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1.
Trials ; 23(1): 884, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089228

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As a pragmatic randomised timing-of-birth trial, WILL adapted its trial procedures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. These are reviewed here to inform post-pandemic trial methodology. METHODS: The trial (internal pilot) paused in March 2020, re-opened in July 2020, and is currently recruiting in 37 UK NHS consultant-led maternity units. We evaluated pandemic adaptations made to WILL processes and surveyed sites for their views of these changes (20 sites, videoconference). RESULTS: Despite 88% of sites favouring an electronic investigator site file (ISF), information technology requirements and clinical trial unit (CTU) operating procedures mandated the ongoing use of paper ISFs; site start-up delays resulted from restricted access to the CTU. Site initiation visits (SIVs) were conducted remotely; 50% of sites preferred remote SIVs and 44% felt that it was trial-dependent, while few preferred SIVs in-person as standard procedure. The Central team felt remote SIVs provided scheduling and attendance flexibility (for sites and trial staff), the option of recording discussions for missing or future staff, improved efficiency by having multiple sites attend, and time and cost savings; the negative impact on rapport-building and interaction was partially mitigated over time with more familiarity with technology and new ways-of-working. Two methods of remote consent were developed and used by 30/37 sites and for 54/156 recruits. Most (86%) sites using remote consenting felt it improved recruitment. For remote data monitoring (5 sites), advantages were primarily for the monitor (e.g. flexibility, no time constraints, reduced cost), and disadvantages primarily for the sites (e.g. document and access preparation, attendance at a follow-up meeting), but 81% of sites desired having the option of remote monitoring post-pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: COVID adaptations to WILL trial processes improved the flexibility of trial delivery, for Central and site staff, and participants. Flexibility to use these strategies should be retained post-pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN77258279. Registered on 05 December 2018.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Labor, Obstetric , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Saudi J Med Med Sci ; 10(3): 192-197, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066905

ABSTRACT

Background: Practices of Do-Not-Resuscitate (DNR) orders show discrepancies worldwide, but there are only few such studies from Saudi Arabia. Objective: To describe the practice of DNR orders in a Saudi Arabian tertiary care ICU. Methods: This retrospective study included all patients who died with a DNR order at the ICU of King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between January 1 to December 31, 2021. The percentage of early DNR (i.e., ≤48 hours of ICU admission) and late DNR (>48 hours) orders were determined and the variables between the two groups were compared. The determinants of late DNR were also investigated. Results: A total of 723 cases met the inclusion criteria, representing 14.9% of all ICU discharges and 63% of all ICU deaths during the study period. The late DNR group comprised the majority of the cases (78.3%), and included significantly more patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), community acquired pneumonia (CAP), acute kidney injury, and COVID-19, and significantly fewer cases of readmissions and malignancies. Septic shock lowered the odds of a late DNR (OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9;P= 0.02), while ARDS (OR = 3.3, 95% CI: 2-5.4;P < 0.001), ischemic stroke (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.1-5.4;P= 0.02), and CAP (OR = 2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.1;P= 0.003) increased the odds of a late DNR. Conclusion: There was a higher frequency of late DNR orders in our study compared to those reported in several studies worldwide. Cases with potential for a favorable outcome were more likely to have a late DNR order, while those with expected poorer outcomes were more likely to have an early DNR order. The discrepancies highlight the need for clearer guidelines to achieve consistency.

3.
2022 IEEE International Conference on Electrical, Computer, and Energy Technologies, ICECET 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2063243

ABSTRACT

Closed-circuit television camera (CCTV) and thermal imaging devices are used to detect febrile individuals entering establishments for Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) containment. Real-time tracking in post-COVID is manually checked by security personnel, which has risks of less efficiency due to human errors, as advance thermal cameras are unaffordable for some business owners. The main goal is converting an installed CCTV interfaced with infrared sensor to develop an economical thermal screening system with acoustic alarm. In this project, the colored and heatmap images transmitted from the thermal camera were processed through OpenCV. A calibration method was also performed to validate the temperature reading from the thermal camera. The project comes with graphical user interface (GUI) connected into a database, which visually tracks individuals exhibits elevated body temperature. The performance of the system shows above 95% accuracy upon conducting an inexpensive calibration check. The significance of this project is highlighting the effective mitigation of virus spread which offers safe and contactless analysis of potential individuals showing early symptoms of COVID-19. Additional features can be added for future work such as facemask detector, multiple thermal camera setup, and Login Options making the device and application exclusively for business owners. © 2022 IEEE.

4.
129th ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition: Excellence Through Diversity, ASEE 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2046890

ABSTRACT

Before the shutdown due to COVID-19, all courses and laboratories from the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department (ECE) at The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) were conducted in person at the university facilities. Many of the laboratories required students to work in groups due to the limited equipment availability. Most universities were forced to adopt distance learning as a primary teaching modality when the pandemic started. Previously, the Learning Management Systems (LMS) were used mainly for support course functions, where students could review the content and grades in their own time, submit assignments, or download materials. During the pandemic time, students attended virtual sessions via video conference, reviewed materials independently, or had restricted interactions. This modality limited the ability to conduct lab experiments. The adopted lab methodologies were to offer online circuits laboratories implemented via portable equipment, designed for work at home, and acquired for the students;or by providing remote access to some university equipment. The ECE department had additional challenges because most of our students live in the border region between USA and México, and many had limited technological resources to access virtual or remote laboratories. UTEP started resuming face-to-face courses and events on campus after the pandemic acute phase period. For the fall 2021 semester, the school initiated activities under enhanced safety precautions for in-person classes. Currently, the circuits laboratory returned to face-to-face delivery mode using bench industrial-grade equipment with higher resolution and accuracy than personal devices, offering students a more comprehensive range of experiments to improve their abilities and knowledge in the technical field. However, some characteristics of the virtual model were kept, such as working at home in the preliminary laboratory phase using portable equipment and then allowing students to work individually at the university workstation, using time more efficiently, and keeping the improved LMS content. This paper compares online and in-person circuits laboratory sessions, exploring the differences, limitations, benefits, and challenges for the students and the response due to geographic restrictions. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2022

5.
129th ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition: Excellence Through Diversity, ASEE 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2044823

ABSTRACT

The four- and six-year graduation rates (~17.7% and ~64.5% respectively) of engineering (ENGR), are below the University's average graduation rates (~ 33.1% and 67.4%). The goal of this study is to seek solutions towards increasing the graduation rates and ultimately decreasing the time-to-graduation. There are several steps that could be taken to help the engineering students graduate earlier. Examples are summer bridge programs that focus on strengthening mathematical skills of students, encouraging students to attend tutoring sessions and practice problem-solving. One of the factors that add to the time-to-graduation of students is not being able to pass the lower division courses that serve as the prerequisite to other discipline courses. The result will be high DFW rate courses which students repeat several times before they can pass them and pursue other courses that rely on these high DFW courses. This can adversely affect the student's sense of belonging and decrease the retention rate. During the COVID-19 pandemic, all courses, including some of the high DFW courses, were taught in various modalities. This has created different results and perceptions by students. The Linear Circuits I is a high DFW rate course in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department of CSU Chico. In this study, the author, who has taught this course in four different modalities, looks closely at the results of this class and compares the effect of different teaching modalities on the DFW rates. The author will also reflect on the effectiveness of each of the teaching modes, student engagement, and student feedback on each mode. The results could be used for the recommendation of teaching modalities if the course is offered online again due to a pandemic or other need. Additionally, the lessons learned and the technology related features of online instruction can be integrated with in-person instruction to increase the effectiveness of teaching. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2022.

6.
2022 IST-Africa Conference, IST-Africa 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2030549

ABSTRACT

In this article, Simulink is used to implement the open and short circuit tests of three-phase transformers. With most universities switching to online methods of teaching in the wake of the coronavirus pandemic, this article outlines how to perform the transformer tests for undergraduate electric machines classes using Simulink. The aim is present the virtual experiments whose results lead to determination of the approximate per-phase equivalent circuit model of a three-phase power transformer. The article will be of help for students who cannot attend conventional practical laboratory sessions due to COVID-19 standard operating procedures restrictions or shortage of equipment and will be a great supplement for those who can. © 2022 IST-Africa Institute and Authors.

7.
Sustainability ; 14(17):10773, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024198

ABSTRACT

Large-scale promotions lead to a huge number of orders, and the quantity of deliveries grows sharply, which puts considerable strain on cities’ logistics and imposes high related shipping costs. To alleviate these consequences, in this paper we provide a new contingent free shipping policy with delayed delivery (DD-CFS) for an online retailer during large-scale promotions and study its CFS threshold decisions, considering consumers’ different sensitivities to delivery time delays.We start by analyzing a consumer’s purchasing decision based on consumer utility theory. Next, we establish a mathematical model to help the online retailer find the optimal CFS threshold to maximize its expected profit. Finally, we analyze the benefit of delayed delivery to the online retailer and conduct a sensitivity analysis to examine the impacts of important parameters on the online retailer’s CFS threshold decisions, profit, and the value of the delayed delivery. We find that the DD-CFS policy can lead to more profits during the large-scale promotions period compared with the traditional CFS policy. As the delayed delivery time and the consumer’s negative attitude towards delayed delivery time increase, the online retailer should reduce the low CFS threshold value. On the other hand, as the shipping fee and the consumer’s negative attitude towards the shipping fee increase, the online retailer should raise the high and low CFS threshold values.

9.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(11): 1459-1463, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2015674

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Several clinical trials have demonstrated that REGEN-COV (casirivimab and imdevimab) decreases the risk of hospitalization and death among COVID-19 patients. However, these trials did not evaluate the optimal timing of its administration, and evidence is limited regarding the relationship between the timing of administration and progression to severe COVID-19 among patients who receive REGEN-COV in a real-world setting. We examined the association between the timing of REGEN-COV administration and progression to severe COVID-19 among patients who received REGEN-COV in Japan. METHODS: We included a total of 342 COVID-19 patients (37 hospitals) who received REGEN-COV between July 19 and September 30, 2021. We calculated the difference between the date of symptom onset and the date of administration as an indicator of the timing of REGEN-COV administration and determined progression to severe COVID-19 after REGEN-COV administration. We conducted a logistic regression analysis, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: The proportion of cases progressing to severe COVID-19 increased daily from symptom onset and sharply increased from day 5 of onset. The early administration (days 0-4) decreased the risk of progression to severity compared with late administration (after day 5), with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.29 (95% confidence interval: 0.11-0.56). CONCLUSIONS: The early administration of REGEN-COV was associated with a decreased risk of progression to severe COVID-19 when the delta variant was dominant. The present epidemiological findings indicate that this monoclonal antibody therapy should be implemented very early in the clinical course probably even for emerging variants such as omicron BA.2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Combinations , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
25th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, MicroTAS 2021 ; : 153-154, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2012239

ABSTRACT

Rapid, sensitive, quantitative and patient-friendly diagnostic tools have yet to be developed for COVID-19 continued monitoring at the point-of-care. Here, we present an instrument-free capillary microfluidic chip coupled to a lateral flow module that is compatible with a smartphone application for quantitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 from saliva samples. The microfluidic chip is fully autonomous, and performs aliquoting, sample metering, and sequential delivery of reagents. The limit of detection is 0.07 ng/mL for recombinant nucleocapsid protein in saliva. This rapid antigen test provides results in less than 1 hour, without sacrificing analytical sensitivity. © 2021 MicroTAS 2021 - 25th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences. All rights reserved.

11.
J Affect Disord ; 318: 94-102, 2022 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007797

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence implicates sleep and circadian rhythm disturbance in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, a multimethod characterization of sleep and circadian rhythms in OCD, their association with symptom severity, and the functional relationship between these variables is lacking. METHODS: The present study measured multiple indicators of sleep and circadian rhythms in a sample of adults with OCD, adults without OCD, and healthy controls (n = 74). Participants completed measures of morningness-eveningness, delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD), insomnia symptoms, and OCD symptoms, as well as one week of sleep monitoring via a sleep diary and actigraphy. RESULTS: Delayed circadian rhythms (higher eveningness, later mid-sleep timing, and higher rates of DSWPD) and higher insomnia symptoms were observed in those with OCD compared to healthy controls, as well as associations between delayed circadian rhythms and insomnia symptoms and OCD symptom severity across the full sample. Further, insomnia symptoms mediated the relationship between delayed circadian rhythms and OCD symptoms. In contrast, there were no links between total sleep time or sleep quality and OCD. LIMITATIONS: Data collection during COVID-19 pandemic, correlational data, no physiological measure of circadian rhythms. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight a robust association between delayed circadian rhythms and OCD and suggest insomnia symptoms may be one mechanism in this relationship. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbance may be novel targets for OCD treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Sleep Wake Disorders , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Humans , Pandemics , Sleep/physiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
12.
Perm J ; 26(2): 54-63, 2022 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1988459

ABSTRACT

Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic drove rapid, widespread adoption of telehealth (TH). We evaluated surgical telehealth utilization and outcomes for newly diagnosed breast cancer patients during the initial pandemic period. Methods We identified patients with breast cancer diagnosed March 17, 2020 through May 17, 2020 who underwent surgery as the initial treatment. Clinicodemographic characteristics were collected. Initial consultation types (office, telephone, or video) were categorized. Outcomes included time to consultation, surgeon touchpoints, time to surgery, surgery types, and reexcision rates. Continuous variables were compared using Mann-Whitney tests or t-tests, and categorical variables were compared using χ2 or Fisher's exact tests. Results Of 158 patients, 56% had initial telehealth consultations (21% telephone, 35% video) and 42% did not have a preoperative physical examination. Age, race/ethnicity, and stage distributions were similar between initial visit types. Median time to consultation was lower in the initial telehealth group than the office group (6 days vs 9 days, p = 0.01). Other outcomes (surgeon touchpoints, time to surgery, surgery type, reconstruction) were similar between visit types. We observed higher reexcision rates in patients with initial telehealth visits (20% telehealth vs 4% office, p = 0.01), but evaluation was limited by small numbers. The reexcision rate was 13% for patients with telehealth visits and no preoperative physical exam. Discussion During the initial pandemic period, the majority of new breast cancer patients had an initial telehealth surgical consultation. Office and telehealth consultation visits had comparable numbers of postconsultation surgeon touchpoints and most outcomes. Our findings suggest that telehealth consultations may be feasible for preoperative breast cancer consultations.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods
13.
2022 IEEE Transportation Electrification Conference and Expo, ITEC 2022 ; : 497-502, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1973491

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a diode-free double metal oxide varistor-resistor-capacitor (MOV2-RC) snubber to provide overvoltage protection in dc solid-state circuit breakers (dc SSCBs). MOV2-RC snubber is introduced and investigated for SSCBs application. The proposed MOV2-RC snubber prevents voltage overshoot and ensures smooth turn-off voltage slew rate of SSCBs. Meanwhile, compared with conventional MOV-resistor-capacitor-diode (MOV-RCD) snubber, utilization of a low-voltage MOV (LMOV) to replace the diode avoids the influence of availability issue of state-of-the-art SiC Schottky diode raised by global power semiconductor shortage due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It also reduces the cost of snubber circuit for SSCBs. Working principles and design procedures of the MOV2-RC snubber are presented. The effectiveness of the proposed snubber circuit is verified by experiments with a 400V/140A dc SSCB prototype. The experimental results show the clamping voltage of 1.1 kV and turn-off dv/dt of 7.9 V/ns. The key component of MOV2-RC snubber (LMOV) has 30 times lower cost and 3 times better availability compared to MOV-RCD-based counterpart. © 2022 IEEE.

14.
31st Annual Conference of the European Association for Education in Electrical and Information Engineering, EAEEIE 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1973454

ABSTRACT

A laboratory experiment in an undergraduate course on electronics was conducted remotely during the COVID-19 pandemic. The lab assignment was to construct and analyze a single-transistor NPN amplifier. In the conventional on-site lab experiment the students would construct the amplifier on a breadboard, carry out measurements of DC and small signal characteristics, and compare with both SPICE simulations and manual calculations. The pandemic prevented the attendance of students in the lab, and thus the experiment was redesigned and carried out online, using remotely controlled instruments through the internet. It was found that to some extent a remotely conducted experiment can substitute the on-site work, and there are some unique advantages of this approach. On the other hand, some aspects of the on-site laboratory experiment cannot be substituted by the remote experience, and this is discussed in the paper. © 2022 IEEE.

15.
Economic Alternatives ; 28(2):252-263, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1965154

ABSTRACT

This study explores market timing and stock selection by investment managers during the Covid-19 in Indonesia. By applying several sample criteria to the population of mutual funds registered at OJK, we found 55 stock mutual funds using the purposive sampling. We processed data using the STATA16 computer program. The Treynor-Mazuy conditional inflation and exchange rate model, according to the findings of this study, can show that market timing and stock selection for mutual fund managers have a positive and significant impact on improving the performance of equity fund portfolios during the pandemic in Indonesia. In Indonesia, there are 5 equities mutual funds having positive or market timing skills, accounting for 9.09 percent of all equity mutual funds, whereas the remaining 90.91 percent do not. The positive coefficient of the gamma variable shows that the investment manager’s ability to market time is expected to result in higher stock mutual fund returns. Positive or stock selectivity characteristics are available in 45 equity mutual funds, or 81.18 percent. The contribution of this study focuses on exchange rate and inflation. However, there needs to be a relevant follow-up comparison before the pandemic occurs. In addition, it is necessary to consider other elements in the macro-economy. © 2022, University of National and World Economy. All rights reserved.

16.
Front Physiol ; 13: 884154, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963518

ABSTRACT

We conducted a retrospective observational study using remote wearable and mobile application data to evaluate whether US public holidays or Daylight Saving Time transitions were associated with significant changes in sleep behaviors, including sleep duration, sleep onset and offset, and the consistency of sleep timing, as well as changes in the point prevalence of alcohol use. These metrics were analyzed using objective, high resolution sleep-wake data (10,350,760 sleep episodes) and 5,777,008 survey responses of 24,250 US subscribers (74.5% male; mean age of 37.6 ± 9.8 years) to the wrist-worn biometric device platform, WHOOP (Boston, Massachusetts, United States), who were active users during 1 May 2020, through 1 May 2021. Compared to baseline, statistically significant differences in sleep and alcohol measures were found on most DST transitions, US public holidays, and their eves. For example, New Year's Eve corresponded with a sleep consistency decrease of 13.8 ± 0.3%, a sleep onset delay of 88.9 ± 3.2 min (00:01 vs. 22:33 baseline) later, a sleep offset delay of 78.1 ± 3.1 min (07:56 vs. 06:39), and an increase in the prevalence of alcohol consumption, with more than twice as many participants having reported alcohol consumption [+138.0% ± 6.7 (74.2% vs. 31.2%)] compared to baseline. In this analysis of a non-random sample of mostly male subscribers conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic, the majority of US public holidays and holiday eves were associated with sample-level increases in sleep duration, decreases in sleep consistency, later sleep onset and offset, and increases in the prevalence of alcohol consumption. Future work would be warranted to explore the generalizability of these findings and their public health implications, including in more representative samples and over longer time intervals.

17.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 19(1): 94, 2022 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The number of individuals recovering from severe COVID-19 is increasing rapidly. However, little is known about physical behaviours that make up the 24-h cycle within these individuals. This study aimed to describe physical behaviours following hospital admission for COVID-19 at eight months post-discharge including associations with acute illness severity and ongoing symptoms. METHODS: One thousand seventy-seven patients with COVID-19 discharged from hospital between March and November 2020 were recruited. Using a 14-day wear protocol, wrist-worn accelerometers were sent to participants after a five-month follow-up assessment. Acute illness severity was assessed by the WHO clinical progression scale, and the severity of ongoing symptoms was assessed using four previously reported data-driven clinical recovery clusters. Two existing control populations of office workers and individuals with type 2 diabetes were comparators. RESULTS: Valid accelerometer data from 253 women and 462 men were included. Women engaged in a mean ± SD of 14.9 ± 14.7 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), with 12.1 ± 1.7 h/day spent inactive and 7.2 ± 1.1 h/day asleep. The values for men were 21.0 ± 22.3 and 12.6 ± 1.7 h /day and 6.9 ± 1.1 h/day, respectively. Over 60% of women and men did not have any days containing a 30-min bout of MVPA. Variability in sleep timing was approximately 2 h in men and women. More severe acute illness was associated with lower total activity and MVPA in recovery. The very severe recovery cluster was associated with fewer days/week containing continuous bouts of MVPA, longer total sleep time, and higher variability in sleep timing. Patients post-hospitalisation with COVID-19 had lower levels of physical activity, greater sleep variability, and lower sleep efficiency than a similarly aged cohort of office workers or those with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Those recovering from a hospital admission for COVID-19 have low levels of physical activity and disrupted patterns of sleep several months after discharge. Our comparative cohorts indicate that the long-term impact of COVID-19 on physical behaviours is significant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Accelerometry/methods , Aftercare , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Exercise , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Patient Discharge , Sleep
18.
Computer Applications in Engineering Education ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1958708

ABSTRACT

During the first semester of 2020–2021, classes for Linear Circuit Analysis subjects (Mechanical Engineering Degree, Miguel Hernandez University of Elche, Spain) were taught in a dual way because of the COVID-19 pandemic: students were able to attend in-person or online, as long as the in-person attendance limit was not surpassed. The same strategy was used for exams: each student decided whether to take the exam in-person or online. Specific software tools were used for the in-advance seat reservation and simultaneous online and in-person class attendance, and examination tools and strategies, with a special emphasis on avoiding online cheating. Online attendance was preferred by students (averaging 64.9% of global attendance for lectures and 84.5% for exams), with abrupt increases during the worst episodes of the pandemic. Video recordings of the lectures were made available to all of the students, with the most viewed video being accessed over 200 times. Concerning evaluation, no statistically significant differences were found between in-person or online average examination marks (p =.133), which may be an indicator of low online cheating. Student feedback showed their satisfaction with the dual teaching strategy, despite their initial doubts at the beginning of the course. © 2022 The Authors. Computer Applications in Engineering Education published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.

19.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 22(1): 202, 2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957045

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interrupted time series (ITS) analysis has become a popular design to evaluate the effects of health interventions. However, the most common formulation for ITS, the linear segmented regression, is not always adequate, especially when the timing of the intervention is unclear. In this study, we propose a new model to overcome this limitation. METHODS: We propose a new ITS model, ARIMAITS-DL, that combines (1) the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model and (2) distributed lag functional terms. The ARIMA technique allows us to model autocorrelation, which is frequently observed in time series data, and the decaying cumulative effect of the intervention. By contrast, the distributed lag functional terms represent the idea that the intervention effect does not start at a fixed time point but is distributed over a certain interval (thus, the intervention timing seems unclear). We discuss how to select the distribution of the effect, the model construction process, diagnosing the model fitting, and interpreting the results. Further, our model is implemented as an example of a statement of emergency (SoE) during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in Japan. RESULTS: We illustrate the ARIMAITS-DL model with some practical distributed lag terms to examine the effect of the SoE on human mobility in Japan. We confirm that the SoE was successful in reducing the movement of people (15.0-16.0% reduction in Tokyo), at least between February 20 and May 19, 2020. We also provide the R code for other researchers to easily replicate our method. CONCLUSIONS: Our model, ARIMAITS-DL, is a useful tool as it can account for the unclear intervention timing and distributed lag effect with autocorrelation and allows for flexible modeling of different types of impacts such as uniformly or normally distributed impact over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Linear Models , Pandemics/prevention & control , Time Factors
20.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 124, 2022 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951295

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some academic organizations recommended that physicians intubate patients with COVID-19 with a relatively lower threshold of oxygen usage particularly in the early phase of pandemic. We aimed to elucidate whether early intubation is associated with decreased in-hospital mortality among patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who required intubation. METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective, observational study was conducted at 66 hospitals in Japan where patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 were treated between January and September 2020. Patients who were diagnosed as COVID-19 with a positive reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction test and intubated during admission were included. Early intubation was defined as intubation conducted in the setting of ≤ 6 L/min of oxygen usage. In-hospital mortality was compared between patients with early and non-early intubation. Inverse probability weighting analyses with propensity scores were performed to adjust patient demographics, comorbidities, hemodynamic status on admission and time at intubation, medications before intubation, severity of COVID-19, and institution characteristics. Subgroup analyses were conducted on the basis of age, severity of hypoxemia at intubation, and days from admission to intubation. RESULTS: Among 412 patients eligible for the study, 110 underwent early intubation. In-hospital mortality was lower in patients with early intubation than those with non-early intubation (18 [16.4%] vs. 88 [29.1%]; odds ratio, 0.48 [95% confidence interval 0.27-0.84]; p = 0.009, and adjusted odds ratio, 0.28 [95% confidence interval 0.19-0.42]; p < 0.001). The beneficial effects of early intubation were observed regardless of age and severity of hypoxemia at time of intubation; however, early intubation was associated with lower in-hospital mortality only among patients who were intubated later than 2 days after admission. CONCLUSIONS: Early intubation in the setting of ≤ 6 L/min of oxygen usage was associated with decreased in-hospital mortality among patients with COVID-19 who required intubation. Trial Registration None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypoxia , Intubation, Intratracheal , Oxygen , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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