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1.
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research ; 15(7):6-16, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957630

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus and its emerging variants have continued to affect 50.4 million people worldwide, increasing the need for safe and effective vaccines. According to the World Health Organization guidelines, the efficacy of a vaccine should be at least 30% in all age groups and protect for a longer duration without any life-threatening adverse effects. At present, there are 319 vaccines in various stages of development, of which 16 are authorized for emergency use. Of these 16 vaccines, five vaccines are based on adenoviral vectors. This review is focused on understanding the safety and efficacy of the approved adenoviral vector vaccines for COVID-19, particularly highlighting the interim analysis of phase 3 clinical trials of AZD1222, Gam-Covid-Vac, Ad26.COV2.S, and AD5-nCOV vaccine. The efficacy of AZD1222, Gam-Covid-Vac, Ad26.COV2.S, and AD5-nCOV vaccine were found to be 70.4%, 95%, 66%, and 65.7%, respectively. Some serious adverse events such as deep vein thrombosis and thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome were observed among AZD1222 and Ad26.COV2.S vaccinated individuals. Meanwhile, Gam-Covid-Vac and AD5-nCOV vaccines did not report any significant adverse events. In addition, we have also focused on the efficacy of these vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 variants such as B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1. Although the efficacy of these approved vaccines against novel SARS-CoV-2 variants, pediatric and geriatric population and long-term efficacy remains uncertain, they are reasonably efficient in preventing mortality due to COVID-19.

2.
Nevrologiya, Neiropsikhiatriya, Psikhosomatika ; 14(3):4-11, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957600

ABSTRACT

Currently, patients who attribute their complaints and disorders to the past COVID-19 are turning to a neurologist for a consultation. One should consider dangerous complications of COVID-19 such as stroke, including cerebral venous thrombosis, autoimmune encephalitis and myelitis, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, Guillain-Barre' syndrome. Disorders of consciousness, disorders of smell and taste, headache and dizziness are significantly more often present in the acute period of COVID-19. Long-term persistence of complaints and disorders after COVID-19 is regarded as post-COVID syndrome (PCS). Neurological complaints and disorders in a patient who has had COVID-19 are often caused by the development or exacerbation of a comorbid disease, including primary headache, musculoskeletal pain in the neck and back, various vestibular disorders, Alzheimer's disease, anxiety and depressive disorders. Unfortunately, in real clinical practice, these diseases are often not diagnosed, patients are observed with a diagnosis of PCS, and it is not taken into account that the basis for diagnosing PCS is the exclusion of other diseases that can explain complaints and disorders in a patient who has suffered from COVID-19.

3.
British Journal of Dermatology ; 186(6):e245, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956713

ABSTRACT

A 73-year-old man presented with left shin ulceration two weeks after receiving his first dose of the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine. Within 24 h of vaccination, the patient became generally unwell with fever and headache. On the third day after vaccination, he developed left shin erythema and blistering, which rapidly ulcerated. This formed two superficial ulcers with a necrotic base and a violaceous edge on the lateral aspect of his left shin, measuring approximately 2 cm × 3 cm. He had a background of atrial fibrillation and ischemic cardiomyopathy, and had been on several longstanding medications including apixaban. Blood tests revealed normal clotting, full blood count, liver and renal function. The differential diagnosis included pyoderma gangrenosum, vasculitic ulceration, and a cutaneous adverse drug reaction to vaccination. A punch biopsy was obtained from the edge of an ulcer, which revealed microthrombi within blood vessels, an ischemic epidermis, and fat necrosis of subcutaneous tissue. The patient experienced slow healing of ulceration with topical clobetasol propionate 0.05%, neomycin sulphate and nystatin ointment, and compression bandaging treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of cutaneous thrombosis associated with skin necrosis following Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccination. Recently there have been concerns related to reports of thrombotic events at atypical sites (including cerebral and splanchnic vascular beds) associated with thrombocytopenia following Oxford/ AstraZeneca vaccination (Greinacher A, Thiele T, Warkentin TE et al. Thrombotic thrombocytopenia after ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination. N Engl J Med 2021;384: 2092-101). These findings extend the range of atypically located thromboses associated with COVID-19 vaccination and reinforce the necessity for physicians to be vigilant for signs and symptoms related to thromboses at atypical sites in recently vaccinated patients.

4.
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology ; 129:177, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956665

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To assess whether current Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) guidance in Pregnancy is being adhered to in the antenatal period within South Tyneside and Sunderland NHS Foundation Trust. Design: A retrospective audit of the electronic patient records of the first 100-women to deliver in November 2020. Methods: Community midwives (CMW) booking VTE risk assessment recorded and score validated against information including in midwifery and/or medical booking documentation as well as information from any attendances or admissions during pregnancy. Pharmacy records of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) prescriptions reviewed and crosscheck against above as well as verified for correctness based on booking weight. Any patient with an incomplete record were excluded. Results: 100% of women with had a VTE risk assessment carried out at booking. These were inaccurate in 22% (20/92) of women with implications for management in 10% (9/92) of women. Only 12% (n = 11) of women had a reassessment of VTE risk recorded at 28-weeks gestation. These were incorrect in 36% (4/11) women with implications for management in 27% (3/11) of women. 13% (12/92) of the total cohort required re-assessment at 28-weeks gestation but only 1-women had an this completed and 8-women had no consideration of VTE, however this only potentially impacted management in 1-women. 8% (7/92) of women were missed and did NOT receive appropriate VTE prophylaxis. 2% (2/92) of women were prescribed LMWH in error based on miscalculated risk assessments. The dose of ALL LMWH prescribed was based on booking weight. Difference were observed in how age and BMI where used in the calculation and re-calculation of VTE score with an observation that Covid-19, and the advent of telephone consultations, has impacted on the ability to accurately weigh patients at booking. Conclusion: VTE remains a leading cause of maternal death in the UK 1 and the accuracy of VTE risk assessments remains an essential tool in prevention. In these data VTE assessments were completed at booking but rarely reviewed at 28-weeks gestation or when the clinical condition changed and scores were often subject to inaccuracies. Since completion of this work changes have been made to documentation including a separate 28-week visit proforma with linked VTE assessment. A re-audit has been planned to assess the impact of these changes.

5.
IHJ Cardiovascular Case Reports (CVCR) ; 6(2):83-85, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956162
6.
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology ; 78:S74-S75, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955956

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Low molecular weight heparins are used extensively in anticoagulant therapy, due to their safer profile, in comparison to other anticoagulants. Direct Oral AntiCogulants (DOACs) have been initiated in anticoagulant therapy as a safer treatment choice than coumarin derivatives. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the use of oral and injectable anticoagulants, and especially the place of DOACs in anticoagulant treatment, in a tertiary Hospital of Thessaloniki, Greece. Methods: The data were collected by investigating prescriptions from the Hospital Pharmacy of a tertiary Hospital in Thessaloniki, Greece. Prescriptions of oral and injectable anticoagulants for hospitalized patients were collected during the period from June to September 2021. The consumption of the following oral and injectable anticoagulants was recorded in DDDs: acenocumarol, rivaroxaban, apixaban, dabigatran, heparin, enoxaparin, tinzaparin, bemiparin and fondaparinux. Results: The total amount of anticoagulants used was 53,041 DDDs, of which 97,9% were injectable anticoagulants whereas 2,1% were oral anticoagulants. DOACs represented the 1,8% of the anticoagulants used. The consumption of injectable anticoagulants for the hospitalized patients was 51,936 DDDs, of which 63.5% was enoxaparin, 18.5% was tinzaparin, 6.3% was heparin, 6.1% was bemiparin, and 5.6% was fondaparinux. The consumption of acenocumarol was 176 DDDs and the consumption of DOACs was 929 DDDs, with the percentage of rivaroxaban, apixaban, and dabigatran being 46%, 45% and 9% respectively. Indications with the highest prevalence for patients on enoxaparin was COVID 19, heart failure, stroke, angina pectoris, malignancy. Indications with the highest prevalence for patients on tinzaparin was COVID 19, malignancy, stroke. Indications with the highest prevalence for patients on bemiparin was malignancy, COVID 19, aortic valve disease, stroke. Heart failure, stroke and atrial fibrillation were the indications with highest prevalence in patients on DOACs. Acenocumarol was used mainly for heart failure, stroke and aortic valve stenosis. Conclusion: Injectable anticoagulants, and mainly low molecular weight heparins were the treatment of choice in hospitalized patients. Oral anticoagulants represented only a very small proportion (2,1%) of the anticoagulants used. DOACs have replaced coumarin derivatives, representing the 86% of oral anticoagulants in clinical use. Nevertheless, the percentage of DOACs was very low (1.8%) in the total consumption of anticoagulants, with rivaroxaban and apixaban being the most commonly used DOACs. Injectable anticoagulants, especially enoxaparin, are preferred by the clinicians as a safer choice for managing high risk thrombosis in hospitalized patients. DOACs, Direct Oral AntiCogulants, anticoagulants, NOACs.

7.
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology ; 78:S118, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955952

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The retina is a highly specialized sense organ subjected to constant exposure to systemic toxins and oxidative stress. The frequency and etiology of drug-induced retinopathy, as well as the number of new potential drugs involved, are largely unknown. Objective: Describe the most frequent drug-induced retinal disorders and the drugs implicated gathered through the spontaneous report registry of the Spanish System of Pharmacovigilance (SSP). Methods: All spontaneous reported cases describing Retinal structural change, deposit and degeneration, Retinopathies not elsewhere classified, and Retinal bleeding and vascular disorders (excluded retinopathy) (MedDRA-HLT) in the SSP database from 1983 to January 2022 were selected. Medical devices and marketing authorisation holder cases were excluded. The variables studied were age and sex of the patients, characteristics of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) (seriousness, outcome) and suspect drugs (active substance, anatomical therapeutic chemical code, previous knowledge of drug-reaction association, rechallenge and existence of alternative causes). Results: Out of 175 spontaneous reports (0.1% of the spontaneous reports in the SSP database) that describe 210 ocular ADRs and/or adverse events, the most frequent (MedDRA-HLT) were retinal bleeding and vascular disorders (111, 52.9%), ocular structural change, deposit and degeneration (59, 28.1%) and vision disorders (12, 5.7%). For MedDRA-PT;retinal vein thrombosis (38, 18.1%), retinal detachment (22, 10.5%) and retinal hemorrhage (20, 9.5%). In only 8 cases (3.8%) drug administration was ophthalmic. Patient's median age was 57.65 (IQR 48-67.5) years;68.6% (120) were adults and 56.6% (99) were women. 153 reports (87.4%) were serious. 10.9% (19) cases resolved after withdrawal of the suspect drug and 12.6% (22) resolved with sequelae. A total of 220 drugs were suspected, of which 55 (25%) were COVID-19 vaccines -vector vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AZD1222, Oxford-AstraZeneca (27) and mRNA vaccine BNT162b2, Pfizer- BioNTech (23)-, followed by sex hormones (21), immunostimulants (16) and antiprotozoals (14). Of the 175 reports, 56% (98) were poorly or unknown ADR associations. Alternative causes were excluded in 46 (26.3%) cases of which 12 (26%) were poorly or unknown ADR associations and no cases had a positive rechallenge. Conclusion: Our study shows that drug-induced retinopathy is an infrequent but serious complication. In the SSP database more than half of ADRs were retinal bleeding and vascular disorders. A quarter of the suspected drugs were new COVID-19 vaccines, followed by other drugs for which retinal disorders are well known. Although striking, it is important to contextualize this data in the current situation, considering the particularities of pharmacovigilance in vaccines, the massive rollout campaign and the nascent and evolving data on COVID-19 vaccines. Thus, further studies are needed to confirm such associations. Moreover, clinicians should be aware of drug-induced retinal disorders, even when not listed in the product information leaflet.

8.
Pakistan Paediatric Journal ; 46(2):229-232, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955740

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcal aureus infection in children is a major public health problem globally. It causes a varied spectrum of clinical disease including bacteremia, endocarditis, skin and soft tissue infection, pleuro-pulmaonry and osteo-articular infection. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a known complication of staphylococcal infection. We report a case series which included, 10-year old boy developed DVT, septic pulmonary emboli and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus (MRSA) bacteremia following a furuculosis and 13 year old girl with thrombosis of internal and external jugular vein, cavernous sinus with pulmonary emboli and MRA bacteremia. Both patients are previously healthy showed complete recovery after aggressive appropriate antibiotics, anticoagulants and supportive care. The high index of suspicion of DVT in MRSA infection is needed, prompt diagnosis and aggressive appropriate therapies improve the outcomes and minimize the complications.

9.
British Journal of Dermatology ; 186(6), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955685

ABSTRACT

The proceedings contain 42 papers. The topics discussed include: a pediatric case series of COVID-19-associated chilblain-like acral lesions;genital dermatology: a window to the gut. Three cases of genital cutaneous Crohn disease;Influence of biologics on COVID-19-positive patients: a case series;cutaneous thrombosis associated with skin necrosis following Oxford/AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccination: a case report;reactive infectious mucocutaneous eruption (RIME) secondary to COVID-19 infection;adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with COVID-19 vaccines: case series and literature review;challenges in the management of toxic epidermal necrolysis and COVID-19: a case report;and a rare case of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita in one of identical twins.

10.
Life (Basel) ; 12(8)2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957381

ABSTRACT

Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare type of stroke that may cause an intracranial hypertension syndrome as well as focal neurological deficits due to venous infarcts. MRI with venography is the method of choice for diagnosis, and treatment with anticoagulants should be promptly started. CVT incidence has increased in COVID-19-infected patients due to a hypercoagulability state and endothelial inflammation. CVT following COVID-19 vaccination could be related to vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT), a rare but severe complication that should be promptly identified because of its high mortality rate. Platelet count, D-dimer and PF4 antibodies should be dosed. Treatment with non-heparin anticoagulants and immunoglobulin could improve recuperation. Development of headache associated with seizures, impaired consciousness or focal signs should raise immediate suspicion of CVT. In patients who received a COVID-19 adenovirus-vector vaccine presenting thromboembolic events, VITT should be suspected and rapidly treated. Nevertheless, vaccination benefits clearly outweigh risks and should be continued.

11.
SAGE Open Med Case Rep ; 10: 2050313X221113934, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956966

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability in coronavirus disease 2019 infection is already a known fact. But in this article, we have discussed a unique case where the patient had suffered from relapsing thrombus formation. This report describes the case of a patient who presented with chronic coronavirus disease 2019-induced recurrent thrombi refractory to multiple antithrombotic regimens because of multiple recurrent inflammatory flares without any evidence of chronic persistent viral infection. The patient was treated with anticoagulation and anti-inflammatory medications. Still, he had repeated episodes of right ventricular thrombus. Coronavirus disease 2019 can provoke a severe relapsing hypercoagulable state without evidence of persisting viral infection. Rebound inflammatory flares rather than viral recurrence may play a trigger.

12.
Thromb Res ; 217: 73-75, 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956355
13.
IDCases ; 29: e01582, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956159

ABSTRACT

Thrombosis following COVID-19 vaccination commonly occurs with vector-based vaccines. The proposed mechanism is vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT), with thrombocytopenia as principal manifestation. We present a 51-year-old male who came with isolated portal vein thrombosis (PVT) one day after Moderna vaccination, without associated thrombocytopenia, challenging VITT as being the only patho-mechanism. Further exploration of these possible alternative mechanisms is needed for COVID-19 vaccine-related thrombotic complications.

14.
Cureus ; 14(3): e23507, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954806

ABSTRACT

Vaccines have been vital in preventing and curbing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Adenoviral vector-based vaccines, namely the ChAdOx1-S vaccine (AstraZeneca, Cambridge, UK) and Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen; Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick, NJ, USA), have been associated with a possibly fatal adverse event known as vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT), wherein thrombi form in unusual sites, mainly the cerebral and splanchnic veins. With the female gender predominantly affected, patients present with headache, abdominal pain, neurological symptoms and fever. It is hypothesized that certain components of the vaccine, including the adenovirus vector, may trigger the formation of antibodies against platelet factor 4 (PF4). The antigen-antibody complexes that form thereafter then activate a cascade of reactions eventually leading to the consumptive coagulopathy. This pathogenesis closely resembles a well-understood complication of heparin, known as heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. The lab results in VITT are reflective of its proposed pathophysiology: low platelets, low fibrinogen and high D-dimer, in addition to elevated anti-PF4 titers are classic findings. Treatment mainly includes non-heparin anticoagulants, intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) and plasma exchange. There is some role for surgical intervention, such as mechanical thrombectomy. Mortality due to VITT is usually caused by cerebral hemorrhage. We describe a case of a 36-year-old female who presented with epigastric pain two weeks after receiving her first dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine, and upon workup, was subsequently found to have thrombosis of her right portal and right common iliac vein.

15.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 26(4): 514-517, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954524

ABSTRACT

Several vaccines were developed and rolled out at an unprecedented rate in response to the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Most vaccines approved globally by WHO for emergency use to combat the pandemic were deemed remarkably effective and safe. Despite the safety, rare incidences of vaccine-induced thrombosis and thrombocytopenia (VITT), sometimes known as vaccine-induced prothrombotic thrombocytopenia (VIPIT), have been reported. We report a case of young female with prothrombotic conditions and suspected VITT who developed catastrophic cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) and progressed to brain death. We highlight hurdles of organ retrieval from a brain-dead patient with suspected SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia. There is limited data and lack of substantial evidence regarding transplantation of organs from brain-dead patients with suspected VITT. How to cite this article: Tiwari AM, Zirpe KG, Gurav SK, Bhirud LB, Suryawanshi RS, Kulkarni SS. Case of Suspected SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine-induced Immune Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia: Dilemma for Organ Donation. Indian J Crit Care Med 2022;26(4):514-517.

16.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 2022 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951615

ABSTRACT

D-dimer is a fibrin degradation product encompassing multiple cross-linked D domains and/or E domains present in the original fibrinogen molecule, whose generation is only theoretically possible when hemostasis and fibrinolysis pathways are concomitantly activated. D-dimer measurement has now become a pillar in the diagnosis/exclusion and prognostication of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), when incorporated into validated clinical algorithms and especially using age-adjusted diagnostic thresholds. Although emerging evidence is also supporting its use for predicting the duration of anticoagulant therapy in certain categories of patients, the spectrum of clinical applications is constantly expanding beyond traditional thrombotic pathologies to the diagnosis of acute aortic dissection, acute intestinal ischemia and cerebral venous thrombosis among others, embracing also clinical management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Recent findings attest that D-dimer elevations are commonplace in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) infection (especially in those with thrombosis), its value predicts the clinical severity (up to death) of COVID-19 and remains more frequently increased in COVID-19 patients with post-discharge clinical sequelae. Further, D-dimer-based anticoagulant escalation may be associated with a lower risk of death in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and, finally, D-dimer elevation post-COVID-19 vaccination mirrors an increased risk of developing vaccine-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (VITT).

17.
Egypt J Intern Med ; 34(1): 44, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951430

ABSTRACT

Background: In late 2019, Coronavirus disease 2019 has been declared as a global emergency by World Health Organization. Hopefully, recent reports of effective and safe vaccines were welcomed, and approved on emergency base. Millions of recipients had received one of the approved COVID 19 vaccines, with lots of adverse events recorded global wide. Objective: To assess post-COVID vaccination immune-mediated adverse events and evaluate its association to specific type of vaccine global wide. Methods: Systematic literature review and meta-analysis of published reports (since December 2020 till December 2021) on immune-mediated adverse events post-COVID vaccination. Results: We evaluated 34 published studies; 460 cases with various adverse events post-COVID vaccination. Studies in current literature are primarily retrospective case series, isolated case reports or narrative studies. Different COVID vaccines were involved. Results' data was subcategorized according to associated vaccine. Adverse effects of COVID-19 vaccinations included thrombotic, neurological, myocarditis, ocular, dermatological, renal, hematological events timely linked to inoculation. Each vaccine type was linked to adverse profile that differ from others. Conclusion: High suspicion of post-vaccination adverse events is mandatory to provoke earlier detection, better understanding, optimum prevention, and management. Specific vaccine/patient risk profile is needed to selectively categorize target population to reduce morbidity and mortality post-vaccination.

18.
Biology Bulletin Reviews ; 12(4):406-413, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1950031

ABSTRACT

This is a review of data on the impact of COVID-19 on blood clotting. An important feature of the pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by the SARS-Co-2 coronavirus is the risk of thrombotic complications including microvascular thrombosis, venous thromboembolism, and stroke. These thrombotic complications, like thrombocytopenia, are markers of the severe form of COVID-19 and are associated with multiple organ failure and increased mortality. One of the central mechanisms of this pathology is dysregulation of the adhesive protein P-selectin. The study of the mechanisms of changes in hemostasis and vascular pathology, and the role in these processes of biomarkers of thrombogenesis, and primarily of P-selectin of various origins (platelets, endothelial cells, and plasma), can bring some clarity to the understanding of the pathogenesis and therapy of COVID-19.

19.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(7): ofac285, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948428

ABSTRACT

Background: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have reported inconsistent effects from intensified anticoagulation on clinical outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We performed an aggregate data meta-analysis from available trials to quantify effect on nonfatal and fatal outcomes and identify subgroups who may benefit. Methods: We searched multiple databases for RCTs comparing intensified (intermediate or therapeutic dose) vs prophylactic anticoagulation in adults with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 through 19 January 2022. We used random-effects meta-analysis to estimate pooled risk ratios for mortality, thrombotic, and bleeding events (at end of follow-up or discharge) and performed subgroup analysis for clinical setting and dose of intensified anticoagulation. Results: Eleven RCTs were included (N = 5873). Intensified vs prophylactic anticoagulation was not associated with a mortality reduction up to 45 days (risk ratio [RR], 0.93 [95% confidence interval {CI}, .79-1.10]). There was a possible signal of mortality reduction for non-intensive care unit (ICU) patients, although with low precision and high heterogeneity (5 studies; RR, 0.84 [95% CI, .49-1.44]; I 2 = 75%). Risk of venous thromboembolism was reduced (RR, 0.53 [95% CI, .41-.69]; I 2 = 0%), with effect driven by therapeutic rather than intermediate dosing (interaction P = .04). Major bleeding was increased with intensified anticoagulation (RR, 1.73 [95% CI, 1.17-2.56]) with no interaction for dosing and clinical setting. Conclusions: Intensified anticoagulation has no effect on mortality among hospitalized adults with COVID-19 and is associated with increased bleeding risk. The observed reduction in venous thromboembolism risk and trend toward reduced mortality in non-ICU settings requires exploration in additional RCTs. Clinical Trials Registration. CRD42021273449 (PROSPERO).

20.
J Clin Neurosci ; 102: 5-12, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1945766

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) with cerebral venous thrombosis (CVST) is an improbable (0.0005%), however potentially lethal complication after ChAdOx1 vaccination. On the other hand, headache is among the most frequent side effects of ChAdOx1 (29.3%). In September 2021, the American Heart Association (AHA) suggested a diagnostic workflow to facilitate risk-adapted use of imaging resources for patients with neurological symptoms after ChAdOx1. We aimed to evaluate the AHA workflow in a retrospective patient cohort presenting at four primary care hospitals in Germany for neurological complaints after ChAdOx1. Scientific literature was screened for case reports of VITT with CVST after ChAdOx1, published until September 1st, 2021. One-hundred-thirteen consecutive patients (77 female, mean age 38.7 +/- 11.9 years) were evaluated at our institutes, including one case of VITT with CVST. Further 228 case reports of VITT with CVST are published in recent literature, which share thrombocytopenia (225/227 reported) and elevated d-dimer levels (100/101 reported). The AHA workflow would have recognized all VITT cases with CVST (100% sensitivity), the number needed to diagnose (NND) was 1:113. Initial evaluation of thrombocytopenia or elevated d-dimer levels would have lowered the NND to 1:68, without cost of sensitivity. Hence, we suggest that in case of normal thrombocyte and d-dimer levels, the access to further diagnostics should be limited by the established clinical considerations regardless of vaccination history.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Adult , Algorithms , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Meaningful Use , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology
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