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1.
Journal of Business Strategy Finance and Management ; 2(1-2):4-6, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2025611

ABSTRACT

Unfortunately, despite the international community's efforts to combat poverty and inequality, both parameters have been on the rise recently. [...]there is a strong need to find a workable (and appropriate in these new conditions) resolution to poverty problems to avoid a global crisis. The new reality of poverty and inequality issues should be addressed by studying global income disparities and possible ways to bridge gaps between poorer and wealthier countries (and people within countries) by promoting innovations, technologies, human capital development, agrarian systems, and social entrepreneurship. The particular focus should be made on the new challenges to sustainable development brought by the growth of global environmental and public health problems, such as climate change, deterioration of air, water, land, and other resources, reduction of biodiversity, and loss of many natural ecosystems.

2.
Cornell Law Review ; 107(1):323, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2011943

ABSTRACT

During the height of the COVID-19 pandemic, Robinhood, a brokerage-free stock trading app, saw a meteoric rise in account holders, with Americans seeking new income streams during times of economic hardship, unemployment, and, at times, sheer boredom.1 The ensuing trading activity significantly impacted the country's stock market-a result of not only Robinhood's three million new accounts2 but also their investment in complex financial instruments known as exchange-traded options.3 Notably, several stocks experienced seemingly illogical price and trading volume increases, leading to unsustainable price bubbles, dramatic increases in price volatility, and eventually crashes.4 Robinhood's options trading platform was the primary vehicle for this trading activity,5 allowing investors to trade beyond their financial means, or perhaps more aptly, gamble on future prices. The trading activity highlighted two significant problems with allowing retail investors to invest in exchangetraded options: their failure to fundamentally comprehend the financial instrument and, consequently, their significant losses. Numerous regulatory responses may address these problems, each focusing on a potential contributing level: (1) retail investors;(2) the exchange-traded option;and (3) Robinhood. This Note aims to analyze five potential responses, ranging from least interventionist to most: increasing mandatory disclosure requirements, product regulation, conduct regulation of Robinhood as a broker-dealer, conduct regulation of Robinhood as a trading platform, and restriction of access to the product by retail investors. While each of these options has its inherent benefits and costs, this Note ultimately advocates that the appropriate response to curb Robinhood options trading by retail investors is to regulate Robinhood's conduct as a trading platform by establishing affirmative duties on it that seek to protect its retail customer base, particularly in light of the nature and structure of its execution of trades orders from clients.

3.
Journal of International Business Policy ; 4(4):506-522, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1991746

ABSTRACT

The recent U.S.–China trade conflicts cast new light on the role of trade policies in global value chains (GVCs). Contrary to the expectation that trade restrictions lead to the shrinking or disruption of GVCs, our article posits that the unintended consequences of trade policies (both restrictions and trade agreements) are amplified by the prevalence and organizational complexity of GVCs. We anchor our argument in the historical evolution of three classic GVCs – apparel, automobiles, and electronics – from the 1970s to the present. Our framework highlights the dynamic interaction between GVC-oriented trade policies and firm strategies, which often has counterintuitive implications in terms of upgrading outcomes for the countries and companies involved in these GVCs. While trade policies often provide momentum for an adaptive reconfiguration of GVCs, firms’ strategic actions are crucial in modifying the geographic and organizational features of GVCs in ways that support their longevity. Firm strategies can mediate the effect of trade policies on GVC configurations in two ways: (1) firms can accommodate trade restrictions and trade agreements by altering supply and demand locations and by switching supply-chain partners;and (2) firms pursue diverse strategies to upgrade their value chain activities, leveraging the shifting geographies associated with new trade rules.

4.
Farmers Weekly ; 2022(Mar 18):32-34, 2022.
Article in English | Africa Wide Information | ID: covidwho-1970603
5.
The International and Comparative Law Quarterly ; 71(3):743-760, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1960173

ABSTRACT

Under the International Health Regulations (IHR), States must consider decision-making criteria in applying travel restrictions during a public health emergency of international concern. Interpretation on the legal parameters of such restrictions varies widely. This article considers whether and how the permissibility of travel restrictions under the IHR may have changed given recent developments, including evolving scientific evidence about their efficacy and shifting World Health Organization (WHO) advice. It is argued that such determinations must conform to the principles of necessity and proportionality as articulated by the IHR, and must also be accompanied by the correlative IHR duties of collaboration and assistance rooted substantively in global solidarity.

6.
European Journal of Risk Regulation : EJRR ; 11(2):337-342, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1921495

ABSTRACT

Global financial transactions as well as information and communications technology services have also declined significantly.6 Moreover, according to the recent United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) assessment, which is actually based on conservative assumptions, the COVID-19 outbreak will cause global foreign direct investments (service mode 3) to shrink by 5–15% in 2020.7 The demand side has also been affected as consumers around the globe are unwilling at the moment to spend their money. In particular, some countries have decided to establish export controls over certain medical products (eg medical ventilators, certain drugs, personal protective equipment) in the form of temporary export bans or the addition of licensing/authorisation requirements.8 Other countries, concerned with the security of their food supplies, have introduced export restrictions over specific agricultural products, and these decisions have generated genuine concerns about potential food shortages in the global market in the second part of the year.9 The problem appears sufficiently serious that it has led to a joint statement by the Directors-General of the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Health Organization and the World Trade Organization (WTO), in which they noted that “uncertainty about food availability can spark a wave of [additional] export restrictions, creating a shortage on the global market”. [...]a number of states have recently removed or suspended some trade controls. [...]Argentina has suspended its anti-dumping duties on imports of certain medical products from China, while Canada has temporarily eliminated tariffs for specific categories of products if they are imported by public health agencies, hospitals and testing sites, or for use by first-response organisations.11 The aim of all of these measures is to ensure that there are sufficient supplies to domestic markets (either by decreasing exports or increasing imports).

7.
World Trade Review ; 21(3):312-329, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1908057

ABSTRACT

Unhappy with the rulings of the WTO dispute settlement system, which disproportionately targeted US use of trade remedies, the United States ended the entire system in 2019. There are multiple hurdles to agreeing to new terms of trade remedy use and thus potentially restoring some form of binding dispute settlement. First, a change would affect access to policy flexibility by the now large number of users of trade remedies. Second, although China's exports are the overwhelming target of trade remedies, exporters in other countries increasingly find themselves caught up in trade remedy actions linked to China. Third, critical differences posed by China's economic model may call for new rules for trade remedies, but no consensus on those rules has emerged. Even some of the most promising reforms have practical limitations, create additional challenges, or may be politically unviable.

8.
Agriculture ; 12(5):623, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871788

ABSTRACT

Motivated by increased agricultural commodity price volatility and surges during the past decade, we investigated whether financial speculation is to blame. The aim of this paper is to build on prior research about to what extent and in which ways financial speculation undermines agricultural commodity prices. In our analysis, we utilized the daily returns on milling wheat, corn, and soybean futures from the Euronext Commodities Paris market (MATIF) as well as the short-term speculation index. To quantify this impact, we apply Granger noncausality tests as well as the GARCH (generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity) technique. We also propose a model using seasonal dummy variables to examine whether financial speculation has a greater impact on price volatility during more volatile months. According to our results, financial speculation, as an external factor, in most cases has no effect or reduces the volatility of the underlying futures prices. The opposite is observed in the corn market, where volatility has risen in the post-2020 period and has been pushed up even more by speculation in April. However, since the influence on other commodities is limited or nonexistent, more emphasis should be focused on speculation in the European corn futures market or its interdependence with energy markets.

9.
Review of International Business and Strategy ; 32(1):1-9, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1853400

ABSTRACT

[...]of global pandemic, the governments were pushed to adapt their trade policies, which changed the landscape of business and put a lot of pressure on and disrupted global supply chains (GSC) and global value chain (GVC) (Sharma et al., 2020). [...]organizations’ responses to the global pandemic need to be able to deal with uncertain and continuously changing rules, regulations and socio-economic environment (Ahlstrom et al., 2020). [...]the interplay between formal and informal institutions is crucial to understand. The relevance of disruption to change in cross-border operations has been studied, e.g. from a risk management perspective (Revilla and Sáenz, 2014), considering the organization of global supply chains (Revilla and Sáenz, 2017).

10.
Sustainability ; 14(9):4901, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843228

ABSTRACT

ICT has become an important support for the booming trade in services in the digital era. However, the extent to which trade activities can benefit from ICT will depend on the regulatory constraints and the market-openness level of the ICT market. This study empirically examines the impact of ICT market openness on digital service exports on the basis of bilateral trade data at the industry level from 2007 to 2019 from 50 countries. The results show that: (1) ICT market openness seeks the combination of effective regulation and moderate openness, which is mainly reflected in three policy areas: improving information interconnection and sharing, reducing access restrictions and promoting fair competition;(2) The ICT market openness in both exporting and importing countries can significantly boost digital service exports, but in different ways. Exporting countries expand digital service exports mainly by promoting fair competition, while importing countries have the most obvious positive impact on exports through the reduction of access restrictions;(3) The greater the gap between the ICT development levels, and the lower the bilateral risk levels between the two trading countries, the greater the marginal effect that ICT market openness will have on the promotion of digital service exports. Thus, improving market openness indicates an important direction for ICT regulatory reform, but the impact on digital service exports will vary by specific policy area and by trading-partner country.

11.
Legal Issues of Economic Integration ; 48(1):5-18, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1836697

ABSTRACT

This article explores the immediate reaction of the EU and its Member States to the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Europe in terms of trade restrictions. Almost all Member States adopted export control measures on personal protective equipment (PPE) essential to combat the pandemic in order to preserve it for the domestic market. The trade barriers affected the intra-EU trade as well as the external trade with third countries. The article explores whether and to what extent these restrictive measures on exports within the internal market may be justified on grounds of the protection of health and life of humans, as allowed by Article 36 Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). It will be argued that the consolidated case law justifying a Member State facing health emergencies to adopt restrictive measures to protect the population on its territory is not suitable in case of pandemics. The degree of market integration and the rising concept of health solidarity as an EU objective allow a different interpretation of the health exception assuming as term of reference the whole EU population. The article further analyses the export authorization scheme adopted by the Commission to allow restrictions on exports of PPE to third countries in case of shortages in essential goods in the Union. The article concludes by suggesting a preventive EU mechanism of control of intra-EU export restrictions in case of serious cross-border threats to health, similar to the export authorization scheme for extra EU exports, in order to avoid unilateral and disjointed responses by Member States in the future. © 2021 Kluwer Law International BV, The Netherlands

12.
World Econ ; 2022 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819936

ABSTRACT

At the centre of the multi-dimensional impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, the shortage of medical supplies in countries with weaker healthcare systems significantly reduced the effectiveness of national and international public health interventions. Using a database of test-kit trade flows and barriers, we estimate the price responsiveness of test-kit demand in a global sample of countries. These estimates allow us to investigate the degree to which import tariffs by leading producers could result in a disruption in global supply chains, price increases, and welfare loss. Simulation experiments indicate that the combination of rising demand for test kits and import dependence magnifies the impact of trade barriers on consumer welfare and this impact is more profound for developing countries.

13.
Drustvena Istrazivanja ; 31(1):63-87, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1811129

ABSTRACT

Globalni lanci vrijednosti sastoje se od mnogih proizvodnih procesa i faza/zadaća u raznim zemljama. Istraživanja o globalnim lancima vrijednosti uglavnom su usredotočena na proizvode prerad strok signivačke industrije, često zanemarujući ulogu usluga. U ovom radu naglasak je na sektoru usluga, trgovini uslugama i mjerenju sudjelovanja uslužnih sektora u GVC-u u zemljama Europske unije. Postoje četiri načina isporuke (pružanja) usluge od proizvod strok signača do potrošača. Službene statistike uključuju neke od tih načina, pri čemu su neki od njih "skriveni" unutar industrijske proizvodnje. Prema provedenoj analizi i dobivenim rezultatima proizlazi da je trgovina uslugama podcijenjena;usluge predstavljaju većinski udio u dodanoj vrijednosti BDP-a Europske unije, a istodobno predstavljaju manje od polovice vrijednosti vanjske trgovine EU-a;udio domaće dodane vrijednosti u sektoru usluga viši je u odnosu na sektor prerad strok signivačke industrije, što pokazuje značenje domaćih resursa u stvaranju i izvozu usluga. Industrijski sektori u EU-u sadrže visok udio usluga u svojoj proizvodnji, pa usluge predstavljaju više od 30 % vrijednosti proizvodnje prerad strok signivačke industrije (pri čemu veći udio pripada uslugama iz inozemstva).Alternate :Global value chains (GVCs) consist of many production processes and phases/tasks that take place in different countries. The studies of the global value chains are mainly focused on manufactured products, often neglecting the role of services. In this paper, the emphasis is on the service sector, trade in services and the measurement of their participation in GVCs in the EU member states. There are four different ways, "modes of supply", to deliver services from a producer to the final customer. Official statistics include some of these modes, whereas some are hidden within the manufacturing process. According to the descriptive statistics analysis and presented data employed, it is clear that services trade is undervalued;services represent the majority of value added in the EU's GDP but less than half of foreign trade;domestic value added in the service sector is higher than in manufacturing, which indicates the importance of domestic resources in the creation and export of services. EU industries are highly serviced and, interestingly, services contribute to more than 30 per cent of manufacturing production, with a higher share of foreign services.

14.
FWU Journal of Social Sciences ; 16(1):19-27, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1791229

ABSTRACT

Globalization has expanded labor market interconnectedness, and countries are striving to take advantage of this opportunity by sending their work force to countries where labor is in demand. On the other side, unfavorable events such as COVID-19 can impose restrictions such as lockdowns, travel bans, and social distance, all of which have caused problems for migrant workers and reduced remitted household budget allocation. Using the two-sample t-test and the PLSM 2014-15 dataset, this study compares the budget allocation of remitted and non-remitted households to food and non-food items. In addition, the distribution of remitted households by province and region, as well as remittance sources also determined. The results show that the Punjab province has the highest percentage of remitted households (51%), while Balochistan has the lowest percentage (1.4%). Furthermore, in Punjab, Bank is the most common channel of receiving remittances, whereas Hundi is in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The results of a two-sample t-test show that between remitted and nonremitted families, there is a significant difference in mean monthly budget allocation to food and non-food items. Remitted households spend more on food, education, health, and gas usage than nonremitted households on a monthly basis. As a result, the study suggests that increasing job opportunities both inside and outside Pakistan could be a viable policy option for increasing remitted and non-remitted household budget allocation. Enhancing bank remittances channels could be a viable policy option for increasing remittances and consequently increases households' budget allocation to food and non-food items.

15.
J ; 5(1):64, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1760664

ABSTRACT

The Web of Data, the Internet of Things, and Industry 4.0 are converging, and society is challenged to ensure that appropriate regulatory responses can uphold the rule of law fairly and effectively in this emerging context. The challenge extends beyond merely submitting digital processes to the law. We contend that the 20th century notion of ‘legal order’ alone will not be suitable to produce the social order that the law should bring. The article explores the concepts of rule of law and of legal governance in digital and blockchain environments. We position legal governance from an empirical perspective, i.e., as an explanatory and validation concept to support the implementation of the rule of law in the new digital environments. As a novel contribution, this article (i) progresses some of the work done on the metarule of law and complements the SMART middle-out approach with an inside-out approach to digital regulatory systems and legal compliance models;(ii) sets the state-of-the-art and identifies the way to explain and validate legal information flows and hybrid agents’ behaviour;(iii) describes a phenomenological and historical approach to legal and political forms;and (iv) shows the utility of separating enabling and driving regulatory systems.

16.
Aussenwirtschaft ; 71(1):73-125, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1738262

ABSTRACT

Whether one focuses on the rise of protectionism since the financial crisis of 2008, the active tariff policy introduced by the Trump administration, or China's recent trade restrictions on Australia for pushing for an independent investigation over the Covid-19 outbreak, trade measures have increasingly become an instrument of foreign and industrial policy rather than a multilateral effort to facilitate trade on a level playing field. [...]when the United States introduced punitive tariffs on China in 2018, U.S. Customs and Border Protection saw a nearly 50% rise in customs rulings related to the misclassification of goods, as firms tried to exploit the fact that early tariff rounds spared products similar to theirs.2 Similarly, when Russia introduced counter-sanctions on Western agricultural products in the wake of the Ukraine crisis, Russian newspapers reported on Belarusian seafood and tropical fruits appearing in local supermarkets, in clear cases of country-oforigin certificates being mislabeled to evade the import sanctions imposed on products from the European Union (Yeliseyeu, 2017). The incentives to evade trade barriers are particularly high for political sanctions, as they aim - in the form of goods sanctions - to economically impact the target economy and key decision makers by minimizing trade flows (Eaton and Engers, 1992;Kaempfer and Lowenberg, 1988), as opposed to import tariffs, which are mainly intended to extract rent and to support the implementing jurisdiction's industry. [...]a large string of the sanction literature addresses their effectiveness in the context of their (lack of) enforceability (Caruso, 2003;McLean and Whang, 2010;van Bergeijk and Biersteker, 2015). [...]I identify five different channels of sanction evasion and empirically analyze four of them, thus consolidating the various concepts of smuggling and evasion recorded in the literature.

17.
International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management ; 52(2):130-149, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1713870

ABSTRACT

Purpose>COVID-19 has pushed many supply chains to re-think and strengthen their resilience and how it can help organisations survive in difficult times. Considering the availability of data and the huge number of supply chains that had their weak links exposed during COVID-19, the objective of the study is to employ artificial intelligence to develop supply chain resilience to withstand extreme disruptions such as COVID-19.Design/methodology/approach>We adopted a qualitative approach for interviewing respondents using a semi-structured interview schedule through the lens of organisational information processing theory. A total of 31 respondents from the supply chain and information systems field shared their views on employing artificial intelligence (AI) for supply chain resilience during COVID-19. We used a process of open, axial and selective coding to extract interrelated themes and proposals that resulted in the establishment of our framework.Findings>An AI-facilitated supply chain helps systematically develop resilience in its structure and network. Resilient supply chains in dynamic settings and during extreme disruption scenarios are capable of recognising (sensing risks, degree of localisation, failure modes and data trends), analysing (what-if scenarios, realistic customer demand, stress test simulation and constraints), reconfiguring (automation, re-alignment of a network, tracking effort, physical security threats and control) and activating (establishing operating rules, contingency management, managing demand volatility and mitigating supply chain shock) operations quickly.Research limitations/implications>As the present research was conducted through semi-structured qualitative interviews to understand the role of AI in supply chain resilience during COVID-19, the respondents may have an inclination towards a specific role of AI due to their limited exposure.Practical implications>Supply chain managers can utilise data to embed the required degree of resilience in their supply chains by considering the proposed framework elements and phases.Originality/value>The present research contributes a framework that presents a four-phased, structured and systematic platform considering the required information processing capabilities to recognise, analyse, reconfigure and activate phases to ensure supply chain resilience.

18.
International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management ; 52(2):105-108, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1713869

ABSTRACT

[...]the current special section contributes by identifying the required levers and solutions enabling organizations worldwide to respond quickly and thoroughly to the COVID-19 challenges. Special thanks go to the editorial team of IJPDLM for their outstanding support. 2.1 Following are the details of accepted articles The first article attempts to identify the supply chain risks (SCRs) induced in COVID-19 outbreak titled “Supply chain risk mitigation strategies during COVID-19: exploratory cases of “make-to-order “handloom saree apparel industries.” [...]crucial factors and lessons were retrieved from the high-quality papers, supported by different research approaches.

19.
European Journal of Risk Regulation : EJRR ; 13(1):45-55, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1707210

ABSTRACT

There is no time more opportune to review the workings of the International Health Regulations (IHR) than the present COVID-19 crisis. This article analyses the theoretical and practical aspects of international public health law (IPHL), particularly the IHR, to argue that it is woefully unprepared to protect human rights in times of a global public health crisis. To rectify this, the article argues that the IHR should design effective risk reduction and response strategies by incorporating concepts from international disaster law (IDL). Along similar lines, this article suggests that IDL also has a lot to learn from IPHL in terms of greater internationalisation and institutionalisation. Institutionalisation of IDL on par with IPHL will provide it with greater legitimacy, transparency and accountability. This article argues that greater cross-pollination of ideas between IDL and IPHL is necessary in order to make these disciplines more relevant for the future.

20.
International Review of the Red Cross ; 103(916-917):705-716, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1671445

ABSTRACT

This paper sets out to explain the challenges of aligning sanctions compliance efforts with the delivery of humanitarian aid into highly sanctioned environments. It highlights that while the policy of sanctioning authorities is to encourage and permit humanitarian activity, there remain significant obstacles to achieving this objective. The paper offers insights into the key areas of complexity and the most urgent aspects requiring clarification. It expressly illustrates that striking the correct balance between the delivery of critical humanitarian responses and the application of United Nations and unilateral sanctions will necessitate some realignment. The paper concludes by highlighting the need for governments and sanctioning authorities to adopt a forward-leaning approach, and by stressing the necessity of collective and coordinated international action.

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