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Eur J Ophthalmol ; : 11206721221124651, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2020984

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To present a case of branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) following ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) Vaccine. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 60-year old otherwise healthy Caucasian male, presented to the ophthalmology emergency clinic complaining of sudden, painless vision loss in his right eye of 24 h" duration. The patient had received Vaxveria seven days prior. The clinical and fundus examination of the right eye established the diagnosis of BRVO. CONCLUSION: The present case descibes the occurrence of BRVO soon after the vaccination with the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine. The close temporal relationship between the BRVO incidence and the vaccination is reinforced by the lack of othe subjective cause to justify the episode.

3.
Journal of Thrombosis & Haemostasis ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2019525

ABSTRACT

Background Objectives Methods Results Conclusions Vaccine‐induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a prothrombotic, heparin‐induced thrombocytopenia (HIT)‐mimicking, adverse reaction caused by platelet‐activating anti‐platelet factor 4 (PF4) antibodies that occurs rarely after adenovirus vector‐based COVID‐19 vaccination. Strength of PF4‐dependent enzyme immunoassay (EIA) reactivity—judged by optical density (OD) measurements—strongly predicts platelet‐activating properties of HIT antibodies in a functional test. Whether a similar relationship holds for VITT antibodies is unknown.To evaluate probability for positive platelet activation testing for VITT antibodies based upon EIA OD reactivity;and to investigate simple approaches to minimize false‐negative platelet activation testing for VITT.All samples referred for VITT testing were systematically evaluated by semiquantitative in‐house PF4/heparin‐EIA (OD readings) and PF4‐induced platelet activation (PIPA) testing within a cohort study. EIA‐positive sera testing PIPA‐negative were retested following 1/4 to 1/10 dilution. Logistic regression was performed to predict the probability of a positive PIPA per magnitude of EIA reactivity.Greater EIA ODs in sera from patients with suspected VITT correlated strongly with greater likelihood of PIPA reactivity. Of 61 sera (with OD values >1.0) testing negative in the PIPA, a high proportion (27/61, 44.3%) became PIPA positive when tested at 1/4 to 1/10 dilution.VITT serology resembles HIT in that greater EIA OD reactivity predicts higher probability of positive testing for platelet‐activating antibodies. Unlike the situation with HIT antibodies, however, diluting putative VITT serum increases probability of a positive platelet activation assay, suggesting that optimal complex formation depends on the stoichiometric ratio of PF4 and anti‐PF4 VITT antibodies. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Thrombosis & Haemostasis is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

4.
Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine ; 10(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010568

ABSTRACT

Jejunal Dieulafoy’s lesion is difficult to diagnose due to its rarity, intermittent hemorrhage, and lesion site, which is largely inaccessible to conventional endoscopes. A 39-year-old man, who had no underlying disease, presented to the emergency department (ED) with weakness, dizziness, and dry cough with a history of several rectal bleeding episodes in the last few years. Endoscopywas normal, and the colonwas full of clots on colonoscopy, and no gross pathology was found. On computed tomography (CT) angiography, a hyperdensity was seen in the middle of the jejunum, possibly suggesting contrast extravasation. Due to decreased hemoglobin of the patient, and hemodynamic instability, the patient became a candidate for surgery. A palpable lesion in the Jejunum was touched that opened longitudinally, which revealed active arterial bleeding fromthe nipple-like lesion. This segment was resected, and an anastomosis was performed. Histopathological examination of the small intestine confirmed a Dieulafoy’s lesion. It seems that, when upper endoscopy and colonoscopy fail to identify the cause of gastrointestinal bleeding, a Dieulafoy’s lesion should be included in the differential diagnoses.

5.
Formosan Journal of Surgery ; 55(4):158-160, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010413

ABSTRACT

The authors reported the clinical course of a 58-year-old female suffering from cerebral venous sinus thrombosis associated with hemorrhage after the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination. Emergent decompressive craniectomy was performed, and aggressive blood transfusion was given. Nevertheless, progressive intracerebral hemorrhage and thrombocytopenia developed. A delayed diagnosis was made on a rare complication of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) with a positive result of anti-platelet factor 4 antibodies (PF4 Ab). The patient died 4 days postoperative due to brainstem failure.

6.
International Journal of General Medicine ; 15:6945-6963, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009777

ABSTRACT

Background: A good understanding of the possible risk factors for coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) severity could help clinicians in identifying patients who need prioritized treatment to prevent disease progression and adverse outcome. In the present study, we aimed to correlate clinical and laboratory characteristics of hospitalized COVID-19 patients to disease outcome in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: The present study included 199 COVID-19 patients admitted to King Fahd Specialist Hospital, Buraydah, Qassim, Saudi Arabia, from April to December 2020. Patients were followed-up until discharge either for recovery or death. Demographic data, clinical data and laboratory results were retrieved from electronic patient records. Results: Critical COVID-19 cases showed higher mean of age and higher prevalence of co-morbid conditions. Fifty-five patients died during the observation period. Risk factors for in hospital death for COVID 19 patients were leukocytosis (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.008– 3.548, p = 0.081), lymphocytopenia (OR 2.152, 95% CI 1.079–4.295, p = 0.020), neutrophilia (OR 1.839, 95% CI 0.951–3.55, p = 0.047), thrombocytopenia (OR 2.152, 95% CI 0.852–5.430, p = 0.085), liver injury (OR 2.689, 95% CI 1.373–4.944, p = 0.003), acute kidney injury (OR 1.248, 95% CI 0.631–2.467 p = 0.319), pancreatic injury (OR 1.973, 95% CI 0.939–4.144, p = 0.056) and high D dimer (OR 2.635, 95% CI 0.747–9.287, p = 0.091). Conclusion: Clinical and laboratory data of COVID-19 patients may help understanding the pathogenesis of the disease and subsequently improve of the outcome of patients by determination of the associated risk factors and recognition of high risk group who are more liable for complications and in hospital death. The present study put an eye on some parameters (laboratory and clinical) that should be alarming signs that the patient is at high risk bad prognosis.

7.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009639

ABSTRACT

Background: Preclinical data indicate that anti-PD-1 agents can facilitate activity of bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) molecules. Here we assess the combination of the anti-CD19 BiTE molecule blinatumomab with the anti-PD-1 antibody AMG 404 in adults with R/R ALL (NCT04524455). Methods: Eligible adults with R/R ALL (Ph+ disease included) received 2-5 treatment cycles. Each cycle was 42 days, consisting of 4 weeks of cIV blinatumomab and a 2-week treatment-free interval as per label. In Cohort 1, AMG 404 was dosed IV at 240 mg every 4 weeks (Q4W);first dose was Day (D) 11 of Cycle (C) 1. Primary endpoints were dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) and other adverse events (AEs). Results: As of 20 Dec 2021, patients (pts) from Cohort 1 (n=8) had median age of 57 (range: 24-73) y, 6/ 8 male, 6/8 Caucasian, 1 with extramedullary disease (duodenum), 2 with prior blinatumomab, and a median of 5 (2-15) prior treatment lines. Two pts remain on study and 2 completed the study;4 pts discontinued the study due to death (n=3) or consent withdrawn (n=1). No DLTs were reported for the 3 evaluable pts. Of the 5 pts not evaluable for DLTs, in C1, 4 had disease progression and 1 an unrelated fatal pneumonia. Treatment-related grade (Gr) ≥3 and/or serious AEs in all 8 pts included cytokine release syndrome (CRS) (1 pt Gr 2, 1 pt Gr 1 and 3), Gr 3 increases in ALT and AST, Gr 3 fever, Gr 3-4 neutropenia, Gr 4 neutropenia/Gr 3-4 thrombocytopenia (same pt), Gr 2 sensorimotor polyneuropathy, Gr 3 hypertension, Gr 3 encephalopathy, and in 1 pt Gr 3-4 decreases in white blood cells, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. One pt developed Gr 3 SARS-COV-2 pneumonia on C2D25, resolving without clinical sequelae. C3 start was delayed by 12 days but protocol treatment resumed uneventfully. All 3 DLT-evaluable pts had a complete response (CR) or CR with partial hematologic recovery (CRh), 2/3 without measurable residual disease (MRD), within 2 cycles;the 3rd pt had an MRD response at the end of C3. Preliminary pharmacokinetic results for the combination of blinatumomab and AMG 404 demonstrated that their exposures were consistent with those observed for each as monotherapy and did not indicate any drug-drug interactions. To date, all samples tested for anti-blinatumomab antibodies have been negative. Conclusions: In this ongoing phase 1b study, the combination of blinatumomab with AMG 404 was tolerated with a manageable safety profile. No DLTs were reported. Enrollment continues in Cohort 2 in which AMG 404 is dosed Q4W at 480 mg starting on C1D1, 48 hours prior to blinatumomab.

8.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009612

ABSTRACT

Background: The mortality rate of cancer patients diagnosed with COVID-19 infection has reached 25%. The time from symptom onset to admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) was on average 10 days, with approximately 26% of patients requiring ICU admission. A higher mortality attributed to COVID-19 was seen in older patients, patients with certain cancer types, and patients with a higher Charslon comorbidity score. Moreover, male sex and leukopenia at diagnosis were associated with an increased risk of worse clinical outcomes. Furthermore, a study done at Memorial Sloan Kettering showed that patients with hematological malignancies had a worse prognosis than those with solid tumors. Our aim is to identify the predictive factors for ICU admission in the setting of positive COVID-19 infection in cancer patients. Differences in prognosis were compared between cancer and non-cancer patients admitted to the ICU due to COVID-19 infection. We also compared the overall outcome between patients with solid cancers and hematologic malignancies. Methods: This is a single institution retrospective study based on chart review analysis conducted at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC). 248 patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 from 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2021. The patient groups were (1) all cancer patients admitted to the COVID unit, (2) all cancer patients admitted to ICU, and (3) all other patients without cancer admitted to the ICU. The main outcomes were ICU admission and mortality. Results: 173 cancer patients were admitted to our institution for the management of COVID-19 with a mean age of 63 years. 52 patients (30%) required ICU admission and 50 patients (29%) died during hospital stay or 1 month following discharge. The time from symptom onset to ICU admission and death were 12.8 and 35 days, respectively. Patients admitted to the ICU were more likely to have anemia (Hb < 8 g/dL) and thrombocytopenia (< 50,000/ mm3) on admission (p = 0.001). Age, male sex and history of smoking, diabetes or cardiopulmonary diseases were not associated with greater risk of ICU admission or death. Among cancer patients, those with uncontrolled disease at the onset of COVID-19 had greater risk of death from COVID-19 (p = 0.001). Cancer type, number of lines of treatment, history of radiation to the chest, recent cytotoxic therapy, and neutropenia were not associated with ICU admission or death from COVID-19. There was no statistical significance in mortality or disease progression between patients with solid or hematologic malignancies. Conclusions: Our data reaffirms previously reported findings of high mortality in cancer patients who contract COVID-19. In particular, patients with anemia, thrombocytopenia, and uncontrolled disease at diagnosis had unfavorable outcomes. Contrary to the literature, age, male sex, cancer type, and neutropenia were not predictive factors for mortality in cancer patients in the setting of COVID-19 infections.

9.
Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology ; 14, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009324

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aimed to investigate the superiority of nab-paclitaxel plus S-1 (AS) over oxaliplatin plus S-1 (SOX) in patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC). Methods: In this multicenter, randomized, phase III superiority trial, eligible patients with unresectable, locally advanced gastric adenocarcinoma were recruited and randomly assigned (1:1) to receive AS (nab-paclitaxel 260 mg/m2 on day 1 or 130 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8;oral S-1 40–60 mg twice daily for 14 days) or SOX (130 mg/m2 oxaliplatin on day 1;oral S-1 40–60 mg twice daily for 14 days) every 3 weeks for up to six cycles. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS), and the secondary endpoints were overall survival, objective response rate, and safety. Results: Owing to slow enrolment, an unplanned interim analysis was performed, resulting in the early termination of the study on 31 December 2021 (data cutoff). Between March 2019 and March 2021, 97 patients (AS, n = 48;SOX, n = 49) were treated and evaluated for efficacy and safety of AS and SOX. As of the data cutoff, the median follow-up was 23.13 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 13.39–32.87]. The median PFS was 9.03 months (95% CI, 6.50–11.56) in the AS group and 5.07 months (95% CI, 4.33–5.81) in the SOX group, demonstrating a better PFS tendency following AS treatment than SOX treatment (hazard ratio = 0.59;95% CI, 0.37–0.94;p = 0.03). The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events were anemia, neutropenia, and leukopenia in both groups, with a higher incidence of thrombocytopenia in the SOX group. Conclusion: Although this study was terminated early, the results demonstrated a better PFS tendency in patients with AGC who were treated with AS than in those treated with SOX, with controllable toxicities. Trial registration: Clinical Trials.gov identifiers: NCT03801668. Registered January 11, 2019.

10.
Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology ; 15, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009323

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a massive crisis to global public health. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are increasingly reported in COVID-19. The characteristics of laboratory findings of COVID-19 are critical for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Objectives: The study aimed to summarize laboratory features in COVID-19 with GI symptoms and non-GI symptoms. Design: This study was a systematic review and meta-analysis. Electronic literature searches were conducted for studies that included patients infected COVID-19 with GI symptoms and non-GI symptoms. GI symptoms included diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, and anorexia. This study used a random-effects model to assess pooled data. Data sources and methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science for studies through 31 October 2021, with no language restrictions. We used the following search terms: ‘COVID-19’ OR ‘2019-nCoV’ OR ‘SARS-CoV-2’ OR ‘coronavirus 2019’ OR ‘severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2’ OR ‘coronavirus’ OR ‘novel coronavirus’ OR ‘nCoV’ AND ‘gastrointestinal symptoms’ OR ‘digestive symptoms’ AND ‘clinical feature’ OR ‘clinical characteristics.’ Data mostly originated from Chinese and American studies. Results: Of 796 identified studies, 14 were eligible and were included in our analysis (N = 8396 participants). Meta-analysis showed that GI symptoms group had an elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) [pooled mean difference (MD), 4.5 U/L;95% confidence interval, [0.45, 8.55];p = 0.03;I2 = 87%]. No publication bias was detected by Begg’s and Egger’s regression test (p = 0.130). COVID-19 with the GI symptoms also showed a trend toward decreased white blood cell count, lymphopenia, neutrophilia, thrombocytopenia and elevated total bilirubin. Conclusion: GI symptoms are common in COVID-19. No significant differences were found in most laboratory indicators except elevated ALT. Registration: CRD42020209039 (PROSPERO).

11.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:1693-1694, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009102

ABSTRACT

Background: Some reports of small vessel vasculitis following nSARS-CoV2 vaccination are reported in the literature (1, 2). Objectives: We purpose to report the case of small-medium vessel vasculitis after BNT162b2 (BioNTech/Pfzer) vaccination. Methods: We present the case of a 48 years old man with an unremarkable history who underwent BNT162b2 vaccination. Results: Five days after the frst shot of BNT162b2 vaccine, the patient refer the onset of left inguinal adenopathy, and erythematous dermatitis of the trunk. Ultrasound of the groin found increase bilateral inguinal lymph nodes with reactive characters. Contextually, erythematous, itchy and painful nodular lesions appear in the lower and upper limbs as well as acrocyanosis and paresthesia in the right hand and foot. The tests performed showed thrombocytopenia and eosinophilia. While, CRP, search for fecal parasites, pANCA, cANCA, ANA, RAST test, serum tryptase were all absent. Haematological evaluation, bone marrow biopsy, karyotype and molecular biology (FIP1L1/PDGFRa), were performed, all results negative. The patient was admitted in Internal Medicine ward for worsening of skin lesions and of acrocyanosis with gangrenous lesions at the tips of the fourth fnger of the right hand. An angio-CT showed an occlusion of the right ulnar artery. At electromyography an axonal sensory neuropathy was found. The skin biopsy showed fbrinoid necrosis of venules of the superfcial vascular plexus associated with numerous eosinophils, lymphocytes and karyorrhetic debris (Figure 1). High-resolution CT scan described diffuse minimal accentuation of the interstitial texture with micronodular aspects and some ground glass appearance. The diagnosis of hypereosinophilic syndrome was made. Therapy with Methylprednisolone 500 mg/daily for 3 days then Prednisone 1 mg/kg daily in association with IL-5 inhibitor (mepolizumab) with good clinical response, in addition to anticoagulation with warfarin was started. Conclusion: To our knowledge this might be the frst case of (HES) following COVID vaccine. As our experience, due to the short commercialization of anti-nSARs-CoV2 vaccines, is limited further studies are needed to explore the possible effect on small-medium vessels.

12.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:964, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009093

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19-associated multisystem infammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is characterized by Kawasaki disease (KD)-like features and circulatory shock [1]. The genesis of SARS-CoV-2 variants triggered successive waves of mass infections followed by MIS-C outbreaks. Objectives: To compare MIS-C phenotypes across the waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. To identify predictors of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission and treatment with biologic agents. Methods: Youth aged 0-18 years, fulflling the WHO case defnition of MIS-C, and admitted to the Alberta Children's Hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic (May 2020-December 2021) were included. Clinical, laboratory, imaging, and treatment data were captured (KD-like manifestations, signs of shock and/or hypotension, peak C-reactive protein (CRP) and ferritin, platelet count nadir, peak NT-proBNP and troponin, liver enzyme abnormalities, sodium and albumin nadir, echocardiogram fndings, biologic agents). Results: 57 consecutive MIS-C patients (median age 6 years, IQR 4-6;72% males) were included. 31 patients (54%) required PICU admission. All received immunoglobulins, 44 (77%) received corticosteroids, 8 patients (14%) were treated with biologic agents. Patients presenting during the third (mainly driven by Alpha variant) or fourth wave (mainly driven by Delta variant) presented with higher ferritin and NT-proBNP levels, and more liver enzyme abnormalities, hypoalbuminemia and thrombocytopenia compared to those presenting during the frst or second wave (Table 1, Figure 1). PICU admission was associated with the presence of shock/hypotension, higher CRP, ferritin, and NT-proBNP levels, lower albumin levels, and the presence of ventricular dysfunction on echocar-diogram (Table 1). A logistic regression model combining peak NT-proBNP, tro-ponin and ferritin levels explained 70% (Nagelkerke R2) of the variance in PICU admission and correctly classifed 91% of the cases. NT-proBNP was the sole signifcant contributor (p=0.017). Treatment with biologic agents was associated with higher CRP (mean 148.8 mg/l versus 251.7 mg/l;p=0.024) and ferritin (797 μg/l versus 1280 μg/l;p=0.049) levels. Conclusion: A shift in MIS-C phenotype was identifed across the successive COVID-19 waves, including the predominance of features associated with macrophage activation syndrome in later stages. These fndings may refect the impact of distinct SARS-CoV-2 variants. NT-proBNP emerged as the most important MIS-C feature predicting PICU admission, underscoring the importance of monitoring.

13.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:1420-1421, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2008992

ABSTRACT

Background: Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA) is a systemic vasculitis involving large and medium-sized blood vessels. Treatment is with high dose glucocorticoids. Steroid-sparing agents and Tocilizumab (TCZ) are used for refractory or relapsing cases. NHS England requires all GCA patients to be discussed in a regional multidisciplinary team meeting (MDT) prior to commencing TCZ. TCZ has only been permitted for a maximum of one year;this time limitation was extended during the Covid-19 pandemic (1). The monthly virtual Bristol and Bath regional MDT started in November 2018. Objectives: We aimed to review: 1) Baseline data on all patients referred to the Bristol and Bath TCZ for GCA MDT, including demographics, clinical presentation and previous steroid-sparing agents used and 2) 12 month follow up data including number of completions, adverse effects, and fares on treatment. Methods: The TCZ MDT referral proforma, adapted from the NHS England Blueteq approval form, was reviewed for all patients referred. 12 month follow up data was obtained from clinic letters. Results: Baseline data Thirty-eight cases were referred between November 2018 and September 2021. Of these, 31 were approved for TCZ usage;100% fulflled the criteria for either refractory (n=11) or relapsing (n=20) disease. Mean age was 74 years and 74.2% were female. Average disease duration was 161.5 days for the refractory and 827.3 days for the relapsing group. 77.4% had cranial GCA, 48.4% had large vessel involvement, 45.2% had visual symptoms and 25.8% had ischaemic visual loss. The positive investigations were PET-CT (48.4%), temporal artery ultrasound (41.9%) and temporal artery biopsy (32.3%). 64.5% had trialled a steroid-sparing agent at time of referral (61.3 % metho-trexate, 9.7% azathioprine, 6.5% lefunomide), 35.5% had received intravenous methylprednisolone and 58% were receiving greater than 40mg prednisolone at the time of referral. Glucocorticoid adverse effects of osteoporosis, weight gain, cataracts and hypertension were each seen in 19.4%;whilst diabetes, neuropsychiatric symptoms and sleep disturbance were each reported in 16.1%. Those with ocular involvement tended to be referred earlier than those without (478.2 days vs 648.1 days), were referred on higher doses of glucocorticoids (71.4% vs 47.1% on ≥ 40mg) and had less steroid-sparing agents prior to referral. Follow up data In December 2021, a follow-up audit revealed 14/31 patients had completed at least 12 months of tocilizumab;5 of these had had an extension under Covid-19 exceptional guidance (mean duration of 5.2 months). Of the remaining 17: 3 patients had stopped early (1 death, 1 moved away, 1 due to adverse effects of headache and gastro-intestinal side effects), 4 had not started tocilizumab and 10 had not completed 12 months of treatment at that point. Adverse events in the 14 patients at 12 months included: liver abnormalities (2/14;14.3%), neutropenia (2/14;14.3%), thrombocytopaenia (1/14;7.1%), soft tissue infections (3/14;21.4%), urinary tract infection (1/14;7.1%) and lipid derangement (4/14 28.6%). One case of GCA relapse occurred on TCZ (mild headache and raised infammatory markers settled on small increase in prednisolone). After 12 months, mean prednisolone dose was 3mg (range 0-15mg). Conclusion: All patients approved for Tocilizumab in the GCA MDT fulflled NHS England criteria for either relapsing or refractory disease. The majority of cases had cranial disease, but almost half had either ocular or large vessel involvement, refecting a severe spectrum of disease. Cases showed a high burden of glucocorticoid toxicity. Follow up data suggests that TCZ was effective in allowing glucocorticoid weaning and disease control, but with some adverse effects. Future work to follow up patients after stopping Tocilizumab would be informative, as the twelve month limitation on treatment is likely to be re-instated.

14.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:1859-1860, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2008919

ABSTRACT

Background: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare and life-threatening thrombotic microangiopathy characterized by microangio-pathic haemolytic anemia, consumption thrombocytopenia and organ injury, particularly kidney failure and neurological manifestation1. Two forms are distinguished: the hereditary one, caused by a deficit of the metallopro-tease ADAMTS13, and the idiopathic one characterized by the presence of antibodies directed against ADAMTS13. The second one is the most common. There are various subgroups of acquired TTP associated with HIV infection, sepsis, pregnancy, autoimmune disease, disseminated malignancies and drugs. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a clinical immunological condition characterized by thromboembolic events, repe-tead miscarriages or stillbirth and thrombocytopenia;it can be a primary disorder or due to connective tissue disease, in particular systemic lupus erythematosus2. Objectives: We describe a case of TTP associated with a primary APS. The real clinical challenge lies in the differential diagnosis between TTP and anti-phos-pholipid antibody syndrome. Methods: A 37-year-old man presented to the emergency department for short-term episodes of anesthesia of the right upper limb and face with spontaneous resolution. In his past medical history, he suffered of antiphospholipid syndrome treated with warfarin. Upon admission, blood tests revealed severe thrombocytopenia, haemolytic anemia with schistocytes on peripheral blood smear, low thrombin time and prolongation in the prothrombin time. Neurological symptoms were assessed by electroencephalogram and CT brain, resulted negative, while a brain MRI revealed acute-subacute ischemic stroke. Based on these fndings we suspected a diagnosis of TTP, subsequently confrmed by reduced activity of ADAMTS-13 with borderline ADAMTS-13 inhibitory antibodies. Immunological testing confrmed positivity of antiphospholipid antibodies and antinuclear antibodies. Results: According to the last guidelines3 about management of acute episode of TTP, immediate therapy with high-dose corticosteroids (prednisone 1 mg/kg) and plasmapheresis was started and then we added infusion of ritux-imab (375 mg/m2/week for 4 times). Efficacy of treatment was evaluated by weekly dosage of ADAMTS13 activity, with a gradual rise in values (3 → 78%) and improvement in symptoms and laboratory examination. After persistent remission, we gradually reduced steroid therapy. Few months later, in February 2021, patient developed a bilateral comunitary pneumonia, that required hospitalization, oxygen-therapy (also with C-PAP) and endovenous antibiotics. After two weeks patient was discharged from hospital in good clinical health and he was subjected to periodic outpatients visits. Disease activity was in remission, so steroid therapy was reduced and recently we added hydroxychloroquine for APS. Some days ago patient developed covid-19 infection, despite vaccination, and he was treated with monoclonal antibodies, with good clinical response. Conclusion: We have described a rare clinical case of TTP, despite concomitant warfarin treatment for primary anti-phospholipid syndrome. A careful follow-up of these medical conditions is recommended for patient's fragility and for the risk of related serious clinical complications.

15.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:1075-1076, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2008847

ABSTRACT

Background: Giant cell arteritis-related stroke is rare, with high early mortality and major morbidity in survivors. Objectives: To increase the awareness of coexistence of giant cell arteritis-re-lated stroke and rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: A case report and discussion. Results: A 73 year-old man with seronegative elderly-onset rheumatoid arthritis (EORA) presented to the emergency department (ED) with a one week history of frontal headache, vomiting and dizziness. He had multiple cardiovascular comor-bidities and took multiple medications, including methotrexate and sulfasalazine. He also had long-standing history of thrombocytopenia without requiring any treatment. Neurological examination performed in the ED was unremarkable. His C-reactive protein (CRP) was 69mg/L and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) 82mm/hour. Computed tomography (CT) of the brain was normal. The headache settled with analgesia. A diagnosis of probable tension-type headache, with underlying active EORA, was made. One month later, he presented to an ophthalmologist with recurrence of headache associated with visual disturbance and was diagnosed with giant cell arteritis (GCA). Both CRP (77mg/L) and ESR (85mm/hour) remained raised. Neither temporal artery biopsy nor temporal artery ultrasound were possible due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The headache and visual symptoms resolved completely a week after prednisolone 60mg daily was prescribed. In parallel, the CRP dropped to 2mg/L and ESR 16mm/hour. The patient's glucocorticoid dose was then tapered. While on prednisolone 20mg daily, about 3 weeks later, he developed slurred speech and generalized weakness. Examination showed cerebellar signs and MRI brain showed acute cerebellar infarct. He was treated pragmatically as an atherosclerotic stroke with clopidogrel, and the steroid was rapidly tapered in view of absence of headache and normalization of infammatory markers. Four weeks later, he was noted to have persistent confusion and unsteadiness of gait. CRP was elevated at 92mg/L. An urgent positron emission tomography-CT (PET-CT) scan showed infammation in the vertebral arteries [Figure 1] and cerebellar stroke. Prednisolone 40mg daily was restarted which led to a rapid improvement in his symptoms and normalization of infammatory markers. The glucocorticoids were tapered in a slower manner this time. A diagnosis of GCA-related cerebellar stroke with vertebral vasculitis was made and, with glucocorticoids, the patient made a good clinical recovery. His infam-matory joints pain also improved in parallel. Conclusion: Stroke or transient ischemic stroke are rare complications, reported in 2.8-16% of patients with active GCA. Most studies report strokes as occurring between the onset of GCA symptoms and 4 weeks after commencement of glucocorticoids1-3. Vertebrobasilar territory is involved in 60-88% of cases of GCA-related stroke1-3. In contrast, the vertebrobasilar territory is affected only in 15-20% of atherosclerotic strokes1,2. One study reported fatal outcomes in 11 out of 40 patients (28%) with GCA-related stroke, 7 within 2-13 days of stroke2. To conclude, this case demonstrates that high-dose glucocorticoids with slower tapering were able to control GCA-related stroke due to vertebral vasculitis in patient with EORA on background methotrexate and sulfasalazine.

16.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:929, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2008840

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with rheumatic diseases (RD) have been excluded from SARS-CoV-2 vaccine trials, though data appear to show safety and efficacy, mostly evidence remains in mRNA vaccines. In our country, adenovirus-vector, inactivated and heterologous scheme vaccines are frequently used. Objectives: To describe the safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with RD from the national registry SAR-CoVAC and to assess sociodemographic and clinical factors associated to AE and disease fares after vaccination. Methods: Adult patients with RD who have been vaccinated for SARS-CoV-2 from de Argentine Society of Rheumatology Vaccine Registry (SAR-CoVAC) were consecutively included between June 1st and December 21st, 2021, This is a national multicentric observational registry that includes patients that have received at least one dose of any SARS-CoV-2 available vaccines in Argentina. Data is voluntarily collected by the treating physician. Naranjo scale was use to assess the association between the AE and vaccination. Homologous and heterologous schedules were defned according to whether both vaccines received were the same or different, respectively. Descriptive statics, Chi2 test, Fischer test, T test, ANOVA and multivariate regression logistic model were used. Results: A total of 1679 patients, with 2795 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine doses were included. Vaccines more frequently used were: Gam-COVID-Vac (1227 doses, 44%), ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (872 doses, 31%), BBIBP-CorV (482 doses, 17%) and mRAN-1273 (172 doses, 6%). Altogether, 510 EA were experienced by 449 (27%) patients. Pseudo-fu syndrome was the most frequent (11%), followed by injection site reaction (7%). They were signifcantly more frequent after the frst dose in comparison to the second one (13% vs 7% and 9% vs 5%, respectively, p<0.001 in both cases). All were mild or moderate and no patient was hospitalized due to an AE. One case of moderate anaphylaxis was reported by a patient who received Gam-COVID-Vac. No cases of vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia were observed. There were 25 disease fares reported, 17 (68%) cases of arthritis. Among patients with two doses, those with heterol-ogous schedule presented AE more frequent after the second dose (39% vs 17%).Total incidence of EA was 182.5 events/10 00 doses, it was signifcantly lower for BBIBP-CorV (105.9 events/1000 dosis, p<0.002 for all cases). The higher incidence of AE was observed for mRAN-1273 (261.6 events/1000 doses) and ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (232.8 events/1000 doses). Patients with AE were younger [mean 55 years (SD 14) vs 59 years (SD 14), p <0.010], not Caucasian ethnicity [48% vs 35%, p<0.001], had higher education level [mean 13.8 years (SD 4) vs 11.9 years (SD 5), p<0.001], were more frequently employed [54% vs 44%, p<0.001], lived mostly in urban area [99% vs 95% p <0.001, had more frequently dyslipidemia [38% vs 28% p 0.012], and less frequently arterial hypertension [49% vs 65%, p<0.001]. Systemic lupus erythematosus [11% vs 7%, p=0.039] and Sjögren syndrome [6% vs 1.8%, p<0.001] were more frequent among them, while non infammatory diseases were less prevalent [19% vs 31%, p<0.001]. They were taking steroids [24 vs 18%, p=0.007], antimalarials [17% vs 10%, p<0.001] and methotrexate [41% vs 31%, p <0.001] more frequently. In the multivariable analysis, mRAN-1273 and ChAdOx1 nCov-19 were associated with AE, while BBIBP-CorV with lower probability of having one. (Figure 1) Conclusion: The incidence of AE was 1825 events/1000 doses, were signif-cantly higher for mRAN-1273 and ChAdOx1 nCov-19 and lower for BBIBP-CorV. Most common AE was pseudo-fu syndrome. Female sex, being younger, higher education level, ChAdOx1 nCov-19 and mRAN-1273 vaccines, the use of meth-otrexate and antimalarials were related of EA in patients with RD.

17.
British Journal of Neurosurgery ; 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2008385

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccines have been key in preventing COVID-19 infections and the AstraZeneca (AZ) vaccine has been widely used. However, increased rates of thromboembolic events were identified in recipients and, subsequently, a syndrome of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopaenia (VITT) was described whereby recipients presented with venous sinus thromboses, haemorrhagic infarctions, and–consequently–raised intracranial pressure. National guidance recommended decompressive craniectomies for refractory intracranial hypertension. We describe our neurosurgical experience in managing a cohort of patients with VITT. Clinical presentation: Four patients were included (three females and one male);median age was 46 years. All patients presented with a constellation of headache, focal neurological deficit(s), altered consciousness, and/or seizure at a median 11 d post-vaccine. Pre-operatively, median GCS was 7 and the median platelet count was 28 × 109/L. Mean craniectomy size was 13 cm × 10 cm. All four cases tested positive for anti-PF4 antibodies. Median length of stay was 9 d (range: 2–25). Of the four who were operated upon, two survived to hospital discharge, and one of these subsequently died at a peripheral hospital. Conclusions: VITT-related sinus thromboses and associated infarcts are rare complications of the AZ vaccine. Neurosurgical management involves treating intracranial hypertension however survival outcomes in our cohort were poor. In our series, decompression was performed in deteriorating patients however prophylactic decompression, in the presence of extensive venous sinus thrombosis, should be considered on a case-by-case basis. As vaccination programmes accelerate across the world, neurosurgeons are likely to be increasingly involved in managing intracranial hypertension in patients with VITT-related sinus thromboses.

18.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2007747

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with little prevention or treatment options. More than 600 million mortalities have been documented for COVID-19 infection, with the majority of fatalities among elderly (>65 years of age). A number of vaccines have been developed in an effort to restrain the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2. Considering the widespread application of these vaccines, substantial side or undesired effects in multiple organ systems have emerged, necessitating essential critical care. Herein, we tabulate the adverse cardiovascular responses resulting from COVID-19 vaccines. COVID-19 vaccines evoke rare but fatal thrombotic events while mRNA-based vaccines appear to be associated with risks of pericarditis/myocarditis, with the latter being more predominant in young adults following the second dose. Reports of other cardiovascular responses including hypertension, arrhythmia, acute coronary syndrome and cardiac arrest have also been indicated. Nonetheless, the perceived benefits of these vaccines to control SARS-CoV-2 infection, reduce hospitalization and lower mortality take precedence over the undesired cardiovascular complications.

19.
Indian journal of pediatrics ; 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007260

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) occurs secondary to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. A retrospective study, involving 6 tertiary-care centers in Haryana, was conducted to evaluate the clinical features, severity, laboratory findings, and outcomes of patients with MIS-C. Disease severity was graded (mild/moderate/severe) and presence of cardiac abnormalities noted. Patients with and without cardiac abnormalities and with and without severe disease were compared. Forty-eight children with MIS-C were included (median age - 9.5 y). Fever (100%), gastrointestinal (83.3%) and mucocutaneous (50%) symptoms were common. Only 16.7% patients had previous history of documented SARS-CoV-2 infection/contact. Severe disease and cardiac abnormalities were seen in 47.9% and 54.2% patients, respectively. NT-proBNP > 1286.5 pg/mL and thrombocytopenia (≤ 119500/µL) were significant risk factors for severe MIS-C. Forty-five patients (93.8%) recovered and 3 died. Median hospitalization duration was 7 d (5-9.5). MIS-C must be considered as a possibility in any febrile child, even if a positive epidemiological history is absent. High NT-proBNP and thrombocytopenia are significant risk factors for severe MIS-C. (Trial Registration: The study was registered with the Clinical Trials Registry, India (CTRI/2021/09/036491)).

20.
Medicine Today ; 23(1-2):31-41, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006856

ABSTRACT

Common causes of viral exanthems in Australia include herpesviruses, enteroviruses, parvovirus B19, varicella, measles and rubella viruses and mosquito-borne alphaviruses. The cause can often be diagnosed clinically from the rash distribution and morphology, confirmed only when necessary with serological or PCR tests. Most viral exanthems are self-limiting, requiring supportive care alone.

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