapy was held during hospitalization and pleural effusion did not reaccumulate. Patient passed away during hospital stay secondary to respiratory failure due to COVID-19. DISCUSSION: Ibrutinib is an orally bioavailable bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor (BTKi) and forms an irreversible covalent bound to BTK at the Cysteine-481 residue. Ibrutinib predisposes to bleeding by inhibiting BTK and Tec, which play a role in the inhibitory signaling pathway of platelet collagen receptors such as glycoprotein VI (GP VI) and C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2). Our patient had no other risk factors for developing a hemorrhagic effusion. CLL itself can cause malignant effusions, one study found the incidence of malignant effusions among patients with CLL to be 9%, but the effusion was noted to be serous or serosanguinous and there was pleural involvement in all patients which was not the case in our patient. CONCLUSIONS: There is currently a minimal amount of data to guide clinicians regarding the use of ibrutinib in patients at high risk of bleeding or on anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy. It is important to realize bleeding complications related to ibrutinib therapy can occur. Reference #1: Shatzel JJ, Olson SR, Tao DL, McCarty OJT, Danilov AV, DeLoughery TG. Ibrutinib-associated bleeding: pathogenesis, management and risk reduction strategies. J Thromb Haemost. 2017;15(5):835-847. doi:10.1111/jth.13651 Reference #2: Burger JA, Tedeschi A, Barr PM, et al. Ibrutinib as Initial Therapy for Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(25):2425-2437. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1509388 Reference #3: Paydas S. Management of adverse effects/toxicity of ibrutinib. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2019;136:56-63. doi:10.1016/j.critrevonc.2019.02.001 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by fatima ali No relevant relationships by Joan Wiley

12.
Chest ; 162(4):A1060, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060762

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Issues After COVID-19 Vaccination Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Ever since the global introduction of adenovirus-vector COVID-19 vaccines, cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and thrombocytopenia after immunization has been reported, posing a challenge to global effects on vaccine implementation. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 33 year old male presented to emergency room with altered mental status after a left sided seizure episode at home. Patient had a 1week history of occipital headache after receiving Ad26.COV2·S Johnson and Johnson vaccine 2 weeks prior. MRI showed superior sagittal sinus thrombosis and right high frontal hemorrhage 8.6x4.7x4.9 cm. CT angiography confirmed nearly occlusive thrombosis of superior sagittal sinus with extension to right transverse sinus. Noted to have a hemoglobin of 15, platelet count of 74000, PT/INR 16/1.2 and PTT of 28. Started on intravenous heparin and intubated for GCS of 4. Heparin was stopped due to supra therapeutic PTT of 200 overnight, drop in platelet count to 55 and hemoglobin to 13. Repeat ct head done for change in neurological exam of dilated right pupil, showed frontoparietal hemorrhage 9.3 cmx4.1 cm and 7 mm midline shift. Heparin was reversed with protamine and transfused 1 unit platelets prior to emergent decompressive craniectomy and thrombectomy. Heparin induced platelet antibody and SRA came back positive confirming vaccine induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis. Treatment was initiated with argatroban and IVIG. Platelet count improved with no further propagation of thrombus. Patient underwent feeding tube and tracheostomy placement after 10 days due to prolonged ventilator weaning period and poor mental status. Patient's neurological status continued to improve significantly over subsequent months in acute rehabilitation facility with only residual left sided hemiparesis. Patient was successfully decannulated and anticoagulation switched to apixaban DISCUSSION: Possible pathophysiology is thought to be due to a trigger in spike protein production after biodistribution of adenovirus vaccine and a subsequent autoimmune response resulting in thrombosis. Similar to HIT, platelet consumption leads to thrombocytopenia and the continued platelet and monocyte activation increases thrombin generation, resulting in thrombosis. CDC advices to maintain a high suspicion of cases with symptoms that may indicate an underlying thrombotic event along with simultaneous thrombocytopenia. Heparin use is discouraged, unless HIT testing is negative. The International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH), recommend considering non-heparin anticoagulants and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). While platelet transfusions are avoided, rapid progression with rising ICP may necessitate transfusion to enable neurosurgical intervention CONCLUSIONS: Management of complications including seizures and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is essential to reduce morbidity and mortality risk. Reference #1: Greinacher A, Thiele T, Warkentin TE, Weisser K, Kyrle PA, Eichinger S. Thrombotic thrombocytopenia after ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination. N Engl J Med 2021;384:2092–101. Reference #2: Muir KL, Kallam A, Koepsell SA, Gundabolu K. Thrombotic thrombocytopenia after Ad26.COV2.S vaccination. N Engl J Med 2021;384:1964–5 Reference #3: Pavord S, Scully M, Hunt BJ, et al. Clinical Features of Vaccine-Induced Immune Thrombocytopenia and Thrombosis. N Engl J Med 2021;385:1680–9 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Axel Duval No relevant relationships by Nadish Garg No relevant relationships by ARCHANA SREEKANTAN NAIR

13.
Chest ; 162(4):A1051-A1052, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060761

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Critical Thinking SESSION TYPE: Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 09:15 am - 10:15 am INTRODUCTION: We describe a case of severe thrombocytopenia due to reaction with an electron-beam sterilized polysulfone (PS) membrane in a patient with a previous diagnosis of reported chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). This phenomenon has been previously described but is rarely reported. Electron-beam (e-beam) sterilized PS membranes are classically more biocompatible than cellulose-based membranes but adverse reactions may occur as demonstrated in our case. CASE PRESENTATION: An 84-year-old woman with ESRD on hemodialysis (HD) and reported chronic ITP refractory to glucocorticoids with severe thrombocytopenia at baseline presented for evaluation of chest pain. She was incidentally found to have severe thrombocytopenia and treated with high dose glucocorticoids with minimal improvement in her thrombocytopenia and transitioned to chronic glucocorticoid taper. She had a severe chronic thrombocytopenia despite glucocorticoids which was suspected to be chronic ITP and diagnosed after initiation of outpatient HD. HD was held the first few days of her admission. She was found to have multifocal pneumonia due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. She developed progressive hypoxemic respiratory failure requiring intubation with sepsis treated with vancomycin & piperacillin-tazobactam. BAL revealed ESBL Escherichia coli & transitioned to ertapenem. She developed recurrent thrombocytopenia following HD and her PLT would improve between HD sessions. Evaluation of usual culprits of thrombocytopenia was unrevealing. Reaction to the PS membrane was suspected and a cellulose-based dialyzer membrane was used instead for subsequent sessions of HD with recovery of the platelet counts to normal. The remainder of her course was significant for tracheostomy with ventilator dependence and surrogate pursued compassionate care. DISCUSSION: We describe an interesting case of severe thrombocytopenia due to PS membrane reaction which was previously labeled as chronic ITP. Usual culprits such as pseudothrombocytopenia, HIT, HIV, HCV, hypersplenism, alcohol use, nutritional deficiencies, and rheumatologic disease were excluded. Synthetic membranes like PS-membranes are traditionally regarded as more biocompatible but filter reactions are described [1]. It is hypothesized that e-beam radiation may affect dialyzer membrane integrity or structure, or produce intermediary products which may cause platelet activation, aggregation, and adsorption, and therefore thrombocytopenia [2]. There is a high prevalence of thrombocytopenia among critically ill patients undergoing HD [3]. CONCLUSIONS: Thrombocytopenia due to PS dialyzer membrane is a rarely reported phenomenon and may be underrecognized in critically ill patients. This entity should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients undergoing HD who develop thrombocytopenia. Early recognition may reduce incidence of bleeding and need for blood products in these patients. Reference #1: Golli-Bennour EE, Kouidhi B, Dey M et al. Cytotoxic effects exerted by polyarylsulfone dialyser membranes depend on different sterilization processes. Int Urol Nephrol 2011;43: 483–490. Reference #2: Batalini F, Aleixo GF, Maoz A, Sarosiek S. Haemodialysis-associated thrombocytopenia: interactions among the immune system, membranes and sterilisation methods. BMJ Case Rep. 2019 Sep 4;12(9):e229594. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2019-229594. PMID: 31488440;PMCID: PMC6731774. Reference #3: Griffin BR, Jovanovich A, You Z, Palevsky P, Faubel S, Jalal D. Effects of Baseline Thrombocytopenia and Platelet Decrease Following Renal Replacement Therapy Initiation in Patients With Severe Acute Kidney Injury. Crit Care Med. 2019;47(4):e325-e331. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000003598 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Adefemi Adeyemo No relevant relationships by Zachary Chandler No relevant relationships by Bijal Patel No relevant relationships by Vandana Seeram

14.
Chest ; 162(4):A906, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060723

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Unique Inflammatory and Autoimmune Complications of COVID-19 Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare, life-threatening hyperinflammatory syndrome caused by severe, dysregulated hypercytokinemia. This can be associated with genetic defects or immunologic triggers such as infection, malignancy or autoimmune disorder. The clinical picture consists of multi-organ failure including fever, hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenia,hypertriglyceridemia, hemophagocytosis, high ferritin and IL-2 levels, neurological and liver dysfunction. We present a case of a patient with HLH in the setting of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and SARS-CoV-2 co-infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 39-year-old male presented to the ER with dyspnea and was found to have COVID-19 pneumonia. He had worsening hypoxemia and was admitted to ICU. He rapidly developed multi-system organ failure (MSOF)including severe hepatitis with AST 13,950 U/L and ALT 10,000 U/L, pancytopenia (Hb 12.9 g/dL, WBC 1.7 K/uL, platelet 15,000 K/uL), acute kidney injury (Cr 6.61 mg/dL), and severe ARDS requiring mechanical ventilation. Abdominal ultrasonography showed splenomegaly. Blood HSV1 DNA PCR was positive with liver biopsy revealing viral inclusions consistent with HSV hepatitis. He had elevated ferritin > 100,000 ug/L and LDH > 2500 U/L. Bone marrow biopsy demonstrated hemophagocytosis and trilineage hematopoiesis. He met 6 of 8 diagnostic criteria for HLH per the HLH-2004 protocol. He received dexamethasone. Risks and benefits of HLH-specific therapy were considered in the setting of liver dysfunction and the decision was made to withhold etoposide and administer anakinra. He died of refractory septic shock and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. DISCUSSION: Diagnosis of HLH can be challenging due to its rarity and the clinical picture may be initially attributed to sepsis in the presence of infection, as in our patient who had COVID-19 infection and HSV hepatitis. However, a ferritin level >10,000 ng/mL is 90% sensitive and 96 % specific for HLH, with very minimal overlap with sepsis, infections, and liver failure. Additionally, infection is a known trigger of HLH. Despite high mortality without therapy, survival can be significantly increased with HLH-specific therapy, such as etoposide. Treatment with etoposide in the setting of severe liver disease can raise concern because it is metabolized by the liver but it is an essential component of optimal therapy and can be considered in patients with hepatic dysfunction with dose reduction. CONCLUSIONS: Our case highlights the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for HLH in critically ill patients with MSOF and liver failure, despite an apparent infectious etiology. This may allow timely diagnosis, early referral to a specialist center and consideration of HLH-specific therapy such as etoposide despite liver dysfunction, to prevent high morbidity and mortality in this potentially fatal disease. Reference #1: Filipovich AH. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and related disorders. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2009;:127. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Abdul Khan No relevant relationships by Nehan Sher No relevant relationships by yuttiwat vorakunthada

15.
Chest ; 162(4):A836, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060701

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Unique Inflammatory and Autoimmune Complications of COVID-19 Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can manifest as a severe immunologic syndrome known as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). HLH is a hyper-inflammatory state with a lethal mortality rate, especially when discovered late in the disease process. The optimal timely approach to diagnosis and treatment of secondary HLH in COVID-19 is unclear, however, risk stratification with Hscore using biomarkers can be useful to increase confidence in an HLH diagnosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 36-year-old morbidly obese male with a history of well controlled mild intermittent asthma presented to the hospital complaining of a one week history of dyspnea and cough after failing outpatient COVID-19 treatment. Upon arrival, he was hypoxic on room air and was placed on non-invasive ventilation. He unfortunately decompensated further and was transferred to the intensive care unit where he was intubated for severe hypoxia and increased work of breathing. His course was complicated by superimposed bacterial pneumonia, vasopressor dependent septic shock, and anuric acute kidney injury requiring continuous renal replacement therapy. He remained profoundly hypoxic despite rescue therapy with multiple sessions of prone ventilation. On hospital day seventeen his platelets declined acutely and a serotonin release assay confirmed heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. His clinical status remained tenuous into the third week of admission. Notably, he developed persistent fever with associated bicytopenia and elevated lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer, fibrinogen, triglycerides, and aspartate aminotransferase. His calculated Hscore was 189. Hematology recommended initiating HLH therapy with daily dexamethasone and etoposide, however the latter was held due to the patient's rapid hemodynamic decline. The patient succumbed to illness after a twenty-day hospitalization. His HLH was confirmed with a positive postmortem soluble-IL-2-receptor test. DISCUSSION: Proposals of routine HLH screening in critically ill patients are endorsed to promote early detection of this morbid condition. Calculating Hscore using vital signs, imaging, laboratory tests, and patient history can guide suspicion of diagnosis, since HLH-specific markers are often not feasible. Hscores more than 169 correspond to 93% sensitivity and 86% specificity in HLH diagnosis. Immunosuppression is standard therapy with hematology guidance due to the complex pathophysiology and limited research. CONCLUSIONS: This case emphasizes the importance of understanding the relationship between COVID-19 and secondary HLH. A timely diagnosis is vital in order to attempt to effectively treat a syndrome that carries a 65% mortality rate. Reference #1: Dimopoulos G, Mast Q. de, Markou N, et al. Favorable Anakinra responses in severe COVID-19 patients with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Cell Host Microbe 2020;doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2020.05.007. PubMed PMID: 32411313. Reference #2: Bauchmuller K, Manson JJ, Tattersall R, et al. Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in adult critical care. J Intensive Care Soc 2020;21:256–68. Reference #3: Schnaubelt, Sebastian MDa,∗;Tihanyi, Daniel MDb;Strassl, Robert MDc;Schmidt, Ralf MDc;Anders, Sonja MDb;Laggner, Anton N. MDa;Agis, Hermine MDd;Domanovits, Hans MDa Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in COVID-19, Medicine: March 26, 2021 - Volume 100 - Issue 12 - p e25170 doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000025170 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Kristina Catania No relevant relationships by Katie Kennedy No relevant relationships by Josef Kinderwater No relevant relationships by MaryKate Kratzer no disclosure submitted for Ogugua Obi;

16.
Chest ; 162(4):A773-A774, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060686

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-Related Critical Care Cases SESSION TYPE: Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 11:15 am - 12:15 pm INTRODUCTION: We present a case of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) secondary to Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP) temporally related to SARS-CoV-2 (CoV) vaccine. CASE PRESENTATION: An 80-year-old female presented with dyspnea, hemoptysis, diffuse petechiae, and ecchymosis;no focal neurological deficits or hepatosplenomegaly. She had no history of bleeding or autoimmune disorders;no recent respiratory or gastrointestinal infections;but received Moderna CoV vaccine 4 weeks prior to presentation. Chest X-ray (CXR) and CTA of chest demonstrated multifocal bilateral patchy airspace opacities. Initial platelet was 1 x 109/L with normal morphology of platelet and WBC, and no schistocytes. Coagulation panel, LDH, haptoglobin, and bilirubin were all normal. CoV NAAT was negative. Dexamethasone and IVIG for high suspicion of ITP was initiated. Supportive care including platelet transfusion and oxygen via nasal cannula was maintained. Platelets were severely consumed in spite of treatment with platelets undetectable at nadir and rapid decrease of hemoglobin, approximately 6 g/dL, within 24 hours of admission. IgM and IgG plasma platelet autoantibodies returned positive, confirming ITP diagnosis. Additional workup was unremarkable for infections, rheumatologic disorders, and malignancy. Respiratory state rapidly declined with worsening hemoptysis and significant increase of bilateral airspace opacities on repeat CXR, indicative of DAH. Lung protective mechanical ventilation protocol was initiated on day 2 with medically induced deep sedation and paralysis to minimize hemorrhage exacerbation. Rituximab, romiplostim, and nebulized tranexamic acid were added for severe and refractory ITP, which eventually slowed platelet consumption, reduced pulmonary hemorrhage, and stabilized hemoglobin. Platelets recovered above 30 x 109/L on day 9, and subsequent bronchoscopy showed persistent blood on bronchoalveolar lavage. She was successfully extubated after prolonged 14-day intubation. Platelet normalized before discharge. DISCUSSION: Incidence of ITP related to CoV vaccine is approximately 0.8-0.9 case per million vaccinated. Most cases present with superficial bleeding and respond to first-line agents with rapid recovery. GI bleeding and intracranial hemorrhage, but not DAH, have been reported in several cases, requiring third-line agents to promote platelets recovery and achieve hemostasis. We report a case of DAH secondary to ITP following CoV vaccine. Temporal relationship and severe presentation are consistent with other reports of ITP with life-threatening internal bleeding probably secondary to CoV vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: When DAH is suspected, rapid escalation of treatment to include third-line agents is desired. If intubated, lung protective ventilation with paralysis is preferred to minimize further lung injury due to DAH. Reference #1: Lee EJ, Cines DB, Gernsheimer T, et al. Thrombocytopenia following Pfizer and Moderna SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Am J Hematol. 2021;96(5):534-537. doi:10.1002/ajh.26132 doi:10.1016/J.VACCINE.2021.04.054 Reference #2: Welsh KJ, Baumblatt J, Chege W, Goud R, Nair N. Thrombocytopenia including immune thrombocytopenia after receipt of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). Vaccine. 2021;39(25):3329-3332. Reference #3: Tarawneh O, Tarawneh H. Immune thrombocytopenia in a 22-year-old post Covid-19 vaccine. Am J Hematol. 2021;96(5):E133-E134. doi:10.1002/ajh.26106 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Timothy Barreiro No relevant relationships by Tiewei Cheng No relevant relationships by Zeina El Amil No relevant relationships by Jin Huang No relevant relationships by Sanaullah Khalid

17.
Chest ; 162(4):A712-A713, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060673

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Pulmonary Involvement in Critical Care Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a condition in which the body's natural ability to end an immune or inflammatory response is defective1. COVID-19 also presents with severe inflammation, and like HLH, leads to significantly elevated ferritin2. We present a case that was initially thought to be COVID-19, but the patient was diagnosed with HLH in the setting of S. aureus endocarditis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 62-year-old male with a history of atrial fibrillation, mechanical mitral valve on warfarin, type II diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and recently diagnosed COVID-19 presented to the hospital with progressive dyspnea. In the emergency department, he was found to be hypoxemic and in atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response. He had a fever of 39.3°C and his initial laboratory workup revealed hemoglobin of 11.9 g/dL, leukocytes of 5,700, platelets of 83,000, AST 35 U/L, ALT 34 U/L, CRP of 31.89 mg/dL, and ferritin of 1994 ug/L. The patient was admitted and started on dexamethasone 6 mg daily. The following day, the patient's blood work revealed a significant worsening of AST and ALT to 7280 U/L and 3319 U/L, respectively. D-dimer increased to 11861 ng/mL (DDU) and ferritin to 36,470 ug/L. On the third day of admission, his clinical status declined acutely as he became significantly bradycardic, progressing to a cardiac arrest after which he required cardiopulmonary resuscitation, intubation, and was transferred to the intensive care unit. A CT scan obtained revealed hepatomegaly of 22 cm and blood cultures were positive for S. aureus requiring vancomycin treatment. The patient was kept on dexamethasone due to concerns for HLH. Ferritin continued to worsen, reaching 50,749 ug/L. His sCD25 came back positive. Unfortunately, the patient expired on his fifth day of hospitalization after discussing with his family their goals for his care and switching his care to comfort only. DISCUSSION: HLH is a challenging condition since diagnosis is difficult and mortality is high. There are a few methods used to diagnose HLH. Usually, 5 of 8 criteria must be met, which was achieved with this patient. However, often the patient only fulfills 4 of 8 since many criteria are difficult to obtain such as bone marrow biopsy, sCD25, and CXCL9. A useful tool is the H-calculator3. Our patient scored a 180 indicating a 50-75% likelihood of HLH. Assessing the likelihood of disease is important since sCD25 and CXCL9 take time and if the patient is clinically deteriorating treatment should not be delayed. CONCLUSIONS: HLH is catastrophic and rare. Physicians should always have it as a differential diagnosis in patients with severe inflammatory states and elevated ferritins to avoid anchoring bias. If suspicion is high based on clinical evaluation and scores, treatment should not be delayed. Reference #1: Filipovich A, McClain K, Grom A. Histiocytic disorders: recent insights into pathophysiology and practical guidelines. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2010;16(1 Suppl):S82-S89. doi:10.1016/j.bbmt.2009.11.014 Reference #2: Cheng L, Li H, Li L, et al. Ferritin in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Lab Anal. 2020;34(10):e23618. doi:10.1002/jcla.23618 Reference #3: Fardet L, Galicier L, Lambotte O, et al. Development and validation of the HScore, a score for the diagnosis of reactive hemophagocytic syndrome. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014;66(9):2613-2620. doi:10.1002/art.38690 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Areeka Memon No relevant relationships by Carissa Monterroso No relevant relationships by Carson Oprysko No relevant relationships by Eduardo Padrao No relevant relationships by Mouna Penmetsa

18.
Chest ; 162(4):A663, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060662

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Challenging Cases of Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Worsening respiratory disease is the most common complication of severe COVID-19. However, when patients develop multi-organ dysfunction, clinicians must have a high index of suspicion for rare syndromes such as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). CASE PRESENTATION: A 39-year-old male smoker presented with 1 week of shortness of breath and malaise. Initial physical examination revealed T 37.3 C, pulse 85 min-1, respiratory rate 18 breaths min-1, SPO2 96% and clear breath sounds without labored respirations. Chest X-ray showed bilateral patchy airspace opacities in the mid and lower lung fields. A SARS-COV2 PCR test was positive. The patient was prescribed antibiotics and discharged home. Subsequently, the patient's symptoms worsened and he presented 1 week later with SPO2 90% (O2 10 L/min via nasal cannula). He was admitted to the hospital with COVID-19 pneumonia and began remdesivir, barcitinib, systemic steroids, albuterol and IV antibiotics. On admission his complete blood count and complete metabolic panel were unremarkable. After 3 weeks of hospitalization, he developed multi-organ failure with acute liver injury, acute kidney injury, shock, pancytopenia and worsening hypoxemia leading to endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. CT chest imaging showed bilateral ground glass opacities in the lungs with superimposed consolidation (figure 1). Blood cultures remained sterile, HIV, hepatitis B and C viral serologies were negative. Serum viral polymerase chain reaction detected Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) infections. Trans-jugular liver biopsy confirmed HSV-1 hepatitis and showed sub-massive hemorrhagic necrosis of the liver (figure 2). Bone marrow biopsy demonstrated phagocytic histiocytes engulfing red blood cells and platelets consistent with HLH (figure 3). The patient began HLH targeted therapy with anakinra and high dose steroids. Despite this, the patient continued to deteriorate, developed refractory shock and subsequently expired. DISCUSSION: HLH is a rare disease of the immune system in which a genetic or infectious trigger causes uncontrolled T cell activation. T cell activation triggers macrophage activation, cytokine storm and macrophage phagocytosis of erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets and precursors in the bone marrow and other tissues. If the syndrome is unrecognized, it can quickly lead to multi-organ failure and death. EBV is the most common infectious trigger of HLH;however, infection with HSV-1 and SARS-COV-2 viruses have been identified as rare and independent causes. CONCLUSIONS: This case illustrates the high index of suspicion providers should have for HLH in patients with severe COVID-19 who develop multi-organ injuries. Once HLH is suspected, prompt initiation of HLH-94 protocol with etoposide and dexamethasone may be lifesaving. For those patients with liver failure, other agents (e.g. anakinra) may be provided. Reference #1: Ramos-Casals M, Brito-Zerón P, López-Guillermo A, et al.: Adult haemophagocytic syndrome. Lancet 2014;383:1503–1516 Reference #2: Risma K, Jordan MB: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: updates and evolving concepts. Curr Opin Pediatr 2012;24:9–15 Reference #3: Trottestam H, Horne A, Aricò M, et al.: Chemoimmunotherapy for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: long-term results of the HLH-94 treatment protocol. Blood 2011;118:4577–4584 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Erin Biringen No relevant relationships by Christine Brennan No relevant relationships by Joann Hutto No relevant relationships by Daniel Puebla Neira

19.
Chest ; 162(4):A568-A569, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060634

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Case Report Posters 1 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: We describe the clinical course of a COVID-19 patient with Streptococcus Dysgalactiae (SD) infective endocarditis, managed with six weeks of antibiotics and valve replacement surgery. CASE PRESENTATION: A 50-year-old previously healthy man presented with two weeks of fever, congestion, and diarrhea, and one day of acute change in mentation. On arrival, the patient's heart rate was 130/min, respiratory rate 25/min, and temperature 103.5 F. On physical examination, he appeared lethargic. Initial labs showed a white blood count of 16 k/mm with bands and platelets of 64 k/cmm. The patient was treated empirically for severe sepsis with intravenous vancomycin and cefepime. Blood cultures grew SD. Antibiotics were narrowed to intravenous ceftriaxone. A CAT scan of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis identified multiple splenic infarcts. A transesophageal echocardiogram was performed to evaluate the potential source of the splenic emboli, and this showed mild to moderate mitral regurgitation and a large globular mobile vegetation on the anterior mitral valve. Intravenous gentamicin was added to the treatment regimen. Subsequent cultures remained negative, and he underwent bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement on hospital day 11. He received a total of 6 weeks of outpatient intravenous antibiotic therapy. DISCUSSION: SD is a normal commensal of the skin, upper airway, and gastrointestinal tract. It can cause localized and invasive infections. Major risk factors for invasive infections include malignancy, diabetes mellites, and other cardiovascular diseases. Besides a recent COVID-19 infection, our patient was healthy. The COVID-19 infection causes a hypercoagulable state, and when combined with COVID-19 related diarrhea, can lead to the translocation of the gut bacteria, and subsequent infective endocarditis (IE) [1]. SD is a rare cause of IE, but the incidence of IE in bacteremic patients is about 10% [2]. Clinicians should have a low threshold to suspect IE in cases of SD bacteremia. American Heart Association Guidelines on IE [3] state that systemic embolization occurs in 22% to 50% of cases of IE, and the highest incidence of embolism occurs when the vegetation is mobile, on the anterior mitral valve and > 10 mm, like in our case. In such patients, early cardiac surgery should be considered. SD bacteremia recurrence occurs in about 10% of patients within the first year, and patients should be informed about this risk. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should suspect IE in the setting of SD bacteremia. COVID-19 infection increases the chances of the development of infective endocarditis. Prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy and prompt replacement of the involved valve is necessary. SD IE is associated with a high rate of recurrence, and clinicians should be cognizant of this risk. Reference #1: "COVID-19 INFECTION PREDISPOSING ENDOCARDITIS ….” https://www.scienceopen.com/document?vid=02f2bbbe-479d-4d11-ad60-2ceba336a4e1. Accessed 4 Apr. 2022. Reference #2: "Bacteremia caused by group G Streptococci, taiwan - PubMed.” https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18439377/. Accessed 4 Apr. 2022. Reference #3: "Clinical relevance of vegetation localization by … - Semantic Scholar.” https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Clinical-relevance-of-vegetation-localization-by-in-Rohmann-Erbel/0106e26e3f2102eb6dd2fd7e086210c0a44ebf45. Accessed 4 Apr. 2022. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Husam Bader No relevant relationships by Poorva Bhide No relevant relationships by Gaurav Mohan No relevant relationships by Muhammad Tayyeb No relevant relationships by Charmee Vyas No relevant relationships by Siva Naga Yarrarapu

20.
Chest ; 162(4):A423-A424, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060593

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Challenging Cases of Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a syndrome of excessive immune activation in response to a variety of insults including malignant, autoimmune and infectious processes. The most common infectious trigger is a viral infection, but other pathogens have also been implicated including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) CASE PRESENTATION: 62-year-old male from Bangladesh presented due to lethargy, weakness, and anorexia for several weeks. He also reported fevers, diarrhea, and unintentional weight loss. On examination, he appeared acutely ill with diffuse bibasilar crackles on lung exam. Labs showed platelets of 132, ESR 45 mm/hr, CRP 9.6mg/dL, ferritin 1,765ng/mL and transaminitis. A viral panel was positive for Rhinovirus. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest showed diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacities and he was started on antibiotics for pneumonia. On day 3, his respiratory status worsened and he was emergently intubated. He underwent bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and started on high-dose steroids for possible hypersensitivity pneumonitis. On day 5, he was extubated to nasal cannula, however, his condition worsened despite treatment. Extensive infectious workup, including HIV, Covid and P jirovecii PCR, sputum, and blood cultures, and preliminary AFB smear were negative. Subsequent labs noted rising ferritin levels (4,164 ng/mL), high triglycerides, pancytopenia and transaminitis. Calculated H score was 211 which gave a 93-96% probability of HLH. Initiation of Etoposide was discussed but family deferred. He was later transferred to another facility. On follow-up, IL-2 receptor antibodies were elevated, bone marrow biopsy showed hemophagocytosis and necrotizing granulomas. He was intubated for worsening hypoxemia. Repeat bronchoscopy and BAL analysis showed many acid-fast bacilli. Anti TB treatment (ATT) was deferred due to his critical state. He further declined and eventually expired. DISCUSSION: The exact mechanism for which MTB triggers HLH is unclear, however, it is thought that MTB serves as an obligate intracellular pathogen after phagocytosis by phagocytic cells to induce TH1-mediated cytotoxicity, activating macrophages and NK cells, further releasing a large quantity of cytokines and chemokines. The lack of specific clinical signs, low sensitivity for acid-fast staining, and time-consuming culture make the diagnosis of TB-HLH difficult. However, the use of NAATs has improved the yield of sputum testing. Exceedingly high ferritin levels should serve as a red flag in cases of undetermined diagnosis. Moreso, Cytopenias, elevated LFTs, and coagulation dysfunction are other clues that a diagnosis of HLH should be on the differential. It is believed that early and effective ATT is the key to preventing HLH in TB patients. CONCLUSIONS: It is paramount to both recognize the features of TB as well as HLH as early diagnosis and treatment favor better outcomes. Reference #1: Padhi S, Ravichandran K, Sahoo J, Varghese RG, Basheer A. Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis: An Unusual Complication in Disseminated Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Lung India (2015) 32(6):593–601. doi: 10.4103/0970-2113.168100 Reference #2: Dalugama, C., Gawarammana, I.B. Fever with pancytopenia: unusual presentation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis: a case report. J Med Case Reports 12, 58 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13256-018-1596-0 Reference #3: O M P Jolobe, Timely recognition of hematophagocytosis attributable to coexistence of lymphoma and tuberculosis, QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, Volume 112, Issue 4, April 2019, Page 315, https://doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcy198 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Katherine Acosta No relevant relationships by Chika Winifred Akabusi No relevant relationships by Uma Medapati No relevant relationships by Hector Ojeda-Martinez No relevant relationships by Busala Oke No relevant relationships by Mar o Torres

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